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Author: Hans-Georg Buchholz (78)


Feb
2018

The positron emission tomography ligand [F]MK-9470 is an inverse agonist that binds reversibly and with high affinity to the cannabinoid type 1 receptor. Due to its slow brain kinetics, care is required in the definition of its dissociation rates from the receptor. The goal of this study was to investigate pharmacokinetic analysis methods using an arterial input function.

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Dec
1969

Mindfulness denotes a state of consciousness characterized by receptive attention to and awareness of present events and experiences. As a personality trait, it constitutes the ability to become aware of mental activities such as sensations, images, feelings, and thoughts, and to disengage from judgment, conditioned emotions, and their cognitive processing or automatic inhibition. Default brain activity reflects the stream of consciousness and sense of self at rest.

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Dec
1969

The aim of the study was to uncover mechanisms of central compensation of vestibular function at brainstem, cerebellar, and cortical levels in patients with acute unilateral midbrain infarctions presenting with an acute vestibular tone imbalance. Eight out of 17 patients with unilateral midbrain infarctions were selected on the basis of signs of a vestibular tone imbalance, e.g.

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Sep
2017

Investigations on the acute effects of alcohol in the human mesolimbic dopamine D/Dreceptor system have yielded conflicting results. With respect to the effects of alcohol on extrastriatal D/Ddopamine receptors no investigations have been reported yet. Therefore we applied PET imaging using the postsynaptic dopamine D/Dreceptor ligand [F]fallypride addressing the question, whether intravenously applied alcohol stimulates the extrastriatal and striatal dopamine system.

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Dec
2015

Image registration is one prerequisite for the analysis of brain regions in magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) or positron-emission-tomography (PET) studies. Diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) is a nonlinear, diffeomorphic algorithm for image registration and construction of image templates. The goal of this small animal study was (1) the evaluation of a MRI and calculation of several cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL and (2) the analysis of the image registration accuracy of MR and PET images to their DARTEL templates with reference to analytical and iterative PET reconstruction algorithms.

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Dec
1969

Dopamine is an endogenous neuromodulator in cortical circuits and the basal ganglia. In animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), seizure threshold is modulated to some extent by dopamine, with D1-receptors having a pro- and D2-receptors an anticonvulsant effect. We aimed to extend our previously reported results on decreased D2/D3 receptor binding in the lateral epileptogenic temporal lobe and to correlate them with demographic and seizure variables to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the underlying involvement of the dopaminergic system in the epileptogenesis of TLE.

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Aug
2015

We constructed and evaluated reference brain FDG-PET databases for usage by three software programs (Computer-aided diagnosis for dementia (CAD4D), Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) and NEUROSTAT), which allow a user-independent detection of dementia-related hypometabolism in patients' brain FDG-PET.
Thirty-seven healthy volunteers were scanned in order to construct brain FDG reference databases, which reflect the normal, age-dependent glucose consumption in human brain, using either software. Databases were compared to each other to assess the impact of different stereotactic normalization algorithms used by either software package.

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Feb
2015

Drugs of abuse elicit dopamine release in the ventral striatum, possibly biasing dopamine-driven reinforcement learning towards drug-related reward at the expense of non-drug-related reward. Indeed, in alcohol-dependent patients, reactivity in dopaminergic target areas is shifted from non-drug-related stimuli towards drug-related stimuli. Such 'hijacked' dopamine signals may impair flexible learning from non-drug-related rewards, and thus promote craving for the drug of abuse.

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Feb
2015

In this study we synthesized four different (18)F-labeling precursors for the visualization of the monoamino oxidase A using harmol derivatives. Whereas two are for prosthetic group labeling using [(18)F]fluoro-d2-methyl tosylate and 2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl-tosylate, the other three precursors are for direct nucleophilic (18)F-labeling. Additionally the corresponding reference compounds were synthesized.

