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Author: Helmut Nakovics (16)


Mar
2018

Randomized trials of medications for alcohol dependence (AD) often report no differences between active medications. Few studies in AD have tested hypotheses regarding which medication will work best for which patients (ie, precision medicine). The PREDICT study tested acamprosate and naltrexone vs placebo in 426 randomly assigned AD patients in a 3-month treatment.

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Feb
2015

Alcohol consumption has been suggested to be associated with a dysregulation in habit formation and execution in dependent patients. Although there are established craving questionnaires assessing various components of craving, to our knowledge, no questionnaire exists to assess habitual and automated substance intake. In this study, we present and validate the "Craving Automated Scale for Alcohol" (CAS-A), a newly developed questionnaire assessing craving and other components of automated addictive behavior.

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Jan
2012

A wide range of studies found that opiate-dependent patients suffer from cognitive impairment due to a number of different factors. However, this issue has never been examined systematically. Thus, the aim of the present study is to provide a comprehensive analysis of factors that might contribute to cognitive impairment of opiate-dependent patients and specifically differentiates between various cognitive abilities as these might be impacted differently.

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Dec
1969

Perceived stigmatization of drug addicts may interact with negative mood states and thus may contribute to the maintenance of addictive behavior.
Opiate maintenance patients (n = 106) and an unselected comparison group (n = 144) rated self-report questionnaires about perceived stigmatization, quality of life (QoL), depressiveness, anxiety, self-esteem, addiction characteristics, and social support.
63% of opiate maintenance patients felt discriminated in contrast to 16% of the comparison group.

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Dec
1969

Several authors suggest that withdrawal from alcohol could cause neurotoxic lesions in the frontal lobe and thereby affect cognitive function. In line with this, previous studies have demonstrated greater cognitive impairment of alcohol-dependent patients with two or more previous detoxifications (Hi-detox) compared with patients with less than two detoxifications (Lo-detox). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether repeated withdrawal from alcohol affects recovery of cognitive function and is related to relapse.

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Dec
1969

In the general hospital setting, alcohol-use disorders very commonly remain undetected.
The authors hypothesized that including a consultation-liaison (C-L) psychiatrist in primary-care rounds would improve detection rates of alcohol-use-disorders.
Patients (N=165) on two medical wards were screened by means of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test.

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May
2010

Preclinical data suggest modulating effects of both orexin/hypocretin and leptin on dopaminergic transmission in mesolimbic reward pathways. This indicates a possible role of both peptides in reward function and motivation, and thus in addictive diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the possible association between orexin and leptin, and nicotine craving in smokers in a clinical case-control study under standardized conditions.

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May
2010

In the present study, the effect of previous detoxifications on prefrontal function and decision making was examined in alcohol-dependent patients. Further, we examined whether the length of abstinence affects cognitive function.
Forty-eight alcohol-dependent patients were recruited from an inpatient detoxification treatment facility and cognitive function was compared to a control group of 36 healthy controls.

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Mar
2009

Based on the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) we developed and validated the Mannheimer Craving Scale (MaCS) for quantitative measurements of craving across different substances and suitable for multiple substance abuse.
The MaCS questionnaire measures obsessive-compulsive symptoms in the context of substance abuse and dependence similar to the OCDS. The MaCS consists of 12 items and 4 additional items.

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Oct
2008

Since the application of the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) has been reported to be problematic when used to measure alcohol craving in longitudinal studies, we examined the following questions: (1) Is it possible to skip problematic quantity items? (2) Is the score calculation rule using the higher value of item pairs necessary? (3) Can the shortened version of the OCDS be applied alternatively? We examined two samples including a total of 355 alcohol-dependent patients: a multi center study sample (n=149) and a validation control sample (n=206). Neither an advantage of the score calculation rule nor the necessity of including items regarding alcohol consumption could be demonstrated. The exclusion of consumption items lead to a clear, stable 2-factor structure with a maximum stability (.

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Dec
1969

Previous studies demonstrated an attenuation of the affect-modulated startle reflex when alcohol-dependent patients were viewing alcohol-associated pictures. This indicates an appetitive valence of these stimuli. We used the affect-modulated startle reflex to assess the effects of behavioral treatment on the emotional processing of alcohol-associated stimuli.

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Sep
2007

Onset and course of alcohol dependence show gender related differences (telescoping effect) suggesting that women are more vulnerable to chronic alcohol consumption. This raises the question whether the differences are associated with a different treatment outcome as well. We hypothesized, that alcohol dependent women with a telescoping course show a less favourable treatment outcome compared to men.

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Oct
2006

To investigate interleukin-18 (IL-18) in patients with chronic panreatitis (CP).
We studied 29 patients with CP and 30 healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and incubated with 50 mmol/L ethanol, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (doses 25 g/L, 250 g/L, 2500 g/L) and both agents for 24 h.

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Aug
2006

Treatment with acamprosate, a compound used for relapse prevention treatment of alcoholism, was recently shown to be associated with increased plasma concentration of beta-endorphin in rats selectively bred for high alcohol preference. The aim of our study was to prove this result in a comparative clinical study with a corresponding design. We studied 51 alcohol dependent patients following alcohol withdrawal during treatment with acamprosate versus placebo for 4 weeks.

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Apr
2006

This pilot study has been designed to collect preliminary data on the use of a new antiepileptic drug in the management of alcoholic patients. Oxcarbazepine (OXC) blocks voltage-sensitive sodium channels. Its metabolite reduces high-voltage-activated calcium currents in striatal and cortical neurons, thus reducing glutamatergic transmission at corticostriatal synapses.

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Apr
2005

Currently, there is no agreement among researchers on the definition of craving and its underlying theoretical model. The Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) seems to measure certain aspects of craving, but its theoretical basis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the structure of alcohol craving, using OCDS data.

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