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Author: Florian Lang (975)


Feb
2018

A series of neuroprotective hybrid compounds was synthesized by conjugation of the flavonolignan silibinin with natural phenolic acids, such as ferulic, cinnamic and syringic acid. Selective 7-O-esterfication without protection groups was achieved by applying the respective acyl chlorides. Sixteen compounds were obtained and SARs were established by evaluating antioxidative properties in the physicochemical FRAP assay, as well as in a cell-based neuroprotection assay using murine hippocampal HT-22 cells.

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Dec
1969

Platelet aggregation, dense granule secretion and thrombus formation are dependent on sphingolipids like ceramide and sphingosine as well as sphingosine-1 phosphate. Sphingosine/ceramide metabolism involves ceramide synthases and ceramidases. However, the role of ceramide synthase and ceramidase in the regulation of platelet function remained ill-defined.

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Jan
2018

Particularly in Asia medicinal plants with antimicrobial activity are used for therapeutic purpose. One such plant-derived antibiotic is rhodomyrtone (Rom) isolated from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaves. Rom shows high antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria, however, its mode of action is still unclear.

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Feb
2018

Early embryo development and endometrial differentiation are initially independent processes, and synchronization, imposed by a limited window of implantation, is critical for reproductive success. A putative negative regulator of endometrial receptivity is LEFTY2, a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family. LEFTY2 is highly expressed in decidualizing human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, coinciding with the closure of the window of implantation.

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Dec
1969

Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc), a neurodegenerative disease, results from loss-of-function-mutations of the chorein-encoding gene VPS13A. Affected patients suffer from a progressive movement disorder including chorea, parkinsonism, dystonia, tongue protrusion, dysarthria, dysphagia, tongue and lip biting, gait impairment, progressive distal muscle wasting, weakness, epileptic seizures, cognitive impairment, and behavioral changes. Those pathologies may be paralleled by erythrocyte acanthocytosis.

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Oct
2017

CD4T cells are key elements in immune responses and inflammation. Activation of T cell receptors in CD4T cells triggers cytosolic Carelease with subsequent store operated Caentry (SOCE), which is accomplished by the pore forming Carelease activated Ca(CRAC) channel Orai1 and its regulator stromal cell-interaction molecule 2 (STIM2). Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) acts as a potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agent for various types of cells including immune cells.

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Dec
1969

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor afatinib is used for the treatment of several malignancies. Afatinib is at least partially effective by triggering apoptosis of tumor cells. Platelets may similarly undergo apoptosis, which is characterized by caspase 3 activation, cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine translocation.

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Dec
1969

Rhabdomyosarcoma, the most common pediatric soft tissue sarcoma, may show an intrinsic refractoriness to standard chemotherapy in advanced tumor stages, which is associated with poor prognosis. Cellular mechanisms conferring tumor cell survival and therapy resistance in many tumor types include the serum & glucocorticoid inducible kinase (SGK) 1 pathway, a kinase expressed ubiquitously with particularly strong expression in skeletal muscle and some tumor types. The present study explored whether SGK1 is expressed in rhabdomyosarcoma and, if so, whether this kinase impacts on tumor cell survival, proliferation and migration.

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Oct
2017

Embryo implantation requires a hospitable uterine environment. A key metabolic change that occurs during the peri-implantation period, and throughout early pregnancy, is the rise in endometrial glycogen content. Glycogen accumulation requires prior cellular uptake of glucose.

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Dec
1969

Platelets, anucleated megakaryocyte (MK)-derived cells, play a major role in hemostasis and arterial thrombosis. Although protein kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2) is readily detected in MKs and platelets, the impact of CK2-dependent signaling on MK/platelet (patho-)physiology has remained elusive. The present study explored the impact of the CK2 regulatory β-subunit on platelet biogenesis and activation.

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Dec
1969

Many pathophysiological processes are associated with proliferation, migration or death of distinct cell populations. Monitoring specific cell types and their progeny in a non-invasive, longitudinal and quantitative manner is still challenging. Here we show a novel cell-tracking system that combines Cre/lox-assisted cell fate mapping with a thymidine kinase (sr39tk) reporter gene for cell detection by positron emission tomography (PET).