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Oct
2014

The synthesis of a 10.5 kDa and a 52.5 kDa polymer, based on pHPMA functionalized with tyramine for (18) F-labeling and a folate derivative as targeting moiety, is reported.

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Feb
2014

The baroreceptor reflex controls spontaneous fluctuations in blood pressure. One major control variable of the baroreflex is the sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity to muscles [MSNA; burst frequency (BF) and burst incidence (BI)], which can be quantitatively assessed by microneurography. We aimed to investigate the central regions involved in baroreflex regulation of MSNA.

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Sep
2014

[(18)F]Fallypride ([(18)F]FP) is an important and routinely used D2/D3 antagonist for quantitative imaging of dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo. Recently it was shown that the brain uptake of the structurally related [(11)C]raclopride is modulated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an important efflux transporter at the blood-brain barrier. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the brain uptake of [(18)F]FP is influenced by P-gp.

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Nov
2014

Lateralization of cortical functions such as speech dominance, handedness and processing of vestibular information are present not only in humans but also in ontogenetic older species, e.g. rats.

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Sep
2013

Polymeric drug carriers aim to selectively target tumors in combination with protecting normal tissue. In this regard polymer structure and molecular weight are key factors considering organ distribution and tumor accumulation of the polymeric drug delivery system. Four different HPMA based copolymer structures (random as well as block copolymers with lauryl methacrylate as hydrophobic block) varying in molecular weight, size and resulting architecture were analyzed in two different tumor models (AT1 prostate carcinoma and Walker-256 mammary carcinoma) in vivo.

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Nov
2013

This paper reports the body distribution of block copolymers (made by controlled radical polymerization) with N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) as hydrophilic block and lauryl methacrylate (LMA) as hydrophobic block. They form micellar aggregates in aqueous solution. For this study the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance was varied by incorporation of differing amounts of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) side chains into the hydrophilic block, while keeping the degree of polymerization of both blocks constant.

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Jul
2014

The human vestibular system is represented in the brain bilaterally, but it has functional asymmetries, i.e., a dominance of ipsilateral pathways and of the right hemisphere in right-handers.

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Jul
2013

In order to assess nigrostriatal function over time in healthy subjects with substantia nigra hyperechogenicity (SN+) believed to be at higher risk for Parkinson's disease (PD), ten healthy SN+ subjects underwent [(18)Fluoro] Dopa positron emission tomography (PET) twice-at baseline and after a mean of 7.3 years. Neurological examination took place at study inclusion followed by a structured telephone interview focusing on early Parkinsonian symptoms at the time point of second PET study and 3.

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Mar
2013

The aim of this fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET study was to determine whether the activation pattern in patients with an acute unilateral central vestibular lesion (e.g., lesion of the vestibular nucleus) differs from that known in patients with an acute peripheral vestibular deficit.

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Apr
2013

Positron emission tomography (PET) with the high affinity dopamine D(2/3) receptor ligand [¹⁸F]-fallypride affords estimates of the binding potential (BP(ND) ) in extra-striatal regions of low receptor abundance, but the sufficient recording time for accurate measurements in striatum has been called into question. We have earlier argued that transient equilibrium measurements are obtained in striatum with [¹⁸F]-fallypride PET recordings of 3 h duration, which may be the practical limit for clinical investigations without interrupted scanning. However, the high extraction fraction of [¹⁸F]-fallypride predicts flow-dependence of tracer delivery to brain, which may be a source of variance of the apparent BP(ND) in regions of high binding.

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Jul
2012

Earlier functional imaging studies on visually induced self-motion perception (vection) disclosed a bilateral network of activations within primary and secondary visual cortex areas which was combined with signal decreases, i.e., deactivations, in multisensory vestibular cortex areas.

