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Author: Hans-Jochen Heinze (283)


Feb
2018

The capture of attention by substance-related stimuli in dependent users is a major factor in the maintenance and/or cessation of substance use. The present study examined the automaticity of this process in smokers, as well as the effects of craving. Event-related potential (ERP) measures of spatial-attention allocation (N2pc) and extended target processing (SPCN) were isolated during an object-substitution masking (OSM) task that disrupted the perceptual visibility of smoking-related and office-related targets.

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Jan
2018

Fatigue is one of the most common and debilitating symptoms affecting patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Sustained cognitive effort induces cognitive fatigue, operationalized as subjective exhaustion and fatigue-related objective alertness decrements with time-on-task. During prolonged cognitive testing, MS patients show increased simple reaction times (RT) accompanied by lower amplitudes and prolonged latencies of the P300 event-related potential.

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Dec
1969

In brain-computer interface (BCI) applications the detection of neural processing as revealed by event-related potentials (ERPs) is a frequently used approach to regain communication for people unable to interact through any peripheral muscle control. However, the commonly used electroencephalography (EEG) provides signals of low signal-to-noise ratio, making the systems slow and inaccurate. As an alternative noninvasive recording technique, the magnetoencephalography (MEG) could provide more advantageous electrophysiological signals due to a higher number of sensors and the magnetic fields not being influenced by volume conduction.

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Oct
2017

Task-irrelevant visual stimuli can enhance auditory perception. However, while there is some neurophysiological evidence for mechanisms that underlie the phenomenon, the neural basis of visually induced effects on auditory perception remains unknown. Combining fMRI and EEG with psychophysical measurements in two independent studies, we identified the neural underpinnings and temporal dynamics of visually induced auditory enhancement.

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Oct
2017

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with deterioration of memory and cognitive function and a degeneration of neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM). The NBM is the major input source of acetylcholine (ACh) to the cortex. The decreasing cholinergic innervation of the cortex due to degeneration of the NBM might be the cause of loss of memory function.

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Oct
2017

Attention can facilitate the selection of elementary object features such as color, orientation, or motion. This is referred to as feature-based attention and it is commonly attributed to a modulation of the gain and tuning of feature-selective units in visual cortex. Although gain mechanisms are well characterized, little is known about the cortical processes underlying the sharpening of feature selectivity.

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Aug
2017

The present study investigated the neural correlates associated with gait improvements triggered by an active prosthesis in patients with drop-foot following stroke during the chronic stage. Eleven patients took part in the study. MEG recordings in conjunction with somatosensory stimulation of the left and right hand as well as gait analyses were performed shortly before or after prosthesis implantation surgery and 3-4 months later.

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Dec
1969

While hypercholesterolemia plays a causative role for the development of ischemic stroke in large vessels, its significance for cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) remains unclear. We thus aimed to understand the detailed relationship between hypercholesterolemia and CSVD using the well described Ldlr-/- mouse model.
We used Ldlr-/- mice (n = 16) and wild-type (WT) mice (n = 15) at the age of 6 and 12 months.

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Dec
1969

Cross-frequency coupling (CFC) between slow and fast brain rhythms, in the form of phase-amplitude coupling (PAC), is proposed to enable the coordination of neural oscillatory activity required for cognitive processing. PAC has been identified in the neocortex and mesial temporal regions, varying according to the cognitive task being performed and also at rest. PAC has also been observed in the anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN) during memory processing.

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Dec
1969

Neural oscillations in the gamma range are the dominant rhythmic activation pattern in the human auditory cortex. These gamma oscillations are functionally relevant for the processing of rapidly changing acoustic information in both speech and non-speech sounds. Accordingly, there is a tight link between the temporal resolution ability of the auditory system and inherent neural gamma oscillations.

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Jun
2017

The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of age on thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) in essential tremor (ET). Tremor, cognition, mood and adverse events in patients with thalamic DBS for ET were evaluated in 26 consecutive patients with established standardized methods for tremor and cognition. Twelve patients <70 and 14 patients ≥70 years were included and followed for 2 years.

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Dec
1969

Chronic pain is suggested to be linked to reorganization processes in the sensorimotor cortex. In the current study, the somatosensory representation of the extremities was investigated in a patient with a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) that initially occurred in the right hand and arm and spread later into the left hand and right leg. After the spread, magnetoencephalographic recordings in conjunction with somatosensory stimulation revealed that the clinical symptoms were associated with major changes in the primary somatosensory representation.

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Dec
1969

The brain's connectivity skeleton-a rich club of strongly interconnected members-was initially shown to exist in human structural networks, but recent evidence suggests a functional counterpart. This rich club typically includes key regions (or hubs) from multiple canonical networks, reducing the cost of inter-network communication. The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a hub node embedded within the default mode network, is known to facilitate communication between brain networks and is a key member of the "rich club.

