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Author: Ilya M Veer (37)


Jan
2018

Past studies examining the effect of chronotype and social jetlag on psychological well-being have been inconsistent so far. Here, we recruited participants from the general population and enquired about their natural sleeping behavior, sleep quality, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress. Partial correlations were computed between sleep variables and indicators of psychological well-being, controlling for age and sex.

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Sep
2017

Establishing reliable, robust, and unique brain signatures from neuroimaging data is a prerequisite for precision psychiatry, and therefore a highly sought-after goal in contemporary neuroscience. Recently, the procedure of connectome fingerprinting, using brain functional connectivity profiles as such signatures, was shown to be able to accurately identify individuals from a group of 126 subjects from the Human Connectome Project (HCP). However, the specificity and generalizability of this procedure were not tested.

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Dec
1969

Advances in neurocomputational modeling suggest that valuation systems for goal-directed (deliberative) on one side, and habitual (automatic) decision-making on the other side may rely on distinct computational strategies for reinforcement learning, namely model-free vs. model-based learning. As a key theoretical difference, the model-based system strongly demands cognitive functions to plan actions prospectively based on an internal cognitive model of the environment, whereas valuation in the model-free system relies on rather simple learning rules from operant conditioning to retrospectively associate actions with their outcomes and is thus cognitively less demanding.

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Jun
2017

Threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) is a sensitive means to incorporate spatial neighborhood information in neuroimaging studies without using arbitrary thresholds. The majority of methods have applied TFCE to voxelwise data. The need to understand the relationship among multiple variables and imaging modalities has become critical.

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Jun
2017

We evaluated whether sliding-window analysis can reveal functionally relevant brain network dynamics during a well-established fear conditioning paradigm. To this end, we tested if fMRI fluctuations in amygdala functional connectivity (FC) can be related to task-induced changes in physiological arousal and vigilance, as reflected in the skin conductance level (SCL). Thirty-two healthy individuals participated in the study.

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Jul
2017

Imbalances in cortico-limbic activity and functional connectivity (FC) supposedly underlie biased emotional processing and present putative intermediate phenotypes (IPs) for major depressive disorder (MDD). To prove the validity of these IPs, we assessed them in familial risk. In 70 healthy first-degree relatives of MDD patients and 70 controls, brain activity and seed-based amygdala FC were assessed during an implicit emotional processing task for fMRI containing angry and fearful faces.

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Apr
2017

Although conscientiousness has for a long time been considered generally adaptive, there are findings challenging this view, suggesting that conscientiousness might be less advantageous during uncontrollable stress. We here examined the impact of conscientiousness on brain activation during and the cortisol response following an uncontrollable social evaluative stress task in order to test this hypothesis. Brain activation and cortisol levels were measured during an fMRI stress task, where subjects (n=86) performed cognitive tasks containing preprogrammed failure under time pressure, while being monitored by a panel of experts inducing social-evaluative threat.

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Mar
2017

Childhood adversity plays an important role for development of major depressive disorder (MDD). There are differences in subcortical brain structures between patients with MDD and healthy controls, but the specific impact of childhood adversity on such structures in MDD remains unclear. Thus, aim of the present study was to investigate whether childhood adversity is associated with subcortical volumes and how it interacts with a diagnosis of MDD and sex.

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Aug
2017

The developmental trajectory of psychopathy seemingly begins early in life and includes the presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., deficient emotional reactivity, callousness) in conduct-disordered (CD) youth.

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Dec
1969

Psychopathy is a serious psychiatric phenomenon characterized by a pathological constellation of affective (e.g., callous, unemotional), interpersonal (e.

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Mar
2016

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, debilitating, and difficult to treat psychiatric disorder. Very little is known of how PTSD affects neuroplasticity in the developing adolescent brain. Whereas multiple lines of research implicate amygdala-centered network dysfunction in the pathophysiology of adult PTSD, no study has yet examined the functional architecture of amygdala subregional networks in adolescent PTSD.

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Dec
1969

Resilience can be defined as the capability of an individual to maintain health despite stress and adversity. Here we suggest to study the temporal dynamics of neural processes associated with affective perturbation and emotion regulation at different time scales to investigate the mechanisms of resilience. Parameters related to neural recovery might serve as a predictive biomarker for resilience.

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Dec
1969

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a single-gene neurodevelopmental disorder, in which social and cognitive problems are highly prevalent. Several commonly observed central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities in NF1 might underlie these social and cognitive problems. Cerebral volumetric abnormalities are among the most consistently observed CNS abnormalities in NF1.