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Sep
2012

Age-related decline in cognitive speed has been associated with prefrontal dopamine D1 receptor availability, but the contribution of presynaptic dopamine and noradrenaline innervation to age-related changes in cognition is unknown.
In a group of 16 healthy participants aged 22-61 years, we used PET and the radioligand FDOPA to measure catecholamine synthesis capacity (K (in) (app); millilitres per gram per minute) and the digit symbol substitution test to measure cognitive speed, a component of fluid IQ.
Cognitive speed was associated with the magnitude of K (in) (app) in the prefrontal cortex (p < 0.

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Jun
2013

Fluid intelligence represents the capacity for flexible problem solving and rapid behavioral adaptation. Rewards drive flexible behavioral adaptation, in part via a teaching signal expressed as reward prediction errors in the ventral striatum, which has been associated with phasic dopamine release in animal studies. We examined a sample of 28 healthy male adults using multimodal imaging and biological parametric mapping with (1) functional magnetic resonance imaging during a reversal learning task and (2) in a subsample of 17 subjects also with positron emission tomography using 6-[(18) F]fluoro-L-DOPA to assess dopamine synthesis capacity.

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May
2012

Bone metastases are a major problem in several tumor entities affecting the therapeutic decision and the patient's prognosis. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are promising techniques for identifying bone tumors using gamma- or positron-emitting labeled radiotracers, but the same tracers if labeled with beta-emitters may also be used to apply therapeutic radionuclides for localized irradiation. For the tracer development specifically accumulating in osseous lesions, animal models of bone metastasis are needed.

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Feb
2012

Cerebral hypometabolism and abnormal levels of amyloid beta (Aβ), total (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (ptau) proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are established biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined the agreement between these biomarkers in a single center study of patients with AD of severity extending over a wide range. Forty seven patients (MMSE 21.

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Dec
1969

The effect of cognitive intervention on brain metabolism in AD is largely unexplored. Therefore, we aimed to investigate cognitive parameters and 18FDG PET to test for effects of a cognitive intervention in patients with aMCI or mild AD. Patients with aMCI (N = 24) or mild AD (N = 15) were randomly assigned either to cognitive intervention groups (IGs), receiving weekly sessions of group-based multicomponent cognitive intervention, or active control groups (CGs), receiving pencil-paper exercises for self-study.

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Aug
2011

The construct of impulsivity is considered as a major trait of personality. There is growing evidence that the mesolimbic dopamine system plays an important role in the modulation of impulsivity and venturesomeness, the two key components within the impulsivity-construct. The aim of the present study was to explore an association between trait impulsivity measured with self-assessment and the dopaminergic neurotransmission as measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in a cohort of healthy male subjects.

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Sep
2011

The high-affinity radioligand [(18)F]fallypride (FP) is frequently used for quantification of striatal/extrastriatal D(2/3) receptors and the receptor occupancies of antipsychotics (APs). Its 110 minutes half-life allows long scan durations. However, the optimum scan duration is a matter of debate.

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Dec
1969

The effect of cognitive intervention on brain metabolism in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is largely unexplored. Therefore, we aimed to investigate clinical cognitive parameters and 18FDG PET to test for effects of a cognitive intervention in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) or mild AD. Patients with aMCI (n = 24) or mild AD (n = 15) were randomly assigned either to cognitive intervention groups (IGs), receiving weekly sessions of group-based multicomponent cognitive intervention, or active control groups (CGs), receiving pencil-paper exercises for self-study.

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Sep
2011

Abnormal microstructural integrity and glucose metabolism of the hippocampus are common in subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) that typically manifest as episodic memory impairment. The above-tissue alterations can be captured in vivo using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and positron emission tomography with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET). Here, we explored relationships between the above neuroimaging and cognitive markers of early AD-specific hippocampal damage.

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Dec
1969

The serotonergic system, especially the 5-HT(2A) receptor, is involved in various diseases and conditions. We have recently developed a new [(18)F]-5-HT(2A) receptor ligand using an analogue, MDL 100907, as a basis for molecular imaging with positron emission tomography. This tracer, [(18)F]MH.

