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Author: Guillaume Allorent (9)


Nov
2017

Plants possessing dysfunctional plastids due to defects in pigment biosynthesis or translation are known to repress photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes via retrograde signals from the disturbed organelles toward the nucleus. These signals are thought to be essential for proper biogenesis and function of the plastid. Mutants lacking plastid-encoded RNA polymerase-associated proteins (PAPs) display a genetic arrest in eoplast-chloroplast transition leading to an albino phenotype in the light.

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Jun
2017

Photoreceptor-dependent regulation of photoprotection.

Curr Opin Plant Biol 2017 Jun 1;37:102-108. Epub 2017 May 1.
Guillaume Allorent, Dimitris Petroutsos
In photosynthetic organisms, proteins in the light-harvesting complex (LHC) harvest light energy to fuel photosynthesis, whereas photoreceptor proteins are activated by the different wavelengths of the light spectrum to regulate cellular functions. Under conditions of excess light, blue-light photoreceptors activate chloroplast avoidance movements in sessile plants, and blue- and green-light photoreceptors cause motile algae to swim away from intense light. Simultaneously, LHCs switch from light-harvesting mode to energy-dissipation mode, which was thought to be independent of photoreceptor-signaling up until recently.

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Sep
2017

In natural, variable environments, plants rapidly adjust photosynthesis for optimal balance between light absorption and utilization. There is increasing evidence suggesting that ion fluxes across the chloroplast thylakoid membrane play an important role in this regulation by affecting the proton motive force and consequently photosynthesis and thylakoid membrane ultrastructure. This article presents an update on the thylakoid ion channels and transporters characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana as being involved in these processes, as well as an outlook at the evolutionary conservation of their functions in other photosynthetic organisms.

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Dec
2016

Life on earth is dependent on the photosynthetic conversion of light energy into chemical energy. However, absorption of excess sunlight can damage the photosynthetic machinery and limit photosynthetic activity, thereby affecting growth and productivity. Photosynthetic light harvesting can be down-regulated by nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ).

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Apr
2016

Plants perceive UV-B, an intrinsic component of sunlight, via a signaling pathway that is mediated by the photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) and induces UV-B acclimation. To test whether similar UV-B perception mechanisms exist in the evolutionarily distant green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we identified Chlamydomonas orthologs of UVR8 and the key signaling factor CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1). Cr-UVR8 shares sequence and structural similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana UVR8, has conserved tryptophan residues for UV-B photoreception, monomerizes upon UV-B exposure, and interacts with Cr-COP1 in a UV-B-dependent manner.

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Jan
2015

In this work, we dissect the physiological role of the transient photosynthetic stage observed in developing seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana. By combining biochemical and biophysical approaches, we demonstrate that despite similar features of the photosynthetic apparatus, light absorption, chloroplast morphology and electron transport are modified in green developing seeds, as a possible response to the peculiar light environment experienced by them as a result of sunlight filtration by the pericarp. In particular, enhanced exposure to far-red light, which mainly excites photosystem I, largely enhances cyclic electron flow around this complex at the expenses of oxygen evolution.

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May
2013

Arabidopsis seed formation is coupled with two plastid differentiation processes. Chloroplast formation starts during embryogenesis and ends with the maturation phase. It is followed by chloroplast dedifferentiation/degeneration that starts at the end of the maturation phase and leads to the presence of small non-photosynthetic plastids in dry seeds.

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Feb
2013

Absorption of light in excess of the capacity for photosynthetic electron transport is damaging to photosynthetic organisms. Several mechanisms exist to avoid photodamage, which are collectively referred to as nonphotochemical quenching. This term comprises at least two major processes.

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Jul
2012

A potassium channel (SynK) of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, a photoheterotrophic model organism for the study of photosynthesis, has been recently identified and demonstrated to function as a potassium selective channel when expressed in a heterologous system and to be located predominantly to the thylakoid membrane in cyanobacteria. To study its physiological role, a SynK-less knockout mutant was generated and characterized.

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