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Author: Gareth I Jenkins (41)


Jan
2018

The ultraviolet-B (UV-B) photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) mediates photomorphogenic responses to UV-B in Arabidopsis through differential gene expression, but little is known about UVR8 in other species. Bryophyte lineages were the earliest diverging embryophytes, thus being the first plants facing the UV-B regime typical of land. We therefore examined whether liverwort and moss species have functional UVR8 proteins and whether they are regulated similarly to Arabidopsis UVR8.

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Nov
2017

Photomorphogenic responses to ultraviolet-B light.

Plant Cell Environ 2017 Nov 30;40(11):2544-2557. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
Gareth I Jenkins
Exposure to ultraviolet B (UV-B) light regulates numerous aspects of plant metabolism, morphology and physiology through the differential expression of hundreds of genes. Photomorphogenic responses to UV-B are mediated by the photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8). Considerable progress has been made in understanding UVR8 action: the structural basis of photoreceptor function, how interaction with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 initiates signaling and how REPRESSOR OF UV-B PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS proteins negatively regulate UVR8 action.

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Jan
2017

Small increases in ambient temperature can elicit striking effects on plant architecture, collectively termed thermomorphogenesis [1]. In Arabidopsis thaliana, these include marked stem elongation and leaf elevation, responses that have been predicted to enhance leaf cooling [2-5]. Thermomorphogenesis requires increased auxin biosynthesis, mediated by the bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) [6-8], and enhanced stability of the auxin co-receptor TIR1, involving HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 90 (HSP90) [9].

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Nov
2016

The photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) specifically mediates photomorphogenic responses to UV-B wavelengths. UVR8 acts by regulating transcription of a set of genes, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Previous research indicated that UVR8 can associate with chromatin, but the specificity and functional significance of this interaction are not clear.

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Oct
2016

UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) is a photoreceptor for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light that initiates photomorphogenic responses in plants. UV-B photoreception causes rapid dissociation of dimeric UVR8 into monomers that interact with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) to initiate signal transduction. Experiments with purified UVR8 show that the dimer is maintained by salt-bridge interactions between specific charged amino acids across the dimer interface.

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Aug
2016

The UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) photoreceptor specifically mediates photomorphogenic responses to UV-B. Photoreception induces dissociation of dimeric UVR8 into monomers to initiate responses. However, the regulation of dimer/monomer status in plants growing under photoperiodic conditions has not been examined.

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Dec
1969

Cell water permeability and cell wall properties are critical to survival of plant cells during freezing, however the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that a specifically cold-induced nuclear protein, Tolerant to Chilling and Freezing 1 (TCF1), interacts with histones H3 and H4 and associates with chromatin containing a target gene, blue-copper-binding protein (BCB), encoding a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein that regulates lignin biosynthesis. Loss of TCF1 function leads to reduced BCB transcription through affecting H3K4me2 and H3K27me3 levels within the BCB gene, resulting in reduced lignin content and enhanced freezing tolerance.

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Jun
2015

Plants are able to sense UV-B through the UV-B photoreceptor UVR8. UV-B photon absorption by a UVR8 homodimer leads to UVR8 monomerization and interaction with the downstream signaling factor COP1. This then initiates changes in gene expression, which lead to several metabolic and morphological alterations.

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Jul
2015

UVR8 is a novel UV-B photoreceptor that regulates a range of plant responses and is already used as a versatile optogenetic tool. Instead of an exogenous chromophore, UVR8 uniquely employs tryptophan side chains to accomplish UV-B photoreception. UV-B absorption by homodimeric UVR8 induces monomerization and hence signaling, but the underlying photodynamic mechanisms are not known.

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Dec
2014

Structure and function of the UV-B photoreceptor UVR8.

Curr Opin Struct Biol 2014 Dec 7;29:52-7. Epub 2014 Oct 7.
Gareth I Jenkins
UVR8 is a UV-B photoreceptor that employs specific tryptophans in its primary sequence as chromophores in photoreception. UV-B absorption causes dissociation of the dimeric photoreceptor by neutralizing interactions between monomers. The monomeric form initiates signalling through interaction with the COP1 protein, leading to transcriptional responses.