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May
2017

Non-amyloid cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) may be interrelated through the damaged basement membranes (BMs) and extracellular matrix changes of small vessels, resulting in a failure of β-amyloid (Aβ) transport and degradation. We analyzed BM changes and the pattern of deposition of Aβ in the walls of blood vessels in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP), a non-transgenic CSVD model. In 45 SHRSP and 38 Wistar rats aged 18 to 32 weeks: (i) the percentage area immunostained for vascular collagen IV and laminin was quantified; (ii) the capillary BM thickness as well as endothelial and pericyte pathological changes were analysed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM); and (iii) the presence of vascular Aβ was assessed.

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Feb
2017

The current knowledge about neuroprotective mechanisms in humans after status epilepticus is scarce. One reason is the difficulty to measure possible mediators of these neuroprotective mechanisms. The dawn of microRNA detection in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the recent advancements in measuring proteins in the CSF such as progranulin, which is, e.

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Jan
2017

Recent studies suggest that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) lie on a single clinical continuum. However, previous neuroimaging studies have found only limited involvement of temporal lobe regions in ALS. To better delineate possible temporal lobe involvement in ALS, the present study aimed to examine changes in functional connectivity across the whole brain, particularly with regard to extra-motor regions, in a group of 64 non-demented ALS patients and 38 healthy controls.

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Dec
1969

Instrumental learning and decision-making rely on two parallel systems: a goal-directed and a habitual system. In the past decade, several paradigms have been developed to study these systems in animals and humans by means of e.g.

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Feb
2017

When faced with difficult decisions, people prefer to stay with the default. This status quo bias often leads to suboptimal choice behavior. Neurophysiological evidence suggests a pivot role of the Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) for overcoming such status quo bias in difficult decisions, but causal evidence is lacking.

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Nov
2016

For many smokers, the motivational state of craving is a central feature of their dependence on nicotine, and is often at odds with a general desire to quit. How this desire to quit may influence the craving for a cigarette, however, is unclear. In the current study, we manipulated the level of craving in 24 regular smokers, and recorded EEG measures of brain activity during a rare target detection task utilizing addiction-unrelated stimuli.

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Oct
2016

Addicted individuals continue substance use despite the knowledge of harmful consequences and often report having no choice but to consume. Computational psychiatry accounts have linked this clinical observation to difficulties in making flexible and goal-directed decisions in dynamic environments via consideration of potential alternative choices. To probe this in alcohol-dependent patients (n = 43) versus healthy volunteers (n = 35), human participants performed an anticorrelated decision-making task during functional neuroimaging.

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Dec
1969

Aim of the present study was to investigate potential impairment of non-motor areas in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). In particular, we evaluated whether homotopic resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of non-motor associated cortical areas correlates with clinical parameters and disease-specific degeneration of the corpus callosum (CC) in ALS.
Interhemispheric homotopic rs-FC was assessed in 31 patients and 30 healthy controls (HCs) for 8 cortical sites, from prefrontal to occipital cortex, using NIRS.

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May
2017

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has shown decreased glutamate levels in patients with major depressive disorder. Subanesthetic doses of ketamine were repeatedly shown to improve depressive symptoms within 24 h after infusion and this antidepressant effect was attributed to increased α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) throughput. To elucidate ketamine's mechanism of action, we tested whether the clinical time course of the improvement is mirrored by the change of glutamine/glutamate ratio and if such effects show a regional and temporal specificity in two distinct subdivisions of ACC with different AMPA/N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor profiles.

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Dec
2016

It has been suggested that over the course of an addiction, addiction-related stimuli become highly salient in the environment, thereby capturing an addict's attention. To assess these effects neurally in smokers, and how they interact with craving, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) in two sessions: one in which participants had just smoked (non-craving), and one in which they had abstained from smoking for 3 h (craving). In both sessions, participants performed a visual-search task in which two colored squares were presented to the left and right of fixation, with one color being the target to which they should shift attention and discriminate the locations of two missing corners.

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Nov
2016

The measurement of autoregulatory delay by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been proposed as an alternative technique to assess cerebral autoregulation, which is routinely assessed via transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) in most centers. Comparitive studies of NIRS and TCD, however, are largely missing. We investigated whether cerebrovascular reserve (CVR), as assessed via TCD, correlates with the delay of the autoregulatory response to changes in arterial blood pressure (ABP) as assessed by NIRS, i.

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Sep
2016

The data presented here comprise clinical, neuropsychological, and intrathalamic electrophysiological data from 7 patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy and are related to the article "Pre-stimulus thalamic theta power predicts human memory formation" C.M. Sweeney-Reed, T.

