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Author: Hubertus Himmerich (94)


Jan
2018

Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, have been implicated as underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and potential biomarkers of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This systematic review examines data regarding IL-1β production/concentration in human and animal studies of PTSD. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, relevant articles from PubMed were reviewed from inception until July 10, 2017.

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Dec
2017

Growing evidence suggests a pathophysiological role of cytokines in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is a key cytokine. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to examine the findings regarding TNF-α derived from both animal and human studies of PTSD.

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Jan
2018

Lithium augmentation (LA) of antidepressants is a first-line therapy in treatment-resistant depression. Immunomodulatory effects of lithium have been described. The cytokine hypothesis of depression postulates that cytokines play a key role in the pathophysiology of depression.

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Jan
2018

Psychopharmacological advances in eating disorders.

Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2018 Jan 5;11(1):95-108. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
Hubertus Himmerich, Janet Treasure
Anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are the primary eating disorders (EDs). The only psychopharmacological treatment options for EDs with approval in some countries include fluoxetine for BN and lisdexamfetamine for BED. Given the high comorbidity and genetic correlations with other psychiatric disorders, it seems possible that novel medications for these conditions might also be effective in EDs.

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Sep
2017

Lithium augmentation of antidepressants is an effective strategy in treatment-resistant depression. The proteohormone ghrelin is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of treatment response with the course of ghrelin levels during lithium augmentation.

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Mar
2017

A tonically high level of brain arousal and its hyperstable regulation is supposed to be a pathogenic factor in major depression. Preclinical studies indicate that most antidepressants may counteract this dysregulation. Therefore, it was hypothesized that responders to antidepressants show a) a high level of EEG-vigilance (an indicator of brain arousal) and b) a more stable EEG-vigilance regulation than non-responders.

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Feb
2017

Obesity and depression have both been shown to be associated with reduced physical activity (PA). However, most studies have not applied objective measures to determine PA in patients. Moreover, to our knowledge, no studies are available comparing depressed and non-depressed patients with regard to PA.

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Jun
2017

Despite joint participation in international military operations, few collaborative military mental health research projects have been undertaken by European countries. From a common perspective of military mental health researchers from Germany and the UK, the lack of shared research might be related not only to the use of different languages but also the different ways in which the two militaries provide mental health and medical support to operations and differences in military institutions. One area that is suitable for military health research collaboration within UK and German forces is mental health and well-being among military personnel.

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Dec
1969

High consumption of red and processed meats has been linked to higher chronic disease risk. It has been hypothesized that inflammation markers may mediate part of this association. Most previous studies on the association of red meat intake with circulating inflammation markers used C-reactive protein (CRP) but rarely other markers, and not all differentiated between processed meat and unprocessed red meat.

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Dec
1969

Changes in serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and its soluble receptors (sTNF-R) p55 and p75 have been shown to be associated with various psychiatric treatments.
Before and after treatment, serum levels of TNF-α, sTNF-R p55 and sTNF-R p75 were measured in 38 German soldiers who had been deployed abroad and suffered from combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Patients were randomized either to inpatient psychotherapy (N=21) including eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) or to outpatient clinical management (N=17).

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Sep
2016

Meta-analytical data show lithium augmentation (LA) as an effective treatment strategy in major depression. Weight-gain is a common side effect of LA. The proteohormone leptin is discussed to be involved in the pathophysiology of weight gain induced by psychopharmacological treatment.

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Dec
1969

To clarify findings of elevated cytokine levels in major depression (MD), this study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum levels of cytokines, symptoms of MD and antidepressant treatment outcome. At baseline (T0) and 4 weeks following initiation of antidepressant treatment (T1), levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor (GM-CSF), CRP and depression ratings HAMD-17 and BDI-II were assessed in 30 patients with MD and 30 age-and sex-matched controls. At T0, in the patient group, cytokines, but not CRP, negatively correlated with individual BDI-II-items, factors and severities and showed both negative and positive correlations with HAMD-17 items.

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Sep
2015

Growing evidence suggests involvement of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α system in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Research into post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has investigated serum levels of TNF-α, but not to date its soluble receptors sTNF-R p55 and sTNF-R p75. We examined serum levels of TNF-α, sTNF-R p55 and sTNF-R p75 in 135 male German soldiers 70 of whom had been deployed abroad and 65 in Germany only.

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Dec
1969

In major depressive disorder (MDD), findings include hyperstable regulation of brain arousal measured by electroencephalography (EEG) vigilance analysis and alterations in serum levels of cytokines. It is also known that cytokines affect sleep-wake regulation. This study investigated the relationship between cytokines and EEG vigilance in participants with MDD and nondepressed controls, and the influence of cytokines on differences in vigilance between the two groups.

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Dec
2015

Relationships between the central nervous, immune and endocrine systems are a focus of psychiatric research, particularly in depression and schizophrenia. The field has long antecedents. Observed phenomena attributable to these relationships date back to the Neolithic era.