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Feb
2015

Tryptophan residues at the dimer interface of the plant photoreceptor UVR8 promote monomerisation after UV-B absorption via a so far unknown mechanism. Using FTIR spectroscopy we assign light-induced structural transitions of UVR8 mainly to amino acid side chains without major transformations of the secondary structure of the physiologically relevant C-terminal extension. Additionally, we assign the monomerisation associated increase and red shift of the UVR8 tryptophan emission to a photoinduced rearrangement of tryptophan side chains and a relocation of the aspartic acid residues D96 and D107, respectively.

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Aug
2014

Plants detect different facets of their radiation environment via specific photoreceptors to modulate growth and development. UV-B is perceived by the photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8). The molecular mechanisms linking UVR8 activation to plant growth are not fully understood, however.

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Apr
2014

UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) signaling involves CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1, the ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) transcription factor, and the closely related HY5 HOMOLOG. Some UV-B responses mediated by UVR8 are also regulated by nitric oxide (NO), a bioactive molecule that orchestrates a wide range of processes in plants. In this study, we investigated the participation of the UVR8 pathway and its interaction with NO in UV-B-induced stomatal movements in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana).

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Jan
2014

The UV-B photoreceptor UVR8: from structure to physiology.

Plant Cell 2014 Jan 30;26(1):21-37. Epub 2014 Jan 30.
Gareth I Jenkins
Low doses of UV-B light (280 to 315 nm) elicit photomorphogenic responses in plants that modify biochemical composition, photosynthetic competence, morphogenesis, and defense. UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) mediates photomorphogenic responses to UV-B by regulating transcription of a set of target genes. UVR8 differs from other known photoreceptors in that it uses specific Trp amino acids instead of a prosthetic chromophore for light absorption during UV-B photoreception.

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Feb
2013

Photomorphogenic responses triggered by low fluence rates of ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B; 280-315 nm) are mediated by the UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8). Beyond our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of UV-B perception by UVR8, there is still limited information on how the UVR8 pathway functions under natural sunlight. Here, wild-type Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the uvr8-2 mutant were used in an experiment outdoors where UV-A (315-400 nm) and UV-B irradiances were attenuated using plastic films.

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Dec
2012

The UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 regulates expression of genes in response to UV-B, some encoding chloroplast proteins, but the importance of UVR8 in maintaining photosynthetic competence is unknown. The maximum quantum yield of PSII (F (v)/F(m)) and the operating efficiency of PSII (Φ(PSII)) were measured in wild-type and uvr8 mutant Arabidopsis thaliana. The importance of specific UVR8-regulated genes in maintaining photosynthetic competence was examined using mutants.

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Jan
2013

Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) is a photoreceptor that specifically mediates photomorphogenic responses to ultraviolet (UV)-B in plants. UV-B photoreception induces the conversion of the UVR8 dimer into a monomer that interacts with the CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) protein to regulate gene expression. However, it is not known how the dimeric photoreceptor is regenerated in plants.

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Sep
2012

Arabidopsis thaliana UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) is a photoreceptor specifically for UV-B light that initiates photomorphogenic responses in plants. UV-B exposure causes rapid conversion of UVR8 from dimer to monomer, accumulation in the nucleus, and interaction with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), which functions with UVR8 in UV-B responses. Studies in yeast and with purified UVR8 implicate several tryptophan amino acids in UV-B photoreception.

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Oct
2012

UV-B light initiates photomorphogenic responses in plants. Arabidopsis UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) specifically mediates these responses by functioning as a UV-B photoreceptor. UV-B exposure converts UVR8 from a dimer to a monomer, stimulates the rapid accumulation of UVR8 in the nucleus, where it binds to chromatin, and induces interaction of UVR8 with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), which functions with UVR8 to control photomorphogenic UV-B responses.

