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Author: Hayley A Kennedy (9)


Dec
1969

There is substantial evidence for facial emotion recognition (FER) deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The extent of this impairment, however, remains unclear, and there is some suggestion that clinical groups might benefit from the use of dynamic rather than static images. High-functioning individuals with ASD (n = 36) and typically developing controls (n = 36) completed a computerised FER task involving static and dynamic expressions of the six basic emotions.

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Dec
1969

Biomedical treatment options for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are extremely limited. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a safe and efficacious technique when targeting specific areas of cortical dysfunction in major depressive disorder, and a similar approach could yield therapeutic benefits in ASD, if applied to relevant cortical regions.
The aim of this study was to examine whether deep rTMS to bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex improves social relating in ASD.

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Dec
1969

The mirror neuron hypothesis of autism is highly controversial, in part because there are conflicting reports as to whether putative indices of mirror system activity are actually deficient in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent evidence suggests that a typical putative mirror system response may be seen in people with an ASD when there is a degree of social relevance to the visual stimuli used to elicit that response. Individuals with ASD (n = 32) and matched neurotypical controls (n = 32) completed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiment in which the left primary motor cortex (M1) was stimulated during the observation of static hands, individual (i.

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May
2013

Mounting evidence suggests a possible role for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the neuropathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but the extent of this impairment is unclear. A non-invasive, in vivo measure of GABA involves transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex to probe cortical inhibition. Individuals diagnosed with ASD (high-functioning autism or Asperger's disorder) (n = 36 [28 male]; mean age: 26.

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Feb
2012

Mirror neurons are thought to facilitate emotion processing, but it is unclear whether the valence of an emotional presentation (positive or negative) can influence subsequent mirror neuron activity. Participants completed a transcranial magnetic stimulation experiment that involved stimulation of the primary motor cortex, and electromyography recording from contralateral hand muscles. This was performed while participants viewed videos of either a static hand or a transitive hand action preceded by either a positive or negative stimulus.

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Mar
2012

The neurobiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not particularly well understood, and biomedical treatment approaches are therefore extremely limited. A prominent explanatory model suggests that social-relating symptoms may arise from dysfunction within the mirror neuron system, while a recent neuroimaging study suggests that these impairments in ASD might reduce with age.
Participants with autism spectrum disorder (i.

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May
2011

The observation of other's behaviour results in increased corticospinal excitability (CSE) within the primary motor cortex, a phenomenon that has typically been interpreted in the context of motor resonance and human "mirror systems". Mirror systems are implicated in empathy, and may therefore show a preferential response to the observation of interactive behaviour. Participants were administered transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the primary motor cortex while viewing matched hand movements with or without (1) an interactive context and (2) an interactive context with an implied heightened emotional aspect.

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Mar
2011

There are currently no biomedical treatments targeting the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Considering evidence for cortical dysfunction in ASD, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been discussed as a potential therapeutic technique.
We describe the application of a new type of rTMS, deep rTMS, to the bilateral medial prefrontal cortex in a young woman with a high-functioning ASD.

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Jul
2010

Putative measures of mirror neuron activity suggest that mirror neurons respond preferentially to biological motion, but it remains unclear whether enhanced cortical activity occurs during the observation of any behaviour, or whether that behaviour needs to be associated with a particular object or goal. Forty-three healthy adults completed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiment that assessed corticospinal excitability while viewing intransitive and transitive hand gestures (compared with the presentation of a static hand). Visual presentations were designed to control for motoric and stimulus properties.

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