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Dec
2015

Studies on the neural effects of Erythropoietin (EPO) indicate that EPO may have antidepressant effects. Due to its hematopoietic effects, EPO may cause serious side-effects with repeated administration if patients are not monitored extensively. ARA290 is an EPO-analog peptide without such hematopoietic side-effects but may have neurotrophic and antidepressant effects.

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Sep
2015

Hippocampus and amygdala volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood trauma are relatively understudied, albeit the potential importance to the disorder. Whereas some studies reported smaller hippocampal volumes, little evidence was found for abnormal amygdala volumes. Here we investigated hippocampus and amygdala volumes and shapes in an adult sample of PTSD patients related to childhood trauma.

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Oct
2015

The application of global signal regression (GSR) to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and its usefulness is a widely discussed topic. In this article, we report an observation of segregated distribution of amygdala resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) within the fusiform gyrus (FFG) as an effect of GSR in a multi-center-sample of 276 healthy subjects. Specifically, we observed that amygdala rs-FC was distributed within the FFG as distinct anterior versus posterior clusters delineated by positive versus negative rs-FC polarity when GSR was performed.

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Dec
1969

An imbalance in the neural motivational system may underlie Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). This study examines social reward and punishment anticipation in SAD, predicting a valence-specific effect: increased striatal activity for punishment avoidance compared to obtaining a reward. Individuals with SAD (n = 20) and age, gender, and education case-matched controls (n = 20) participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study.

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Jul
2014

We aimed to investigate whether cognitive deficits and structural and functional connectivity changes can be detected before symptom onset in a large cohort of carriers of MAPT (microtubule-associated protein tau) or GRN (progranulin) mutations.
In this case-control study, 75 healthy individuals (aged 20-70 years) with 50% risk of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) underwent DNA screening, neuropsychological assessment, structural MRI, and fMRI. We used voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics for voxel-wise analyses of gray matter volume and diffusion tensor imaging measures.

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Aug
2014

The brain is crucial for the control of food intake, reward, and energy homeostasis.
We hypothesized that 1) brain circuits involved in energy homeostasis and reward show different functional connectivity patterns between obese and lean individuals and 2) food intake affects functional connectivity differentially in obese and lean individuals. Therefore, we compared the connectivity of the hypothalamus, amygdala, and posterior cingulate cortex, each probing a distinct network related to energy homeostasis and reward, between obese subjects and lean subjects in the fasting state and after meal ingestion.

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Dec
2014

Depression is prevalent and typically has its onset in adolescence. Resting-state fMRI could help create a better understanding of the underlying neurobiological mechanisms during this critical period. In this study, resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) is examined using seed regions-of-interest (ROIs) associated with three networks: the limbic network, the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network.

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Dec
2014

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a genetic syndrome characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome that appears to increase the risk of psychopathology, such as autism symptoms. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine underlying mechanisms related to this risk, with the aim of gaining insight into neural mechanisms behind social-cognitive dysfunction in KS and autism, and understanding similarities and differences in social information processing deficits. Fourteen boys with KS, seventeen boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and nineteen non-clinical male controls aged 10-18 years were scanned while matching and labeling facial expressions (i.

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Dec
2014

In this study, the basic properties and requirements of time-encoded pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (te-pCASL) are investigated. Also, the extra degree of freedom delivered by changing block durations is explored.
First, the minimal duration of encoding blocks, the influence of cardiac triggering, and the effect of dividing the labeling period into blocks are evaluated.

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Jun
2014

The personality traits neuroticism and extraversion are differentially related to socioemotional functioning and susceptibility to affective disorders. However, the neurobiology underlying this differential relationship is still poorly understood. This discrepancy could perhaps best be studied by adopting a brain connectivity approach.

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Dec
1969

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has been associated with biased processing and abnormal regulation of negative and positive information, which may result from compromised coordinated activity of prefrontal and subcortical brain regions involved in evaluating emotional information. We tested whether patients with MDD show distributed changes in functional connectivity with a set of independently derived brain networks that have shown high correspondence with different task demands, including stimulus salience and emotional processing. We further explored if connectivity during emotional word processing related to the tendency to engage in positive or negative emotional states.

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Dec
2013

Brain tissue integrity is highly heritable, and its decline is a common phenomenon of ageing. This study aimed to determine whether the phenotype of familial longevity is marked by a relative preservation of brain tissue microstructure.
Participants were enrolled in the Leiden Longevity Study.

