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Author: Friedel M Reischies (20)


Oct
2017

The progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia can be predicted by cognitive, neuroimaging, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers. Since most biomarkers reveal complementary information, a combination of biomarkers may increase the predictive power. We investigated which combination of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR)-sum-of-boxes, the word list delayed free recall from the Consortium to Establish a Registry of Dementia (CERAD) test battery, hippocampal volume (HCV), amyloid-beta(Aβ42), amyloid-beta(Aβ40) levels, the ratio of Aβ42/Aβ40, phosphorylated tau, and total tau (t-Tau) levels in the CSF best predicted a short-term conversion from MCI to AD dementia.

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Sep
2017

Lithium augmentation of antidepressants is an effective strategy in treatment-resistant depression. The proteohormone ghrelin is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of treatment response with the course of ghrelin levels during lithium augmentation.

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Dec
1969

The recently proposed latent variable δ is a new tool for dementia case finding. It is built in a structural equation modeling framework of cognitive and functional data and constitutes a novel endophenotype for Alzheimer's disease (AD) research and clinical trials.
To investigate the association of δ with AD biomarkers and to compare the prediction of δ with established scales for conversion to dementia in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

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Mar
2015

To test whether, in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), different measures of subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in the memory domain predict abnormal CSF biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (AD).
We analyzed the multicenter baseline (cross-sectional) data of 245 patients with MCI. SCD was measured quantitatively with the Subjective Memory Decline Scale (SMDS) and qualitatively by assessing particular concerns associated with self-experienced worsening of memory.

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Dec
1969

Concerns about worsening memory ("memory concerns"; MC) and impairment in memory performance are both predictors of Alzheimer's dementia (AD). The relationship of both in dementia prediction at the pre-dementia disease stage, however, is not well explored. Refined understanding of the contribution of both MC and memory performance in dementia prediction is crucial for defining at-risk populations.

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Jun
2013

It is not clear whether the prevalence of psychosis increases with age. We studied the age-specific prevalence of psychotic symptoms in older people in Western Europe.
Older people without dementia (age 65-104 years, N = 8762) from the western part of Europe in the EURODEP concerted action took part in psychiatric examinations.

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Jun
2010

Several reports suggest beneficial impacts of either physical or mental activity on cognitive function in old age. However, the differential effects of complex mental and physical activities on cognitive performance in humans remain to be clarified.
This randomized controlled trial evaluates a cognitive and a physical standardized 6-month activity intervention (3 x 1.

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Dec
1969

Normal aging is associated with a decline in different cognitive domains and local structural atrophy as well as decreases in dopamine concentration and receptor density. To date, it is largely unknown how these reductions in dopaminergic neurotransmission affect human brain regions responsible for reward-based decision making in older adults. Using a learning criterion in a probabilistic object reversal task, we found a learning stage by age interaction in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) during decision making.

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Jul
2010

The prevalence rate of depression among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) has been estimated at 25%, although prevalence figures range between 7-76%. Relatively few studies on PD and depression are based on random samples in the general population. Some depressive symptoms can also be understood as symptoms of parkinsonism, and the current study aims to describe which 'overlap' symptoms can be identified in a community sample.

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Jul
2007

So far, the specific role of the ventral striatum in reward-based decision making remains elusive. Here, we examined the role of the ventral striatum in reward-based decision making using functional MRI and a probabilistic object reversal task. During decision making, activity in the ventral striatum increased monotonically as a function of association learning and was greatest when the individuals expected to be rewarded for the decision with high certainty.

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Feb
2008

Melatonin has been postulated to have diverse properties, acting as an antioxidant, a neuroprotector, or a stabilizer within the circadian timing system, and is thus thought to be involved in the aging process and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We used computed tomography to determine the degree of pineal calcification (DOC), an intra-individual melatonin deficit marker, as well as the size of uncalcified pineal tissue, in 279 consecutive memory clinic outpatients (AD: 155; other dementia: 25; mild cognitive impairment: 33; depression: 66) and 37 age-matched controls. The size of uncalcified pineal tissue in patients with AD (mean 0.

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Dec
1969

The interictal state between two electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) sessions is clinically characterised by possible cognitive adverse effects like mild amnestic syndrome. ECT-induced amnestic deficits can persist for several weeks after ECT. Electrophysiologically, slowing of brain electrical activity in the interictal state has often been reported.

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Feb
2005

Functional neuroimaging studies in humans have provided evidence that a frontal network including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays an important role in attention and awareness. Disturbed attention and awareness are core symptoms of delirium, but imaging studies of attentional dysfunctions in delirium are lacking. However, an increase of slow electroencephalographic (EEG) activity (delta, theta) is a consistent biological finding in delirium.

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Feb
2005

Longitudinal studies of neuropsychological changes in the preclinical phase of Alzheimer disease (AD) have yielded mixed results. Although some studies report tests of episodic memory, others report tests of attention and executive functions as reliable predictors of subsequent AD. Following theoretical models of neuropsychological processes before AD onset, the authors examined the predictive value of attention and executive function in the preclinical phase of AD in old age.

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Dec
2004

Associations between disability and depression have been shown to be consistent across cultures among middle-aged adults. In later life the association between disability and depression is much more substantial and may be amenable to influences by health care facilities as well as economic and sociocultural factors. Fourteen community-based studies on depression in later life in 11 western European countries contribute to a total study sample of 22,570 respondents aged 65 years or older.

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Dec
1969

Early onset of treatment efficacy is especially important for severe mania syndromes. Lithium has usually a delayed onset of response, which is disadvantageous for inpatient treatment of severe mania. Valproate is effective in treating acute mania and has sedative properties.

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Jul
2002

A probabilistic association task that manipulated the necessity to temporarily store information was combined with the recording of event-related potentials. In Experiment 1, scores obtained from a positive schizotypy scale were used to categorize participants as either low or high schizotypal individuals. Low, but not high, schizotypal individuals displayed evidence for selective associative learning in the working memory dependent ("trace") version of the task.

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Feb
2002

Recent studies in humans have reported that recall of previously learned material is especially sensitive to the disruptive effects of pharmacologically induced cortisol elevations. Whether similar effects occur after exposure to psychosocial stress remains to be shown. Moreover it is unknown whether stress before or after the initial learning interacts with the later effects of repeated stress on delayed recall (e.

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Jun
2002

Cognitive disturbance is commonly associated with disorders of the thyroid gland, particularly hypothyroidism, and usually subsides following thyroid hormone replacement therapy. In contrast, the effects of thyroid hormones on cognitive functions in healthy individuals have rarely been studied. The goal of this open-label study was to investigate the short-term effects (duration of administration 45 days on average) of supraphysiological doses of L-thyroxine (L-T(4)) on cognitive performance in young, euthyroid, healthy subjects.

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