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Author: Garry L Warne (23)



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Nov
2013

There is increasing interest in fertility and use of assisted reproductive technologies for women with Turner syndrome (TS). Current parenting options include adoption, surrogacy, and spontaneous and assisted reproduction. For women with TS, specific risks of pregnancy include higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, foetal anomaly, maternal morbidity and mortality.

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Oct
2012

The birth of a child with ambiguous genitalia is a challenging and distressing event for the family and physician and one with life-long consequences. Most disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD) associated with ambiguous genitalia are the result either of inappropriate virilization of girls or incomplete virilization of boys. It is important to establish a diagnosis as soon as possible, for psychological, social, and medical reasons, particularly for recognizing accompanying life-threatening disorders such as the salt-losing form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

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May
2012

To describe the experience of hormone treatment of gender identity disorder (GID) in children and adolescents within a specialist clinic.
Cohort study by medical record review of children aged 0-17 years referred during 2003-2011 for management at the GID clinic in a tertiary paediatric referral centre - the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria.
Clinical characteristics of the patient population, hormone treatment provided, frequency of referrals with time.

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Sep
2011

Intense controversy surrounds the management of disorders of sex development, particularly in relation to the validity of parental consent for genital surgery and the removal of gonadal tissue carried out during infancy or childhood. Past practices have been heavily criticised on ethical grounds by patient advocacy organisations, who have demanded a moratorium on these kinds of operations unless authorised by a court. Some doctors and hospital administrators have been influenced by the controversy and have referred cases to the Family Court of Australia, where a series of judgements have now established legal precedents that apply across Australia, restricting the circumstances in which parents can give consent for surgery.

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Dec
1969

The Fifth World Congress on Family Law and Children's Rights (Halifax, August 2009) adopted a resolution endorsing a new set of ethical guidelines for the management of infants and children with disorders of sex development (DSD) [www.lawrights.asn.

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Sep
2008

The way disorders of sex development (DSD) are viewed and managed in different cultures varies widely. They are complex conditions and even well-educated lay people find them difficult to understand, but when families are very poor and lacking in basic education, and the health system is starved of resources, traditional beliefs, folk remedies and prejudice combine to make the lives of children and adults with DSD extremely difficult and sad. Rumour and discrimination isolate them from their communities and they become devalued.

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May
2006

We have characterized an unusual family with two different androgen receptor (AR) gene deletions, in which we propose a novel mechanism of deletion formation has occurred. Affected individuals have the X-linked disorder androgen insensitivity syndrome, and we previously showed that different family members have deletions of different exons of the AR gene. We have now fully sequenced the deletions from affected individuals, and confirmed the presence of different deletions in different affected family members.

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Jan
2006

Individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are shorter, on an average, than the general population. A recent meta analysis of final height in CAH indicated that the height deficit is typically 1 to 2 standard deviations below the mean in both males and females. Growth in CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is influenced by a number of factors, related both to the underlying disease and its treatment.

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Jan
2006

Growth in precocious puberty.

Indian J Pediatr 2006 Jan;73(1):81-8
Justin J Brown, Garry L Warne
Growth in precocious puberty is a subject of concern to families and clinicians alike. The definition of precocious puberty and the role of obesity in the age of onset have also been areas of debate since the Lawson Wilkins Society recommended a lowering of the age of onset of precocious puberty in US girls. An understanding of growth patterns in normal children with earlier or later onset of puberty and the variable rate of progression between individuals with central precocious puberty as well as the imprecision in available height prediction methods are important in assessing height outcomes in this condition.

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Jan
2006

A 5-month-old boy with no history of vomiting, early sexual development, or noticeable significant illness was found dead in bed. Autopsy demonstrated bilateral adrenal hyperplasia unequivocally shown on biochemical testing of blood and urine to be due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Genetic analysis of the CYP21 gene showed compound heterozygosity; 1 allele contained a pseudogene sequence (gene conversion) and the other contained a previously described I172N point mutation.

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Jul
2005

To investigate androgen receptor (AR) function in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA).
A kindred was identified with five individuals carrying the AR gene CAG repeat expansion that causes SBMA. Androgen binding was measured in cultured genital skin fibroblasts from three affected individuals.

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Dec
1969

Hormonal therapy forms part of the treatment of every intersex condition. For some conditions, such as salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hormonal replacement therapy is life saving because hormones necessary for survival (cortisol and aldosterone) are replaced. In contrast, other hormones such as androgens or mineralocorticoids are secreted in excessive amounts in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to an enzyme imbalance, and the role of hormonal therapy is to suppress the unwanted hormone excess by exerting negative feedback.

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Dec
2004

We have investigated the possible link between androgen hyposensitivity caused by long androgen receptor (AR) CAG repeats, and breast carcinogenesis, in men. AR gene mutations have been described in men with androgen insensitivity syndrome and breast carcinoma, and some studies have shown long CAG repeats are associated with increased risk of breast cancer in women. DNA was isolated from male breast cancer biopsies, and the AR CAG repeat sized.

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Feb
2004

Identification of androgen-regulated genes in neurons is an important step in understanding the mechanisms involved in androgen action. The aim of the current study was to identify androgen-responsive genes in the neural cells using the technique of differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) on the human neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-MC. Using this analysis, 18 putatively androgen-regulated cDNA species were identified, ranging in size from 280 to 800 bp.

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Mar
2004

We have identified androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations in eight Australian subjects with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). Four individuals, from three families, have novel mutations that introduce premature termination codons. Two siblings have the nonsense mutation Glu681X, and another subject has the nonsense mutation p.

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Aug
2002

Differentiation of a testis or an ovary from a bipotential gonad is a complex developmental process involving various genes and hormones. Similarly, internal and external genital organs develop from an indeterminate stage from the complex differentiation of Wolffian and Müllerian ducts. Differentiation of the Wolffian ducts, urogenital sinus, and external genitalia is androgen dependent.

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Jun
2002

Massive ovarian edema is a rare tumor-like condition found predominantly in young women. Patients usually present with abdominal pain and/or abdominal mass. Pre-operative diagnosis is often difficult.

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Apr
2002

We have identified a novel interstitial duplication at Xq26.1-q27.3 in a previously reported family with X-linked recessive hypopituitarism [1].

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