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Author: Hsiang-Jung Tsai (37)


Dec
1969

Since 2013, rabies cases have been reported among Formosan ferret badgers in Taiwan, and they have been shown to be the major reservoirs for Taiwanese enzootics. To control and eradicate rabies, the authorities plan to implement a vaccination programme. Before distributing live vaccines in the field, this study assessed the safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity of SAG2 vaccine on ferret badgers by direct oral instillation.

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Jan
2017

The sequence at the hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site (CS) plays a key role in determining the pathogenicity of avian influenza viruses. Three types of HA CS sequences, QREKR/GL, QRKKR/GL and QRRKR/GL, were previously reported in Taiwanese H5N2 viruses that were isolated from chickens from 2003 to 2013. However, no HA CS sequence was reported for viruses isolated after 2013.

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Jun
2016

Clostridium perfringens infection causes subclinical and clinical necrotic enteritis in poultry flocks, and it is estimated to result in US$2 billion of losses worldwide every year. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence, toxin types, and antimicrobial resistance levels to C. perfringens isolated from premarket, 5-wk-old, clinically healthy broiler chickens in Taiwan, and to examine the relationships between intestinal lesions and the numbers of C.

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Aug
2016

Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) is a public health concern and infected chickens serve as a reservoir that potentially transmits to humans through food. Although SE seldom causes systemic disease in chickens, virulent SE strains can colonize in intestines and lead a persistent infection of the liver. The liver is the primary organ for lipid metabolism in chickens and the site for production and assembly of main components in yolk.

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Jun
2016

Many studies suggest significant genetic variation in the resistance of cattle and humans to infection with Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), the causative agent of zoonotic tuberculosis. TNF-α promotes inflammation and induces apoptosis in response to mycobacterial infection.

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Dec
2015

The intracellular parasite Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) causes tuberculosis in cattle and humans. Understanding the interactions between M.

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Feb
2016

Many studies suggest significant genetic variation in the resistance of cattle and humans to infection with Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of zoonotic tuberculosis. The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS which is encoded by the NOS2 gene) plays a key role in the immunological control of a broad spectrum of infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the influence of genetic variations in the promoter of the NOS2 gene on bovine tuberculosis (bTB) susceptibility.

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Oct
2015

Fifteen ferret badgers (Melogale moschata subaurantiaca), collected 2010-13 and stored frozen, were submitted for rabies diagnosis by direct fluorescent antibody test and reverse transcription PCR. We detected seven positive animal samples, including some from 2010, which indicated that the ferret badger population in Taiwan had been affected by rabies prior to 2010.

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Nov
2015

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was first identified in Taiwan in 1991, but the genetic diversity and evolution of PRRSV has not been thoroughly investigated over the past 20 years. The aim of this study was to bridge the gap in understanding of its molecular epidemiology. A total of 31 PRRSV strains were collected and sequenced.

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Dec
2014

Infection by Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) causes decreased egg production in laying hens. Immunoresponse, steroidogenesis, and cell proliferation by chicken granulosa cells (cGCs) are of particular interest because these changes are involved in follicular growth, atresia, and ovulation. To elucidate the possible mechanisms underlying these changes, transcriptional alterations in cGCs at distinct stages of follicular maturity were studied.

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Oct
2014

Bovine ephemeral fever is an arthropod-borne bovine viral disease caused by infection with bovine ephemeral fever virus which belongs to genus Ephemerovirus within the family Rhabdoviridae. In this study, serological data and virological information about the disease and the virus, spanning from 2001 to 2013, were employed to analyze the relationships of bovine ephemeral fever epizootics to population immunity and virus variation. National and regional surveillance data indicated that 2 of the 3 major epizootics and 87% regional outbreaks were associated with lower neutralizing antibody titers and immunity coverage, reflecting the importance of population immunity for the control of bovine ephemeral fever.

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Apr
2016

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and swine vesicular disease (SVD) are serious vesicular diseases that have devastated swine populations throughout the world. The aim of this study was to develop a multianalyte profiling (xMAP) Luminex assay for the differential detection of antibodies to the FMD virus of structural proteins (SP) and nonstructural proteins (NSP).
After the xMAP was optimized, it detected antibodies to SP-VP1 and NSP-3ABC of the FMD virus in a single serum sample.

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Dec
1969

The following complete molecular diagnostic procedure we developed, based on real-time quantitative PCR and traditional PCR, is effective for avian influenza surveillance, virus subtyping, and viral genome sequencing.
This study provides a specific and sensitive step-by-step procedure for efficient avian influenza identification of 16 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase avian influenza subtypes.
This diagnostic procedure may prove exceedingly useful for virological and ecological advancements in global avian influenza research.

