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Author: Eva J Brandl (30)


Jan
2018

A better understanding of specific sociodemographic and clinical factors in patients with migration background may help to significantly improve psychiatric treatment outcome of these patients. Therefore, we investigated these factors in a large sample of psychiatric outpatients.
N = 423 psychiatric patients of a large outpatient service were assessed for sociodemographic variables as well as clinical variables including diagnosis, psychopharmacological treatment, treatment duration and current symptom load (SCL-14).

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Sep
2017

The rs1625579 variant near the microRNA-137 (MIR137) gene is one of the best-supported schizophrenia variants in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and microRNA-137 functionally regulates other GWAS identified schizophrenia risk variants. Schizophrenia patients with the MIR137 rs1625579 risk genotype (homozygous for the schizophrenia risk variant) also have aberrant brain structure. It is unclear if the effect of MIR137 among schizophrenia patients is due to potential epistasis with genetic risk for schizophrenia or other factors of the disorder.

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Dec
1969

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a chronic severe neuropsychiatric disorder, where pharmacological treatment has been hindered by adverse effects, including antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) and related complications. Genetic studies have been exploring the appetite regulation and energy homeostasis pathways in AIWG with some promising leads. The serotonin system has been shown to participate in these pathways.

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Jun
2017

Threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) is a sensitive means to incorporate spatial neighborhood information in neuroimaging studies without using arbitrary thresholds. The majority of methods have applied TFCE to voxelwise data. The need to understand the relationship among multiple variables and imaging modalities has become critical.

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Jan
2017

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a motor side effect that may develop after long-term antipsychotic treatment. Schizophrenia has recently been associated with the Neurexin-1 (NRXN1) gene that codes for a cell adhesion molecule in synaptic communication.
This study examined five NRXN1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for possible association with the occurrence and severity of TD in 178 schizophrenia patients of European ancestry.

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Dec
2016

A positive correlation between antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) and the antagonist effect of antipsychotic drugs at the histamine H1 receptor (HRH1) as well as the agonist effect at the histamine H3 receptor (HRH3) in the brain has been consistently demonstrated. We investigated the potential impact of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HRH1 and HRH3 genes on AIWG.
We analysed 40 tagSNPs in HRH1 (n = 34) and HRH3 (n = 6) in schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder patients (n = 193) primarily treated with clozapine or olanzapine for up to 14 weeks.

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Dec
1969

Despite extensive research in the past decades, the influence of genetics on cognitive functions in schizophrenia remains unclear. Dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1) is one of the most promising candidate genes in schizophrenia. An association of DTNBP1 with cognitive dysfunction, particularly memory impairment, has been reported in a number of studies.

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Dec
2016

Genetic variation underlies both the response to antidepressant treatment and the occurrence of side effects. Over the past two decades, a number of pharmacogenetic variants, among these the SCL6A4, BDNF, FKBP5, GNB3, GRIK4, and ABCB1 genes, have come to the forefront in this regard. However, small effects sizes, mixed results in independent samples, and conflicting meta-analyses results led to inherent difficulties in the field of pharmacogenetics translating these findings into clinical practice.

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Dec
1969

Unfounded convictions involving beliefs in the paranormal, grandiosity ideas or suspicious thoughts are endorsed at varying degrees among the general population. Here, we investigated the neurobiopsychological basis of the observed inter-individual variability in the propensity toward unfounded beliefs. One hundred two healthy individuals were genotyped for four polymorphisms in the COMT gene (rs6269, rs4633, rs4818, and rs4680, also known as val (158) met) that define common functional haplotypes with substantial impact on synaptic dopamine degradation, completed a questionnaire measuring unfounded beliefs, and took part in a behavioral experiment assessing perceptual inference.

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Dec
1969

Antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) is a common side effect of treatment with antipsychotics such as clozapine and olanzapine. The orexin gene and its receptors are expressed in the hypothalamus and have been associated with maintenance of energy homeostasis. In this study, we have analysed tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in orexin receptors 1 and 2 (HCRTR1 and HCRTR2) for association with AIWG.

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Oct
2015

Pharmacogenetics seeks to improve patient drug response and decrease side effects by personalizing prescriptions using genetic information. Since 2012, by one estimate, the number of patients who have had pharmacogenetic testing has doubled and this number is expected to double again by 2015. Given the increasing evidence for genetic influences on treatment response, we deemed it important to study physicians' opinions of pharmacogenetic testing.

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Jan
2015

TSPO is a neuroinflammatory biomarker and emerging therapeutic target in psychiatric disorders. We evaluated whether TSPO polymorphisms contribute to interindividual variability in schizophrenia, antipsychotic efficacy and antipsychotic-induced weight gain.
We analyzed TSPO polymorphisms in 670 schizophrenia cases and 775 healthy controls.

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Feb
2015

Schizophrenia treatment has been hampered by undesirable adverse effects, including weight gain and associated complications. Recent candidate gene studies have been exploring the appetite regulation pathways in antipsychotic-associated weight gain (AAWG) with some promising leads. Genome-wide association studies of obesity have pointed to a number of potential candidate genes, such as MC4R, that were later found to be shared with AAWG.

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Jan
2015

Genetic variation in cytochrome enzymes is known to affect drug metabolism and influence treatment response. Recently, the rs472660 variant in CYP3A43 has been associated with olanzapine response and clearance. In this study, we investigated the impact of rs472660 and the putatively functional marker rs680055 on antipsychotic response.