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Dec
1969

The cause of death among the majority of endometrial cancer patients involves migration of cancer cells within the peritoneal cavity and subsequent implantation of cancer spheroids into neighbouring organs. It is, thereby, important to identify factors that mediate metastasis. Cell adhesion and migration are modified by the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) marker Sushi domain containing 2 (SUSD2), a type I transmembrane protein that participates in the orchestration of cell adhesion and migration through interaction with its partner Galactosidase-binding soluble-1 (LGALS1).

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Dec
1969

TGFβ1, a decisive regulator of megakaryocyte maturation and platelet formation, has previously been shown to up-regulate both, store operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) and Ca2+ extrusion by Na+/Ca2+ exchange. The growth factor thus augments the increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i) following release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and accelerates the subsequent decline of [Ca2+]i. The effect on SOCE is dependent on a signaling cascade including p38 kinase, serum & glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1, and nuclear factor NFκB.

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Dec
1969

The widely expressed protein chorein fosters activation of the phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) pathway thus supporting cell survival. Loss of function mutations of the chorein encoding gene VPS13A (vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 13A) causes chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc), a neurodegenerative disorder paralleled by deformations of erythrocytes. In mice, genetic knockout of chorein leads to enhanced neuronal apoptosis.

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Aug
2017

The devastating consequences of hepatic failure include hepatic encephalopathy, a severe, life threatening impairment of neuronal function. Hepatic encephalopathy is caused by impaired hepatic clearance of NH. Cellular NHuptake is accomplished mainly by the Na,K,2Clcotransporter.

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Dec
1969

Suboptimal fluid intake may require enhanced release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin for the maintenance of adequate hydration. Enhanced copeptin levels (reflecting enhanced vasopressin levels) in 25% of the common population are associated with enhanced risk of metabolic syndrome with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, vascular dementia, cognitive impairment, microalbuminuria, chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and premature mortality. Vasopressin stimulates the release of glucocorticoids which in turn up-regulate the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1).

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Dec
1969

Cellular glucose uptake may involve either non-concentrative glucose carriers of the GLUT family or Na+-coupled glucose-carrier SGLT1, which accumulates glucose against glucose gradients and may thus accomplish cellular glucose uptake even at dramatically decreased extracellular glucose concentrations. SGLT1 is not only expressed in epithelia but as well in tumour cells and immune cells. Immune cell functions strongly depend on their metabolism, therefore we hypothesized that deficiency of SGLT1 modulates the defence against bacterial infection.

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Dec
1969

Istaroxime is a validated inotropic Na+/K+ ATPase inhibitor currently in development for the treatment of various cardiac conditions. Recent findings established that this steroidal drug exhibits potent apoptotic responses in prostate tumors in vitro and in vivo, by affecting key signaling orchestrating proliferation and apoptosis, such as c-Myc and caspase 3, Rho GTPases and actin cytoskeleton dynamics. In the present study we examined whether istaroxime is affecting cell motility and analyzed the underlying mechanism in prostate tumor cells.

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Dec
1969

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) negatively regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. Dicer, a cytoplasmic RNase III enzyme, is required for the maturation of miRNAs from precursor miRNAs. Dicer, therefore, is a critical enzyme involved in the biogenesis and processing of miRNAs.

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Jul
2017

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a cytokine produced by many cell types and implicated in cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and inflammation. It stimulates store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) through the calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channel Orai1/Stim1 in endometrial Ishikawa cells. Bone cells generate fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23, which inhibits renal phosphate reabsorption and 1,25(OH)Dformation in concert with its co-receptor Klotho.

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Oct
2017

Knowledge about prognostic factors in surgically treated patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify influential factors on survival in a large cohort of patients with surgically treated oropharyngeal SCC.
Retrospective analysis of survival estimates in patients with surgically treated oropharyngeal SCC using tumoral positivity for human papillomavirus (HPV) and risk-of-death categories according to a study from 2010 as stratification factors.

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Jul
2017

Platelets are small anucleate blood cells involved in haemostasis. Platelet activation, caused by agonists such as thrombin or by contact with the extracellular matrix, leads to platelet adhesion, aggregation, and coagulation. Activated platelets undergo shape changes, adhere, and spread at the site of injury to form a blood clot.