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Oct
2016

The human nucleus accumbens is thought to play an important role in guiding future action selection via an evaluation of current action outcomes. Here we provide electrophysiological evidence for a more direct, i.e.

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Oct
2016

The relationships between interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in the anterior (ANT) and dorsomedial nuclei (DMNT) of the thalamus and electro-clinical parameters in pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy patients receiving intrathalamic electrodes for deep brain stimulation (DBS) were investigated. Thalamus-localized IEDs (LIEDs) and surface EEG (sEEG)-IEDs were evaluated in eight patients who underwent ANT-DBS. Occurrence and frequency of ANT- and DMNT-LIEDs and pre-operative sEEG-IEDs were examined with respect to seizure onset location and seizure outcome following ANT-DBS.

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Feb
2017

Despite its clinical relevance and the recent recognition as a diagnostic category in the DSM-5, binge eating disorder (BED) has rarely been investigated from a cognitive neuroscientific perspective targeting a more precise neurocognitive profiling of the disorder. BED patients suffer from a lack of behavioral control during recurrent binge eating episodes and thus fail to adapt their behavior in the face of negative consequences, eg, high risk for obesity. To examine impairments in flexible reward-based decision-making, we exposed BED patients (n=22) and matched healthy individuals (n=22) to a reward-guided decision-making task during functional resonance imaging (fMRI).

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Dec
1969

Predictive coding theories posit that neural networks learn statistical regularities in the environment for comparison with actual outcomes, signaling a prediction error (PE) when sensory deviation occurs. PE studies in audition have capitalized on low-frequency event-related potentials (LF-ERPs), such as the mismatch negativity. However, local cortical activity is well-indexed by higher-frequency bands [high-γ band (Hγ): 80-150 Hz].

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Sep
2016

Pre-stimulus theta (4-8Hz) power in the hippocampus and neocortex predicts whether a memory for a subsequent event will be formed. Anatomical studies reveal thalamus-hippocampal connectivity, and lesion, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological studies show that memory processing involves the dorsomedial (DMTN) and anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN). The small size and deep location of these nuclei have limited real-time study of their activity, however, and it is unknown whether pre-stimulus theta power predictive of successful memory formation is also found in these subcortical structures.

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Dec
1969

The parapontine nucleus of the thalamus (PPN) is a neuromodulatory midbrain structure with widespread connectivity to cortical and subcortical motor structures, as well as the spinal cord. The PPN also projects to the thalamus, including visual relay nuclei like the LGN and the pulvinar. Moreover, there is intense connectivity with sensory structures of the tegmentum in particular with the superior colliculus (SC).

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Aug
2016

Reward-associated visual features have been shown to capture visual attention, evidenced in faster and more accurate behavioral performance, as well as in neural responses reflecting lateralized shifts of visual attention to those features. Specifically, the contralateral N2pc event-related-potential (ERP) component that reflects attentional shifting exhibits increased amplitude in response to task-relevant targets containing a reward-associated feature. In the present study, we examined the automaticity of such reward-association effects using object-substitution masking (OSM) in conjunction with MEG measures of visual attentional shifts.

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Dec
1969

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects upper and lower motor neurons. Observational and intervention studies can be tracked using clinical measures such as the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) but for a complete understanding of disease progression, objective in vivo biomarkers of both central and peripheral motor pathway pathology are highly desirable. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of structural and diffusion imaging as central nervous system biomarkers compared to the standard clinical measure, ALSFRS-R, to track longitudinal evolution using three time-point measurements.

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Mar
2017

While chronic kidney disease seems to be an independent risk factor for cognitive decline, its impact on cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) depositions, one hallmark of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathology, has not been investigated. Utilizing 80 male nontransgenic spontaneously hypertensive stroke prone rats (SHRSP) at various ages (12 to 44 weeks), tubulointerstitial renal damage, prevalence of cerebral microhemorrhages and Aβ accumulations were quantified. Using age-adjusted general linear models we investigated the main and interaction effects of renal damage and cerebral microhemorrhages on cerebral Aβ load.

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Aug
2016

Behavioral control is influenced not only by learning from the choices made and the rewards obtained but also by "what might have happened," that is, inference about unchosen options and their fictive outcomes. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the neural signatures of direct learning from choices that are actually made and their associated rewards via reward prediction errors (RPEs). However, electrophysiological correlates of abstract inference in decision-making are less clear.

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Dec
1969

The alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a fascinating movement disorder. Patients with AHS experience one of their limbs as alien, which acts autonomously and performs meaningful movements without being guided by the intention of the patient. Here, we report a case of a 74-years old lady diagnosed with an atypical Parkinson syndrome by possible corticobasal degeneration.