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Jun
2014

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder with high genetic influence. Antidepressants such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors, are widely accepted as the first-line medications for OCD; however, approximately 50% of OCD patients show poor response. Personalized medicine utilizing genetic testing has recently received much attention because the variability of antidepressant response and tolerability are partly due to an individual's genetic variations.

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Oct
2014

Antipsychotics frequently cause changes in glucose metabolism followed by development of weight gain and/or diabetes. Recent findings from our group indicated an influence of glucose-related genes on this serious side effect. With this study, we aimed to extend previous research and performed a comprehensive study on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) genes.

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Feb
2014

During the past decades, increasing efforts have been invested in studies to unravel the influence of genetic factors on antipsychotic (AP) dosage, treatment response, and occurrence of adverse effects. These studies aimed to improve clinical care by predicting outcome of treatment with APs and thus allowing for individualized treatment strategies. We highlight most important findings obtained through both candidate gene and genome-wide association studies, including pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors.

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Mar
2014

GLP-1 plays a key role in glucose metabolism and influences antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG). Our study is the first to investigate the encoding gene, GCG, and the GLP-1 receptor gene, GLP1R, and association with AIWG.
In 216 schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotics for up to 14 weeks, we investigated four GCG and 33 GLP1R polymorphisms.

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Apr
2014

The use of second-generation antipsychotic medications may result in substantial weight gain in a subset of schizophrenia patients. Distinct populations of neurons expressed in the hypothalamus, including the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), the polypeptide pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and the agouti-related protein (AGRP), have regulatory roles in weight control and energy homeostasis. Thus, we investigated the potential role of CART, POMC and AGRP genetic variants in antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG).

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Dec
1969

Genetic variation in the fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO) has been associated with obesity in the general population. In this study we have investigated these variants for association with antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG).
A total of 218 patients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder treated mostly with clozapine or olanzapine for up to 14 weeks were included in the study.

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May
2014

Mitochondria are the main source of energy for neurons and have a role in many vital neuronal functions. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been described in schizophrenia, and antipsychotics such as clozapine and olanzapine have been associated with differences in gene expression in mitochondria. We investigated the hypothesis that nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes, particularly those involved in oxidative phosphorylation or involved in oxidative stress, mitochondrial biogenesis, inflammation, and apoptosis, would be associated with antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG).

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Oct
2013

Genetic testing may help to improve treatment outcomes in order to avoid non-response or severe side effects to psychotropic medication. Most robust data have been obtained for gene variants in CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 enzymes for antipsychotics and antidepressant treatment. We reviewed original articles indexed in PubMed from 2008-2013 on CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 gene variants and treatment outcome to antidepressant or antipsychotic medication.

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Nov
2013

Bistable perception is the spontaneous and automatic alternation between two different perceptual states that occurs when sensory information is ambiguous. Perceptual alternation rates are robust within individuals but vary substantially between individuals. Slowed perceptual switching has been consistently reported in patients with bipolar disorder (BPD) and has been suggested as a trait marker for this disease.

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Mar
2013

Previous studies have shown that antipsychotics with high propensity for antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) influence glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) mediated glucose intake. Variation in the gene encoding TBC1 domain family member 1 (TBC1D1), a Rab-GTPase activating protein regulating GLUT4 trafficking, has been associated with obesity. Therefore, we investigated the impact of TBC1D1 polymorphisms on AIWG.

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Feb
2013

Significant body weight gain (BWG) is a serious adverse effect of a number of antipsychotic drugs. Previous studies have demonstrated an influence of clozapine, but not haloperidol, on neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression in the hypothalamus. Because NPY is a potent orexigenic peptide stimulating food intake, and genetic variation of the gene has been shown to influence development of obesity, we investigated the impact of NPY polymorphisms on antipsychotic-induced BWG.

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Aug
2012

Genetic factors can result in variance in drug metabolism enzyme function, which is one major mechanism impacting on interindividual variability in response and side effects. We therefore performed a pilot study to investigate genetic variants in the drug metabolizing enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP2C19.
We evaluated 35 schizophrenic and 39 obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients treated with various antipsychotics and antidepressants.

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Dec
1969

Antidepressant medication is a major cornerstone in treatment of mood and anxiety disorders. Numerous substances are available on the market; however, only 60% of treated patients show sufficient response to medication and side effects are common. Lengthy trials are not uncommon until the optimized drug and dose is found and unfortunately, no valid predictors to match the 'right' drug to the 'right' patient exist nowadays.

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Jan
2012

Genetic factors have been shown to influence occurrence and severity of several psychiatric disorders and also to modulate outcome to drug treatment. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe psychiatric condition with clear genetic roots; there is also some evidence to suggest that genetic factors may impact on response to drug treatment. Typically between 40 and 60% of patients are deemed nonresponders to antidepressant medication and clinical factors have only been modestly correlated with treatment response.

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Dec
1969

Antipsychotic-induced weight gain is a serious side effect of antipsychotic medication that can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and non-compliance in patients. Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms have been studied for association with antipsychotic-induced weight gain in an attempt to find genetic predictors of this side effect. An ability to predict this side effect could lead to personalized treatment plans for predisposed individuals, which could significantly decrease the prevalence and severity of weight gain.

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