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Mar
2012

Alternative splicing plays crucial roles by influencing the diversity of the transcriptome and proteome and regulating protein structure/function and gene expression. It is widespread in plants, and alteration of the levels of splicing factors leads to a wide variety of growth and developmental phenotypes. The circadian clock is a complex piece of cellular machinery that can regulate physiology and behavior to anticipate predictable environmental changes on a revolving planet.

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Mar
2012

The recently identified plant photoreceptor UVR8 (UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8) triggers regulatory changes in gene expression in response to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light through an unknown mechanism. Here, crystallographic and solution structures of the UVR8 homodimer, together with mutagenesis and far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy, reveal its mechanisms for UV-B perception and signal transduction. β-propeller subunits form a remarkable, tryptophan-dominated, dimer interface stitched together by a complex salt-bridge network.

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Apr
2011

To optimize their growth and survival, plants perceive and respond to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. However, neither the molecular identity of the UV-B photoreceptor nor the photoperception mechanism is known. Here we show that dimers of the UVR8 protein perceive UV-B, probably by a tryptophan-based mechanism.

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Apr
2011

Arabidopsis thaliana UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) is a UV-B-specific signaling component that mediates low fluence, photomorphogenic responses to UV-B. It is required for UV-B-induced expression of the gene encoding the ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) transcription factor. HY5 is a key effector of responses mediated by UVR8.

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Dec
1969

Responses specific to ultraviolet B (UV-B) wavelengths are still poorly understood, both in terms of initial signalling and effects on morphogenesis. Arabidopsis thaliana UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) is the only known UV-B specific signalling component, but the role of UVR8 in leaf morphogenesis is unknown. The regulatory effects of UVR8 on leaf morphogenesis at a range of supplementary UV-B doses were characterized, revealing both UVR8-dependent and independent responses to UV irradiation.

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Dec
1969

UV-B radiation is a key environmental signal that initiates diverse responses in plants that affect metabolism, development, and viability. Many effects of UV-B involve the differential regulation of gene expression. The response to UV-B depends on the nature of the UV-B treatment, the extent of adaptation and acclimation to UV-B, and interaction with other environmental factors.

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Mar
2009

The ultraviolet-B (UV-B) portion of the solar radiation functions as an environmental signal for which plants have evolved specific and sensitive UV-B perception systems. The UV-B-specific UV RESPONSE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) and the multifunctional E3 ubiquitin ligase CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) are key regulators of the UV-B response. We show here that uvr8-null mutants are deficient in UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis and hypersensitive to UV-B stress, whereas overexpression of UVR8 results in enhanced UV-B photomorphogenesis, acclimation and tolerance to UV-B stress.

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Dec
2008

The circadian oscillator in eukaryotes consists of several interlocking feedback loops through which the expression of clock genes is controlled. It is generally assumed that all plant cells contain essentially identical and cell-autonomous multiloop clocks. Here, we show that the circadian clock in the roots of mature Arabidopsis plants differs markedly from that in the shoots and that the root clock is synchronized by a photosynthesis-related signal from the shoot.

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Dec
2008

The Arabidopsis gene At5g21040 encodes a protein containing both WD40 and F-box motifs, termed FBX2. A T-DNA insertional mutant in this gene was obtained. Analysis of this mutant line showed that FBX2 is a negative regulator of several P(i) starvation responses.

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Dec
2008

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is thought to play many roles in C(3) plants including the provision of biosynthetic precursors and control of pH during N assimilation. Its activity is controlled via phosphorylation catalysed by PEPC kinases, which are encoded by PPCK genes. We examined PPCK expression in response to changes in the supply of N or C, and to changes in intracellular pH, using cultured Arabidopsis cells and seedlings.

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Jan
2008

Arabidopsis UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) is a UV-B-specific signaling component that regulates expression of a range of genes concerned with UV protection. Here, we investigate the interaction of UVR8 with chromatin. Using antibodies specific to UVR8 in chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays with wild-type plants, we show that native UVR8 binds to chromatin in vivo.