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Nov
2014

Foot-and-mouth disease virus, a member of genus Aphthovirus within the family Picornaviridae, affects cloven-hoofed animals, causing foot-and-mouth disease characterized by vesicle development. The Southeast Asia topotype, one of the topotypes within serotype O of the virus, is prevalent in some Asian countries, but had not previously been found in Taiwan. The topotype was first found in pigs in Kinmen Island, Taiwan, in 2012 and identified by nucleotide sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis.

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Feb
2014

Dog-to-dog transmission of rabies in Taiwan was eliminated in 1961; the island was considered canine rabies-free for 52 years. On July 16, 2013, three ferret-badgers (Melogale moschata) tested positive for rabies by fluorescent antibody testing at the Animal Health Research Institute, Council of Agriculture of Taiwan. This was the first time wild animals other than bats were tested.

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Jun
2014

The porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is the most common disease in commercial pork production worldwide. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), the most important agents of PRDC, usually co-infect in the same pigs. In order to survey the prevalence of PCV2 and PRRSV in pigs of various ages, a duplex reverse transcription real-time PCR (DRT-rPCR) was developed and applied in the present study.

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May
2014

Bluetongue virus is the etiological agent of bluetongue, one of the most important insect-transmitted animal diseases in the world. To establish a feasible diagnostic procedure for detecting the viral RNA, seven commercially available one-step RT-PCR kits in combination with three primer sets were evaluated. Results of this study showed remarkable differences in analytical sensitivity between the examined RT-PCR kits.

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Jan
2014

A previously unidentified strain of avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV) is now endemic among chickens in Taiwan. Analysis showed that the virus is 81.5%-86.

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Oct
2013

Foot-and mouth disease (FMD), swine vesicular disease (SVD), and vesicular stomatitis (VS) are highly contagious vesicular diseases of swine but are not easy to differentiate clinically. For the purpose of instant detecting of FMD and differentiating it from the other vesicular diseases, a Luminex assay was developed. Sera from 64 infected, 307 vaccinated, and 280 naïve pigs were tested by the Luminex assay.

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Jan
2012

The cat gene, coding for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase has been reported for conferring the chloramphenicol resistance for Riemerella anatipestifer. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferases, however, are unable to inactivate florfenicol. In this study, 66 R.

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Aug
2011

The presence of serum antibodies for nonstructural proteins of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can differentiate FMDV-infected animals from vaccinated animals. In this study, a sandwich ELISA was developed for rapid detection of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) antibodies; it was based on an Escherichia coli-expressed, highly conserved region of the 3ABC nonstructural protein of the FMDV O/TW/99 strain and a monoclonal antibody derived from the expressed protein. The diagnostic sensitivity of the assay was 98.

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Nov
2010

It remains unclear whether the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on a ready-to-eat (RTE) meat matrix has an impact on the bacterium's pathogenic abilities. In this study, we investigated the impact of environments on virulence by growing L. monocytogenes (F2365 strain) on brain heart infusion agar (BHI), tryptic soy agar (TSA), and RTE turkey meat matrices.

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Oct
2010

Riemerella anatipestifer is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause disease in a wide range of wild and domesticated birds, especially waterfowl. The presence of an antibiotic-resistance gene in R. anatipestifer has not yet been reported, indicating the need for investigation.

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Aug
2010

Consumption of eggs contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has been recognized as one of the important causes of human foodborne salmonellosis. Chicken granulosa cells (cGCs) comprise the last tissue layer surrounding the yolk in preovulatory follicles and are a preferred site for SE invasion. To understand the cGC response to SE infection, we conducted an in vitro time-course study to identify cGC transcriptional changes using chicken whole genome microarrays.

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Mar
2009

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) is a bacterium common to commercial poultry and wild birds throughout the world. It is also known as a causative agent of respiratory diseases. A total of 93 ORT isolates originating from chickens, pigeons, ostriches, quail, turkeys, and an Asian crested goshawk (Accipiter trivirgatus) in Taiwan, between 2004 and 2006, were used in this study.

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Nov
2007

In a 1990 outbreak, a virus isolated in Taiwan from the intestines of ducks showing signs of hepatitis was tentatively classified as a picornavirus on the basis of physical, chemical, and morphological characteristics. The virus was cloned and then found not to be type 1 duck hepatitis virus (DHV-1) or a new serotype of duck hepatitis virus (N-DHV) by serum neutralization. Complete genome sequencing indicated that the virus genome had 8351 nucleotides and the typical picornavirus genome organization (i.