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Nov
2013

The experience of childhood maltreatment is related to an increased risk of developing a variety of psychiatric disorders, as well as a change in the structure of the brain. However, not much is known about the neurobiological basis of resilience to childhood maltreatment. This study aims to identify resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns specific for resilience to childhood maltreatment, focusing on the default mode and salience network and networks seeded from the amygdala and left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex.

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Feb
2013

We aimed to investigate whether cognitive deficits and structural and functional connectivity changes can be detected before symptom onset in a large cohort of carriers of microtubule-associated protein tau and progranulin mutations.
In this case-control study, 75 healthy individuals (aged 20-70 years) with 50% risk for frontotemporal dementia (FTD) underwent DNA screening, neuropsychological assessment, and structural and functional MRI. We used voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics for voxelwise analyses of gray matter volume and diffusion tensor imaging measures.

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Jan
2013

Growing interest in pharmacological resting state fMRI (RSfMRI) necessitates developing standardized and robust analytical approaches that are insensitive to spurious correlated physiological signals. However, in pharmacological experiments physiological variations constitute an important aspect of the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic profile of drug action; therefore retrospective corrective methods that discard physiological signals as noise may not be suitable. Previously, we have shown that template-based dual regression analysis is a sensitive method for model-free and objective detection of drug-specific effects on functional brain connectivity.

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Feb
2013

Panic disorder (PD) is a prevalent and debilitating disorder but its neurobiology is still poorly understood. We investigated resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in PD without comorbidity in three networks that have been linked to PD before. This could provide new insights in how functional integration of brain regions involved in fear and panic might relate to the symptomatology of PD.

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Mar
2013

The neurobiology of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is not yet fully understood. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies in SAD have identified abnormalities in various brain areas, particularly the amygdala and elements of the salience network. This study is the first to examine resting-state functional brain connectivity in a drug-naive sample of SAD patients without psychiatric comorbidity and healthy controls, using seed regions of interest in bilateral amygdala, in bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex for the salience network, and in bilateral posterior cingulate cortex for the default mode network.

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Jul
2012

Whether glucocorticoids mediate medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regulation of the amygdala in humans remains unclear. In the current study we investigated whether cortisol levels under relatively stress-free circumstances are related to amygdala resting-state functional connectivity with the mPFC. Resting-state fMRI data were acquired from 20 healthy male participants.

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Aug
2011

Whereas we know a fair amount on the role of the amygdala in the acute stress response, virtually nothing is known about its role during the recovery period after the stress has waned. Functional connectivity analysis of the amygdala during this period might be useful in revealing brain circuits promoting adaptive recovery from a stressful event, as well as consolidation of emotionally relevant information in preparing for future challenges. Healthy participants were randomly assigned to either a psychosocial stress task (n=18; stress group) or a comparable non-stressful control procedure (n=20; controls).

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Apr
2012

Acute stress has been shown to impair working memory (WM), and to decrease prefrontal activation during WM in healthy humans. Stress also enhances amygdala responses towards emotional stimuli. Stress might thus be specifically detrimental to WM when one is distracted by emotional stimuli.

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Jun
2011

In recent years, graph theory has been successfully applied to study functional and anatomical connectivity networks in the human brain. Most of these networks have shown small-world topological characteristics: high efficiency in long distance communication between nodes, combined with highly interconnected local clusters of nodes. Moreover, functional studies performed at high resolutions have presented convincing evidence that resting-state functional connectivity networks exhibits (exponentially truncated) scale-free behavior.

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Dec
1969

Recently, both increases and decreases in resting-state functional connectivity have been found in major depression. However, these studies only assessed functional connectivity within a specific network or between a few regions of interest, while comorbidity and use of medication was not always controlled for. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate whole-brain functional connectivity, unbiased by a priori definition of regions or networks of interest, in medication-free depressive patients without comorbidity.

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Dec
2010

The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in white matter integrity between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy controls, as determined using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis of diffusion tensor imaging data.
Twelve patients with SLE (mean age 42 years [range 15-61 years]) diagnosed according to the American College of Rheumatology 1982 revised criteria for SLE and 28 healthy controls (mean age 46 years [range 21-61 years]) were included in the study. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on a 3.

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Jul
2009

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that anatomically distinct brain regions are functionally connected during the resting state. Basic topological properties in the brain functional connectivity (BFC) map have highlighted the BFC's small-world topology. Modularity, a more advanced topological property, has been hypothesized to be evolutionary advantageous, contributing to adaptive aspects of anatomical and functional brain connectivity.

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