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Dec
2010

The synthesis, radiolabeling, and initial evaluation of new silicon-fluoride acceptor (SiFA) derivatized octreotate derivatives is reported. So far, the main drawback of the SiFA technology for the synthesis of PET-radiotracers is the high lipophilicity of the resulting radiopharmaceutical. Consequently, we synthesized new SiFA-octreotate analogues derivatized with Fmoc-NH-PEG-COOH, Fmoc-Asn(Ac₃AcNH-β-Glc)-OH, and SiFA-aldehyde (SIFA-A).

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Jan
2011

An alternative method of labelling different commercially available human serum albumin kits with generator produced (68)Ga as possible surrogate markers for the investigation of the biodistribution, and to exclude a possible lung shunt in patients with solid primary tumours and liver metastases by positron emission-tomography (PET) and effective substitute for (99m)Tc HSA as a PET perfusion tracer is described. The radioactive labelling with (68)Ga was based on the elution of a commercial (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator system, which uses a modified tin dioxide column to absorb (68)Ga. We obtained (68)Ga-MAA and (68)Ga-HSA in radiochemical yields of 79 ± 5% with less than 5% free (68)Ga.

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Oct
2011

The p-glycoprotein (Pgp) is the most prominent member of active drug transporters leading to a multidrug-resistant phenotype. For identification of tumors functionally overexpressing Pgp in vivo, non-invasive imaging techniques are needed.
Six Schiff base compounds were synthesized and labeled with (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator-derived (68)Ga.

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Sep
2010

This study aimed to predict the in vivo performance from the in vitro release of a low-molecular weight model compound, [(18)F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([(18)F]FDG), from liposomes and by means of positron emission tomography (PET). Liposomes composed of hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine (HPC) were prepared by a freeze-thaw method. Particle size distribution was measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS).

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Oct
2010

In vitro it has been shown that the functional activity of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), an important drug transporter responsible for multidrug resistance, can be strongly increased by extracellular acidosis. Here mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) (p38, ERK1/2) seem to play an important role for signal transduction. However, it is unclear whether these effects are also relevant in vivo.

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May
2010

The serotonergic system, especially the 5-HT2A receptor, is involved in various diseases and conditions. It is a very interesting target for medicinal applications.
Two novel 5-HT2A tracers, namely, [(18)F]DD-1 and the enantiomeric pure (R)-[(18)F]MH.

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Sep
2010

To quantify extrastriatal and striatal D2/D3 receptor binding in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) using the high-affinity dopamine D2/D3 receptor positron emission tomography (PET) ligand (18) F-Fallypride ([(18) F]FP).
Twelve patients with JME and 21 age-matched control subjects were studied. Dynamic images (180 min) were acquired after injection of [(18) F]FP.

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Apr
2010

Partial volume effects caused by limited spatial resolution of conventional positron emission tomography (PET) scanners result in an underestimation of the activity concentration in small tumours. The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of small animal tumour imaging with the clinical PET scanner ECAT EXACT after partial volume correction based on MRI calculations. The same tumour model was examined additionally with the small animal PET system, microPET focus 120.

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Feb
2010

PET studies with the DOPA decarboxylase substrate 6-[(18)F]fluoro-l-DOPA (FDOPA) reveal the storage of [(18)F]-fluorodopamine within synaptic vesicles, mainly of dopamine fibres. As such, FDOPA PET is a sensitive indicator of the integrity of the nigrostriatal dopamine innervation. Nonetheless, there have been several reports of focal elevations of FDOPA utilization in brain of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), all based on reference tissue methods.

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May
2010

Dopamine (DA) modulates the response of the amygdala. However, the relation between dopaminergic neurotransmission in striatal and extrastriatal brain regions and amygdala reactivity to affective stimuli has not yet been established. To address this issue, we measured DA D2/D3 receptor (DRD2/3) availability in twenty-eight healthy men (nicotine-dependent smokers and never-smokers) using positron emission tomography with [18F]fallypride.

