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Author: Jacqueline Roberts (53)


Dec
1969

Autism is associated with high cost to individuals, families, communities and government. Understanding educational and participation trajectories during the school years, and factors influencing these, is fundamental to reducing financial and personal costs. The primary aim of this study is to document the trajectories of Australian students with autism during their education.

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Dec
2017

Anxiety symptomatology is frequently reported in autistic children, and the prevalence of anxiety disorder is estimated at around 40%. However, most studies have focused upon children of age 8 years or above, so little is known about early signs of anxiety in younger children with autism. This study sought to describe anxiety-related symptomatology in 95 5- to 6-year-old autistic children using the Anxiety Scale for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

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Oct
2017

This study described the oral narrative comprehension and production skills of verbal preschool-age children on the autism spectrum and investigated correlations between oral narrative ability and norm-referenced language test performance.
Twenty-nine preschool-age children (aged 4;0-5;9 years;months) with autism, who obtained an age-equivalent score of at least 36 months on the expressive communication subscale of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition (Sparrow, Cicchetti, & Balla, 2005), participated. Children listened to an unfamiliar fictional narrative and answered comprehension questions afterward.

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Jul
2017

Associations between executive functions (EF) and mental-health in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were examined. Forty-two adults with ASD completed measures of EF, mood and self-concept. Better concept formation and social inference skills were significantly associated with fewer anxiety symptoms.

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Feb
2017

We aimed to measure the effects of a residency program's mid-year shift from 24-h call to night float on resident burnout and quality of life. At the end of the year, residents who started the year with 24-h call had worse burnout and quality of life, with statistical significance and large effect sizes. Exposure to a twenty-four hour call system, when compared to a full year of night float, may be associated with increased burnout and decreased quality of life, though measuring this effect is not straightforward.

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Feb
2017

We explored the effectiveness of a sensory-based, family-centered coaching approach to changing problematic routines for young children with autism. Three mothers of young children with autism, atypical sensory processing, and global developmental delay each participated in a single-case experimental ABA design study. Mothers selected a problematic daily routine linked to sensory challenges as the focus of four intervention sessions provided in the home.

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Dec
1969

Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) display diverse deficits in social, cognitive and behavioral functioning. To date, there has been mixed findings on the profile of executive function deficits for high-functioning adults (IQ > 70) with ASD. A conceptual distinction is commonly made between "cold" and "hot" executive functions.

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Jan
2017

Introduction Telehealth can be an effective way to provide speech pathology intervention to children with speech and language impairments. However, the provision of reliable and feasible standardised language assessments via telehealth to establish children's needs for intervention and to monitor progress has not yet been well established. Further, there is limited information about children's reactions to telehealth.

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Jan
2015

Since the Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health was first published, there has been substantial change in the field of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with an exponential increase in the amount of funded and published research. In this paper, we focus on regression in children with ASD, a phenomenon that remains poorly understood. We discuss the implications of what we know about regression in ASD for the way we think about ASD more broadly and for paediatric practice.

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May
2014

Continuing from part 1, part 2 of the autism spectrum disorders review explores clinical practice and service delivery aspects of autism spectrum disorders including current assessment approaches in Australia, family-centred models of care, and key service structure and delivery issues. Treatments including behavioural interventions, established and emergent medication, and complementary and alternative therapies are discussed. The key role of paediatricians as both individual child and family care providers and advocates, as well as agents of service reform in Australia, is evident.

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May
2014

This review paper describes our current perspective of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), taking into account past, current and future classification systems and the evolving definitions of ASD. International prevalence rates from 1965 to 2012 are presented and key issues, including whether there is an epidemic of autism and what this means in terms of thinking about possible causes of autism, are discussed. Also discussed is the need for high quality national data collection in Australia and the evidence, and lack of evidence, for the many theoretical causes of ASD.

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Jul
2014

The current study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Emotion Regulation and Social Skills Questionnaire (ERSSQ), a rating scale designed specifically to assess the social skills of young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The participants were 84 children and young adolescents with ASD, aged between 7.97 and 14.

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Feb
2014

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs can rapidly regulate the expression of large groups of proteins. The RNA binding protein TRA2B (SFRS10) plays well-established roles in developmentally regulated alternative splicing during Drosophila sexual differentiation. TRA2B is also essential for mammalian embryogenesis and is implicated in numerous human diseases.

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Mar
2011

To compare a specialized interprofessional team approach to community-based stroke rehabilitation with usual home care for stroke survivors using home care services.
Randomized controlled trial of 101 community-living stroke survivors (<18 months post-stroke) using home care services. Subjects were randomized to intervention (n=52) or control (n=49) groups.

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Mar
2010

This study determined the effects and costs of a multifactorial, interdisciplinary team approach to falls prevention. Randomized controlled trial of 109 older adults who are at risk for falls. This was a six-month multifactorial and evidence-based prevention strategy involving an interdisciplinary team.

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Mar
2010

This study examined the six-month prevalence, risk factors, and costs of falls in older people using home support services who are at risk of falling. Of the 109 participants, 70.6 per cent reported >or= one fall in the previous six months, and 27.