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Nov
2015

In the early 20th century, there were few therapeutic options for mental illness and asylum numbers were rising. This pessimistic outlook favoured the rise of the eugenics movement. Heredity was assumed to be the principal cause of mental illness.

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Jan
2016

Weight gain is a major problem during psychopharmacological treatment. Research has concentrated on the appetite inducing properties and mechanisms of these drugs in the central nervous system. The potential contribution of direct effects of drugs on metabolically relevant peripheral cells such as adipocytes is less well understood.

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Dec
1969

Weight gain and metabolic disturbances are common side effects during psychopharmacological treatment with specific antipsychotics and antidepressants. The antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine, and antidepressants tricyclics and mirtazapine have a high risk of inducing weight gain. Recently discovered pathophysiological mechanisms include antihistaminergic effects, activation of hypothalamic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), modulation of hormonal signaling of ghrelin and leptin, changes in the production of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-alpha and adipokines such as adiponektin, and the impact of genes, in particular the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), serotonin 2C receptor (HTR2C), leptin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) genes.

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Dec
1969

Chronic systemic inflammation in obesity originates from local immune responses in visceral adipose tissue. However, assessment of a broad range of inflammation-mediating cytokines and their relationship to physical activity and adipometrics has scarcely been reported to date.
To characterize the profile of a broad range of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and the impact of physical activity and energy expenditure in individuals with general obesity, central obesity, and non-obese subjects.

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Jan
2015

Lithium is an important psychopharmacological agent for the treatment of unipolar as well as bipolar affective disorders. Lithium has a number of side effects such as hypothyroidism and aggravation of psoriasis. On the other hand, lithium has pro-inflammatory effects, which appear beneficial in some disorders associated with immunological deficits, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

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May
2015

Which effects has the interdisciplinary collaboration including pharmacists and psychologists in depressive patients?
In a 3-arm (each N = 10) randomized pilot study, we compared SC (standard care by specialized physicians in a tertiary care center) with SC + pharmaceutical medication management and SC + psychological counselling in respect to the number of drug-drug interactions, guideline conformity, patient knowledge, and medication adherence (according to MARS).
The number of drug-drug interactions decreased by the MM up to 67 % (p < 0.05).

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Oct
2014

Neuropsychological assessments of participants with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) indicate impaired verbal memory if to be remembered material has to be organized. People with OCD also tend to focus their attention on their thoughts (heightened cognitive self-consciousness). We tested the hypothesis that cognitive self-consciousness causes verbal memory deficits by provoking a division of attention between study task and thoughts.

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Aug
2014

In major depressive disorder, changes in cytokine levels have been reported to play a role in pathogenesis. Therefore, we sought to investigate a broad range of cytokines in depression. We compared serum levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon (INF-γ) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in 64 subjects with current depression and 206 non-depressed subjects.

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Dec
1969

Increased cytokine production possibly due to oxidative stress has repeatedly been shown to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Recent in vitro and animal studies of valproic acid (VPA) report antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, and suppression of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. We tested the effect of drugs with antiepileptic or mood stabilizer properties, namely, primidone (PRM), carbamazepine (CBZ), levetiracetam (LEV), lamotrigine (LTG), VPA, oxcarbazepine (OXC), topiramate (TPM), phenobarbital (PB), and lithium on the production of the following cytokines in vitro: interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, and TNF-α.

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Dec
2013

Richard Arwed Pfeifer (1877-1957) was one of the initiators and foster fathers of the renowned child-psychiatric and special needs education workgroup at Leipzig University under Paul Schröder (1873-1941) in the 1920s and 1930s. This paper is an account of their dispute concerning the interrelations between child and adolescent psychiatry and special needs education, as well as their disagreement about whether adolescent psychopaths should be admitted to specialized child psychiatric wards or elsewhere. Moreover, Pfeifer questioned the practical relevance of the separation of constitutional and environmentally-based psychopathy and fought eugenic research, which he found incompatible with the ethics of his profession as a remedial teacher and child psychiatrist.

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Mar
2014

In various toxicological studies, single housing of rodents is preferred to standardize for regulatory purposes. However, housing conditions can have severe, often underestimated, impact on results in toxicological examinations. As different husbandry conditions have been shown to impose stress, we investigated their influence on plasma cytokines.

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Jan
2014

Schizophrenia is associated with impaired sleep continuity. The second generation antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine have been reported to improve sleep continuity but also to rarely induce restless legs syndrome (RLS). The aims of this randomized double-blind study were to compare the effects of clozapine and olanzapine on sleep and the occurrence of RLS.

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Nov
2013

The interplay between immune and nervous systems plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of depression. In depressive episodes, patients show increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. There is limited information on the effect of antidepressant drugs on cytokines, most studies report on a limited sample of cytokines and none have reported effects on IL-22.