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Dec
1969

Addiction shows familial aggregation and previous endophenotype research suggests that healthy relatives of addicted individuals share altered behavioral and cognitive characteristics with individuals suffering from addiction. In this study we asked whether impairments in behavioral control proposed for addiction, namely a shift from goal-directed, model-based toward habitual, model-free control, extends toward an unaffected sample (n = 20) of adult children of alcohol-dependent fathers as compared to a sample without any personal or family history of alcohol addiction (n = 17). Using a sequential decision-making task designed to investigate model-free and model-based control combined with a computational modeling analysis, we did not find any evidence for altered behavioral control in individuals with a positive family history of alcohol addiction.

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Mar
2016

Action selection in the basal ganglia is often described within the framework of a standard model, associating low dopaminergic drive with motor suppression. Whilst powerful, this model does not explain several clinical and experimental data, including varying therapeutic efficacy across movement disorders. We tested the predictions of this model in patients with Parkinson's disease, on and off subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS), focussing on adaptive sensory-motor responses to a changing environment and maintenance of an action until it is no longer suitable.

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Apr
2016

Resting-state fMRI studies have gained widespread use in exploratory studies of neuropsychiatric disorders. Graph metrics derived from whole brain functional connectivity studies have been used to reveal disease-related variations in many neuropsychiatric disorders including major depression (MDD). These techniques show promise in developing diagnostics for these often difficult to identify disorders.

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Apr
2016

Besides motor problems, Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with detrimental emotional and cognitive functioning. Deficient explicit emotional processing has been observed, whilst patients also show impaired Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities. However, it is unclear whether this PD patients' ToM deficit is based on an inability to infer otherś emotional states or whether it is due to explicit emotional processing deficits.

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Dec
1969

In this study we investigated whether peripheral nerve sonography could be used as a biomarker to monitor disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
In 37 patients, ulnar and median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA) was determined in at least 2 ultrasound sessions; mean follow-up was 14.5 months.

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Feb
2016

Speech-related disorders may refer to impairment of temporal analysis in the human auditory system. By the advance of non-invasive brain stimulation new forms of therapy arise. In the present study, we examined the neuromodulatory effect of auditory tDCS on the perception of temporal modulated speech syllables.

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Apr
2016

When a stimulus is associated with a reward, it becomes prioritized, and the allocation of attention to that stimulus increases. For low-level features, such as color, this reward-based allocation of attention can manifest early in time and as a faster and stronger shift of attention to targets with that color, as reflected by the N2pc (a parieto-occipital electrophysiological component peaking at ∼250 msec). It is unknown, however, if reward associations can similarly modulate attentional shifts to complex objects or object categories, or if reward-related modulation of attentional allocation to such stimuli would occur later in time or through a different mechanism.

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Dec
2015

The theory of embodied cognition claims that knowledge is represented in modal systems derived from perception. Recent behavioral studies found evidence for this hypothesis, for example, by linking moral purity with physical cleansing (the Macbeth effect). Neurophysiological approaches provided further support by showing an involvement of sensorimotor cortices for embodied metaphors.

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Dec
1969

The functional role of the alpha-rhythm which dominates the human electroencephalogram (EEG) is unclear. It has been related to visual processing, attentional selection and object coherence, respectively. Here we tested the interaction of alpha oscillations of the human brain with visual search tasks that differed in their attentional demands (pre-attentive vs.

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Dec
1969

The locus coeruleus (LC) is the sole source of noradrenergic projections to the cortex and essential for attention-dependent cognitive processes. In this study we used unilateral optogenetic silencing of the LC in an attentional set-shifting task (ASST) to evaluate the influence of the LC on prefrontal cortex-dependent functions in mice. We expressed the halorhodopsin eNpHR 3.

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Nov
2015

Gait dysfunction due to lower limb central paralysis, frequently involving drop foot, is a common cause of disability in multiple sclerosis and has been treated with transcutaneous functional electrical stimulation (FES). We provide here the first report of 4-channel semi-implantable FES of the peroneal nerve which has been successfully used for rehabilitation in patients following stroke.
FES was implemented via a 4-channel semi-implantable closed-loop system (ActiGait(®), ©Ottobock), generating dorsiflexion in drop foot.

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Dec
1969

Animal models point towards a key role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mediating exercise-induced structural and functional changes in the hippocampus. Recently, also platelet derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) has been shown to promote blood vessel growth and neuronal survival. Moreover, reductions of these neurotrophic and angiogenic factors in old age have been related to hippocampal atrophy, decreased vascularization and cognitive decline.

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