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Mar
2010

Outcome from acute subdural hematoma is often worse than would be expected from the pure increase of intracranial volume by bleeding. The aim was to test whether volume-independent pathomechanisms aggravate damage by comparing the effects of blood infusion with those of an inert fluid, paraffin oil, on intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), local cerebral blood flow (CBF), edema formation, glucose metabolism ([18F]-deoxyglucose, MicroPET ), and histological outcome. Rats were injured by subdural infusion of 300 muL venous blood or paraffin.

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Apr
2010

Animal and functional imaging studies had identified cortical structures such as the parieto-insular vestibular cortex, the retro-insular cortex, or the anterior cingulate cortex belonging to a vestibular cortical network. Basic animal studies revealed that endorphins might be important transmitters involved in cerebral vestibular processing. The aim of the present study was therefore to analyse whether the opioid system is involved in vestibular neurotransmission of humans or not.

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Jan
2010

The endogenous opioid system is involved in many body functions including pain processing and analgesia. To determine the role of basal opioid receptor availability in the brain in pain perception, twenty-three healthy subjects underwent positron emission tomography (PET) utilizing the subtype-nonselective opioid antagonist [(18)F]diprenorphine, quantitative sensory testing (QST) and the cold pressor test. Binding potentials (BPs) were calculated using a non-invasive reference tissue model and statistical parametric mapping was applied for t-statistical analysis on a voxelwise basis.

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Mar
2010

Alterations in dopamine neurotransmission in animal models of epilepsies have been frequently demonstrated using invasive neuroscience or ex vivo techniques. We aimed to test whether corresponding alterations could be detected by noninvasive in vivo brain imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) in the chronic phase of the rat pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.
Six pilocarpine-treated Wistar rats exhibiting spontaneous recurrent seizures and nine control rats were studied with PET using [(18)F]-fallypride, a high-affinity dopamine D(2/3) receptor ligand.

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Dec
2008

To elucidate the "atypicality" of ziprasidone, its striatal and extrastriatal D2/D3-receptor binding was characterized in patients with schizophrenia under steady-state conditions. These data were compared with striatal receptor occupancy values after single-dose ziprasidone ingestion in healthy controls. [F]fallypride positron emission tomography (PET) recordings were obtained in 15 patients under steady-state ziprasidone treatment at varying time points after the last dose.

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Dec
2008

Dopamine is released under stress and modulates processing of aversive stimuli. We found that dopamine storage capacity in human amygdala, measured with 6-[(18)F]fluoro-L-DOPA positron emission tomography, was positively correlated with functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes in amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex that were evoked by aversive stimuli. Furthermore, functional connectivity between these two regions was inversely related to trait anxiety.

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Nov
2008

At present, there is still no consensus on the choice of the reference area in positron emission tomography (PET) studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, PET scans with fluorodeoxyglucose-F18 were carried out in the following groups of subjects: 47 patients with probable AD, 8 patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 15 age-similar healthy subjects. Scans normalized to the cerebral global mean (CGM), cerebellum (CBL), and the primary sensorimotor cortex (SMC).

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Jan
2009

Statistical comparisons of [(18)F]FDG PET scans between healthy subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) usually require normalization of regional tracer uptake via ROIs defined using additional software. Here, we validate a simple SPM-based method for count normalization. FDG PET scans of 21 mild, 15 very mild AD, 11 aMCI patients and 15 age-matched controls were analyzed.

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Aug
2008

Little is known about the neurobiologic correlates of human personality. On the basis of the key role of the central opioidergic system in addiction and substance abuse, we investigated the relationship between certain personality traits that are supposed to be relevant in addiction and the opioid receptor status in healthy subjects.
We investigated 23 healthy male volunteers who were extensively clinically tested to exclude substance abuse.

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