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Oct
2013

The frequently observed co-occurrence of depressive disorders and inflammatory diseases suggests a close connection between the nervous and the immune systems. Increased pro-inflammatory and type 1 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ, appear to be an important link. Cytokines are synthesized by immune cells in the blood and peripheral tissues and by glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS).

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Nov
2013

Changes within the immune system have been reported to contribute to the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and epilepsy. Interestingly, overlapping results regarding the cytokine system have been found for both diseases, namely alterations of interleukins IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). However, the effect of mood stabilizers and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on these cytokines has not been systematically evaluated, and their effect on IL-17 and IL-22, other immunologically important cytokines, has not been reported.

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Jun
2013

Stress-induced cytokine changes may be the link between stress and the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders such as depression, and organic diseases such as infections, autoimmune diseases and cancer. We tested the effect of stress on interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-22, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ serum levels in male Wistar rats. Rats underwent either acute stress by forced swimming (N = 8), chronic restraint stress (N = 8), or were not subjected to any stress (N = 8).

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Sep
2013

The pathophysiology of schizophrenia has not been fully elucidated but there are converging leads to understanding this complex psychiatric disorder. One family of molecules that may play a crucial role in the development of schizophrenia is the eicosanoids. Review of the literature on eicosanoids in patients with schizophrenia points to findings in three areas: precursor molecules such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and specifically arachidonic acid (AA), the actions of specific eicosanoids such as thromboxane A2 (TxA2), thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and enzymes with important functions in eicosanoid metabolism such as cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2).

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Oct
2013

When dealing with electroencephalograms (EEGs) recorded under resting conditions, periods of low-voltage activity might indicate drowsiness, but mental activation as well. Thus, low-voltage EEG retrieves a notorious source of confusion. The simultaneous occurrence of drowsiness related slow horizontal eye movements (SEM) allow to assign low-voltage EEG-activity to a brain state of reduced vigilance instead of mental activation.

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Mar
2013

Most often it is assumed that the 'psychosomatic' concept originated from psychoanalysis. However, this term had already been introduced into medical literature about 80 years before Sigmund Freud - namely by Johann Christian August Heinroth, the first professor of psychiatry and psychotherapy in the western world. Widely through quotations from his works, the authors analyze Heinroth's understanding of the interrelations between the body and the soul.

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May
2013

Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) have repeatedly been shown to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of depression. Therefore, we tested the possible antidepressant-like effect of the anti-TNF-α drug etanercept in an animal model of chronic mild stress. Male Wistar rats were assigned to a non-restrained and a restrained protocol for 5 weeks.

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Mar
2013

In 1966 the Leipzig neuropsychiatrist and psychotherapist Christa Kohler qualified as a university lecturer on social-psychiatric problems in patients aged 40 + suffering from psychoses and neuroses. This paper acknowledges this habilitation thesis in its historical context as an early contribution to East German social psychiatry.
First the thesis itself is searched for points characteristic of Kohler's approach to social psychiatry.

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Sep
2012

Human time perception is influenced by various factors such as attention and drowsiness. Nevertheless, the impact of cerebral vigilance fluctuations on temporal perception has not been sufficiently explored. We assumed that the state of vigilance ascertained by electroencephalography (EEG) during the perception of a given auditory rhythm would influence its reproduction.

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Mar
2013

Agomelatine in breast milk.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2013 Mar 10;16(2):497-9. Epub 2012 Jul 10.
Frank Martin Schmidt, Nicole Lichtblau, Maria Mercedes Uribe, Hartmut Kirchherr, Hubertus Himmerich

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Nov
2012

Thromboxane A2 (TxA2) and the activation of its receptor have been shown to modulate vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation as well as dopaminergic and serotonergic signalling. Dopaminergic and serotonergic systems play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and these systems are the main targets of antipsychotics (APs). As the first antipsychotic (AP) chlorpromazine (CPZ) has already been shown to reduce TxA2, we hypothesized that the AP clozapine and its metabolite N-desmethylclozapine (NDMC) might also influence TxA2 production.

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Jun
2012

Sleep-wake-regulation has been shown to be substantially influenced by cytokines. The clinical relevance of this issue arises from (1) the frequency of accidents, injuries and impairment in social functioning due to sleepiness, (2) the occurrence of fatigue syndromes associated with inflammatory diseases, cancer or obesity, (3) the role of wakefulness regulation for the pathophysiology of affective and sleep disorders and (4) sedation as a side effect of psychopharmacological therapy. Experimental studies confirm the somnogenic influence of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α).

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Jul
2012

In the framework of a case report on a patient suffering from major depression and inflammatory bowel disease we address the pharmacotherapeutical options in case of subtherapeutic mirtazapine levels.
We applied therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and cytochrome P450 2D6 genotyping, and switched to an orodispersible tablet.
Thus, mirtazapine plasma levels could be raised and clinical improvement of the depressive symptoms was achieved.

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