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Feb
2008

UV-B signaling is an important but poorly understood aspect of light responsiveness in plants. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) is a recently identified UV-B-specific signaling component that regulates UV-protective responses. Using the uvr8 mutant, we defined genetically distinct UVR8-dependent and UVR8-independent pathways that stimulate different sets of genes in mature Arabidopsis leaf tissue.

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May
2008

In this work we analysed, at the transcript level, the response of Arabidopsis anthocyanin regulatory genes of the MYB (PAP1 and PAP2), bHLH (TT8, EGL3 and GL3) and WD40 (TTG1) families to white light in seedlings and to different light qualities in rosette leaves. Our experiments showed strong light induction of the MYB genes PAP1 and PAP2. In particular, the kinetics of PAP1 expression preceded those of PAP2 and all of the structural genes (CHS, DFR, F3H, LDOX), consistent with the hypothesis that it has a key role in light induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis.

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Aug
2007

Arabidopsis thaliana UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) is a UV-B-specific signaling component that binds to chromatin and regulates UV protection by orchestrating expression of a range of genes. Here, we studied how UV-B regulates UVR8. We show that UV-B stimulates the nuclear accumulation of both a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-UVR8 fusion and native UVR8.

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Jul
2007

P(i) (inorganic phosphate) limitation severely impairs plant growth and reduces crop yield. Hence plants have evolved several biochemical and morphological responses to P(i) starvation that both enhance uptake and conserve use. The mechanisms involved in P(i) sensing and signal transduction are not completely understood.

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Oct
2006

We have examined the complexity of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase (PPCK) gene family in the C(4) monocots maize and sorghum. Maize contains at least four PPCK genes. The encoded proteins are similar to other phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) kinases, in that they comprise a protein kinase domain with minimal extensions, except that two of the proteins contain unusual acidic insertions.

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Dec
2005

UV-B radiation in sunlight has diverse effects on humans, animals, plants, and microorganisms. UV-B can cause damage to molecules and cells, and consequently organisms need to protect against and repair UV damage to survive in sunlight. In plants, low nondamaging levels of UV-B stimulate transcription of genes involved in UV-protective responses.

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Feb
2005

While the role of C2-ceramide in the induction of programmed cell death (PCD) in animal systems has been well documented, little is known of its role in plant cells. Here we show that C2-ceramide induces PCD in Arabidopsis suspension cultures, which is preceded by the generation of a calcium transient and an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). Inhibition of the calcium transient prevented cell death, whereas inhibition of ROS had no effect on cell survival.

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Aug
2004

Phosphorylation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc; EC 4.1.1.

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Feb
2003

Flavonoid biosynthesis gene expression is controlled by a range of endogenous and environmental signals. The Arabidopsis icx1 (increased chalcone synthase expression 1) mutant has elevated induction of CHS (CHALCONE SYNTHASE) and other flavonoid biosynthesis genes in response to several stimuli. We show that ICX1 is a negative regulator of the cryptochrome 1, phytochrome A, ultraviolet (UV)-B, low temperature, sucrose, and cytokinin induction of CHS expression and/or anthocyanin accumulation, demonstrating that these pathways are regulated either directly or indirectly by at least one common component.

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Oct
2002

Screening for seed pigmentation phenotypes in Arabidopsis led to the isolation of three allelic yellow-seeded mutants, which defined the novel TRANSPARENT TESTA16 (TT16) locus. Cloning of TT16 was performed by T-DNA tagging and confirmed by genetic complementation and sequencing of two mutant alleles. TT16 encodes the ARABIDOPSIS BSISTER (ABS) MADS domain protein.

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Mar
2002

We investigated the role of transcription factors (R, SN, C1, and PL) in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis by different light qualities (white, red, blue, and ultraviolet) and by cytokinin in maize (Zea mays). We analyzed anthocyanin accumulation, structural gene expression, and regulatory gene expression in the seed aleurone and the seedling mesocotyl. In the mesocotyl, white, blue, and ultraviolet-B light strongly induced anthocyanin accumulation and expression of two key structural genes.

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