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Jul
2007

Isolates of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from chicken cases were obtained from various locations in Taiwan during 2003-2006 and were genotypically analyzed by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with primers specific to the viral fusion (F) protein gene (534 bp). Part of the amplified F protein DNA product (nucleotide sequence 47-418) and the deduced amino acid sequences were compared phylogenetically with those from strains previously reported in Taiwan and other geographic regions. Our results showed that all Taiwanese isolates (n=20) collected during 2003-2006, according to the phylogenetic tree, belong to the genotype VIId.

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Jun
2007

Duck hepatitis strains 90D and 04G were determined to be antigenically unrelated to type 1 duck hepatitis virus (DHV-1) by in vitro cross-neutralization assay. The genome sequences of 90D and 04G revealed that both strains of the new serotype DHV (N-DHV) possessed a typical picornavirus genome organization apart from the unique possession of three in-tandem 2A genes present in DHV-1. The 2A1, 2A2, and 2A3 proteins represented an aphthovirus-like 2A protein, AIG1-like protein, and human parechovirus-like 2A protein, respectively.

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Dec
2006

Forty Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) strains were isolated from 28 chickens and 12 pigeons for the first time in Taiwan. All isolates reacted positively in the p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (PNPG) and oxidase tests, showing an API 20NE identification system biocode 0-0-2-0-0-0-4. All the pigeon isolates and 85.

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Nov
2006

Bartonella henselaeis the causative agent of cat scratch disease (CSD), manifesting as fever and acute regional lymphadenopathy. Although serologic testing is the reference method for diagnosis, successful use of immunohistochemical (IHC) stain of regional lymph nodes for the diagnosis of CSD has been reported. To determine the characterization and diagnostic potential of IHC in lymphadenopathy of CSD, lymph nodes were excised from patients with suspected CSD for further evaluation.

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Feb
2007

The genome sequences of three duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DHV-1) strains were determined. Comparative sequence analyses showed that they possessed a typical picornavirus genome organization apart from the unique possession of three in-tandem 2A genes. The 2A1 protein of DHV-1 is an aphthovirus-like 2A protein; the 2A2 protein is not related to any known picornavirus protein; the 2A3 protein is a human parechovirus-like 2A protein.

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Aug
2006

Two hundred and twenty strains of Campylobacter jejuni (70 human, 51 canine and 99 chicken strains) were isolated from September 2003 to September 2004 in northern Taiwan. These strains were subtyped by PCR-RFLP analysis of the flagellin (FlaA) gene. On the basis of restrictive digest, six types were identified with AfaI, seven types with MboI and five types with HaeIII.

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Jun
2006

Resistance to infection with avian influenza virus (AIV) was studied in healthy and immune-suppressed pigeons, which were treated with the immunosuppressant cyclophosphamide (Cy) before infection. Two subtypes of low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV; CK/TW/H5 and CK/TW/H6) were inoculated via the oculonasal route. Nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (nested RT-PCR) and virus isolation were used as detection methods.

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Feb
2005

The genetic diversity of the 16S rRNA and ompA genes of Riemerella anatipestifer was investigated. A 16S rRNA gene-based PCR was able to amplify all 18 Taiwanese strains and 10 reference strains. The identity of 16S rRNA sequence of these strains and seven other sequences retrieved from GenBank was 95.

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Jan
2005

Cloacal swabs were sampled from 100 duck farms in Taiwan between March 2000 and January 2001 for isolation and standard cultivation of Salmonella spp. and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Salmonella spp.

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Nov
2004

Three major epidemics of Newcastle disease (ND) occurred in Taiwan over the past three decades (in 1969, 1984, and 1995). In order to gain a better understanding of the relationships between past ND epizootics in Taiwan, 36 ND viruses (NDVs) isolated between 1969 and 1996 were characterized antigenically and genotypically. The antigenicity of these viruses was analysed by their ability to cause binding of mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to cell cultures infected with the isolate.

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Sep
2004

To understand the genetic variations between the field strains of waterfowl parvoviruses and their attenuated derivatives, we analyzed the complete nucleotide sequences of the viral protein 1 (VP1) genes of nine field strains and two vaccine strains of waterfowl parvoviruses. Sequence comparison of the VP1 proteins showed that these viruses could be divided into goose parvovirus (GPV) related and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) related groups. The amino acid difference between GPV- and MDPV-related groups ranged from 13.

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