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Dec
1969

Alterations of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i) are decisive in the regulation of tumor cell proliferation, migration and survival. Transport processes participating in the regulation of [Ca2+]i include Ca2+ extrusion through K+-independent (NCX) and/or K+-dependent (NCKX) Na+/Ca2+-exchangers. The present study thus explored whether medulloblastoma cells express Na+/Ca2+-exchangers, whether expression differs between therapy sensitive D283 and therapy resistant UW228-3 medulloblastoma cells, and whether Na+/Ca2+-exchangers participate in the regulation of cell survival.

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May
2017

Vascular calcification resulting from hyperphosphatemia is a major determinant of mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vascular calcification is driven by aldosterone-sensitive osteogenic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We show that even in absence of exogenous aldosterone, silencing and pharmacological inhibition (spironolactone, eplerenone) of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) ameliorated phosphate-induced osteo-/chondrogenic transformation of primary human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs).

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May
2017

Brain and Head and neck metastases are rare in prostatic carcinoma patients. In this report we present a very uncommon case of the concomitant occurrence of a prostatic adenocarcinoma with neck metastases and an advanced laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma without neck metastases. The presence of cervical lymph node prostate adenocarcinoma metastasis concomitantly with a laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is at least intriguing and may remind us of a rare event called "collision tumors".

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Dec
1969

Key properties of tumor cells include enhanced glycolytic flux with excessive consumption of glucose and formation of lactate. As glycolysis is highly sensitive to cytosolic pH, maintenance of glycolysis requires export of H+ ions, which is in part accomplished by Na+/H+ exchangers, such as NHE1. The carrier is sensitive to oxidative stress.

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Dec
1969

The transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) is up-regulated in several clinical disorders, including dehydration. NFAT5-sensitive genes include serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1). The kinase is a powerful regulator of Orai1, a Cachannel accomplishing store-operated Caentry (SOCE).

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Dec
1969

Observational studies suggested a link between bone disease and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction that may be pronounced in hyperparathyroid conditions. We therefore aimed to test the hypothesis that circulating markers of bone turnover correlate with LV function in a cohort of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). Cross-sectional data of 155 subjects with pHPT were analyzed who participated in the "Eplerenone in Primary Hyperparathyroidism" (EPATH) Trial.

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Jun
2017

Platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation are essential for primary hemostasis, but are also critically involved in the development of acute arterial thrombotic occlusion. Stimulation of the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI) leads to phospholipase Cγ2-dependent inositol triphosphate (IP) production with subsequent platelet activation, due to increased intracellular Caconcentration ([Ca]). Although tricyclic antidepressants have been shown to potentially impair platelet activation, nothing is hitherto known about potential effects of the tricyclic antidepressant doxepin on platelet Casignaling and thrombus formation.

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Apr
2017

Anemia in advanced age is often a multifactorial condition requiring an interdisciplinary approach. The contributions to the opening interdisciplinary symposium on anemia in older subjects focused on physiological and histopathological as well as on nephrological and neurogeriatric aspects and on the therapeutic implications of this underdiagnosed, yet highly frequent disease. The symposium was the kick-off event for the founding of the German Geriatric Society special interest group on anemia in advanced age.

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Dec
1969

Platelets are a major source of chemokines. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that platelets express significant amounts of CXCL14 and disclose powerful effects of platelet-derived CXCL14 on monocyte and endothelial migration.
The expression of CXCL14 in platelets and in the supernatant of activated platelets was analysed by immunoblotting, ELISA, and flow cytometry.

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Dec
1969

Sickle cell anemia patients suffer from oxidative stress due to chronic inflammation and self-oxidation of sickle hemoglobin (Hb S). Chronic oxidative stress contributes to endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and multiple organ damage in sickle cell disease (SCD). Thus, antioxidant medication may favorably influence the disease.

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Dec
1969

Tumor cell proliferation is modified by 1,25-Dihydroxy-Vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), a steroid hormone predominantly known for its role in calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Key properties of tumor cells include enhanced glycolytic flux with excessive consumption of glucose and formation of lactate. As glycolysis is highly sensitive to cytosolic pH, maintenance of glycolysis requires export of H+ ions and lactate, which is in part accomplished by Na+/H+ exchangers, such as NHE1 and monocarboxylate transporters, such as MCT4.

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