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Dec
2009

Aedes polynesiensis and Ae. aegypti breeding site productivity in two American Samoa villages were analyzed during a dry season survey and compared with a wet season survey. Both surveys identified similar container types producing greater numbers of pupae, with buckets, drums, and tires responsible for > 50% of Aedes pupae during the dry season.

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Feb
2010

Glutamatergic abnormalities may underlie bipolar disorder (BD). The glutamate-modulating drug riluzole may be efficacious in bipolar depression, but few in vivo studies have examined its effect on glutamatergic neurotransmission. We conducted an exploratory study of the effect of riluzole on brain glutamine/glutamate (Gln/Glu) ratios and levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA).

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Jul
2009

To assess the efficacy of duloxetine for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
We conducted an open-label 12-week trial of duloxetine 60 mg daily in 15 patients with IBS without concurrent major depressive disorder. The primary outcome measure was average abdominal pain.

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Oct
2008

To determine whether clinical manifestations are associated with genotypes or subtypes of Cryptosporidium spp., we studied a 4-year longitudinal birth cohort of 533 children in Peru. A total of 156 infection episodes were found in 109 children.

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Sep
2008

To assess preliminarily the efficacy of memantine in binge eating disorder.
This was an open-label, 12-week, flexible-dose (5-20 mg/day) trial of memantine in binge eating disorder. The primary outcome was frequency of binge days.

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May
2008

This study focused on ultrafiltration as a technique for simultaneously concentrating and recovering viruses, bacteria and parasites in 100-L drinking water samples. A chemical dispersant, sodium polyphosphate, and Tween 80 were used to increase microbial recovery efficiencies. Secondary concentration was performed to reduce sample volumes to 3-5 mL for analysis using tissue culture, microscopy, and real-time PCR and RT-PCR.

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Feb
2008

Prior studies suggest that certain psychiatric and medical disorders co-occur with binge eating disorder (BED). However, there has been no large, community-based study with diagnoses made by clinician interviewers. We used data from that type of study to assess the co-occurrence of various psychiatric and medical disorders with DSM-IV BED and with subthreshold BED.

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Jul
2007

Play is, by definition, internally motivated, flexible, spontaneous and voluntary. Yet some researchers claim to have taught children with autism to play using behavioural interventions that are heavily structured, repetitive and make use of external reinforcements. In the current systematic review, we examine the extent to which these claims are supported by the evidence presented by the researchers themselves.

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Feb
2007

The 1MDS electropositive microfilter was designed specifically for virus capture and recovery from water, but its electrostatic properties raise the possibility that 1MDS filters can also effectively capture bacteria and parasites present in water samples. This filter is recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for recovering human enteric viruses from water matrices through the Virus Adsorption-Elution (VIRADEL) technique. If bacteria and parasites can also be concentrated and recovered using 1MDS filters, this sampling technique would have greater utility and cost-effectiveness for microbial water quality testing.

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Oct
2006

Despite the large potential role that community nurses have in providing individualized health promotion to older people, there is a lack of consensus in the literature regarding this role's effectiveness and efficiency. This article presents a literature review and synthesis of 12 randomized controlled trials selected from 344 published studies on preventive home visitation programs for older people. The findings suggest that a diversity of home visiting interventions carried out by nurses can favorably affect health and functional status, mortality rates, use of hospitalization and nursing homes, and costs.

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Sep
2006

A randomized control trial completed in the Hamilton-Wentworth and Halton regions of Ontario, Canada, was created to assess the effects and expense of age-appropriate provider-initiated and subsidized versus self-directed and self-financed methods of recreation. Upon completion, this study proved that the annual per-person expenditure for the subsidized, quality recreation paid for itself by children's lower use of healthcare and social services. The children within the subsidized recreation group had lower use of physician, physiotherapy, probation, children's aid society, social work, psychologist and services in comparison with those in the non-subsidized group.

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Aug
2006

Microbial genome sequencing projects have revealed an apparently wide distribution of SmtB/ArsR metal-responsive transcriptional regulators among prokaryotes. Using a position-dependent weight matrix approach, prokaryotic genome sequences were screened for SmtB/ArsR DNA binding sites using data derived from intergenic sequences upstream of orthologous genes encoding these regulators. Sixty SmtB/ArsR operators linked to metal detoxification genes, including nine among various archaeal species, are predicted among 230 annotated and draft prokaryotic genome sequences.

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Dec
1969

This paper proposes both a model and a measure of human service integration through strategic alliances with autonomous services as one way to achieve comprehensive health and social services for target populations.
Diverse theories of integrated service delivery and collaboration were combined reflecting integration along a continuum of care within a service sector, across service sectors and between public, not-for-profit and private sectors of financing services.
A measure of human service integration is proposed and tested.

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May
2006

This paper reports a study evaluating the comparative effects and costs of a proactive nursing health promotion intervention in addition to usual home care for older people compared with usual home care services alone.
An ageing population, budget constraints and technological advances in many countries have increased the pressure on home care resources. The result is a shift in nursing services from health promotion to meet the more pressing need for postacute care.

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May
2006

Community-based AIDS service organizations (CBAOs) direct services to multiple-needs people living with HIV/AIDS who are less likely to use mainstream health promotion services. As people live longer with HIV, the potential to enhance quality of life increases, yet little is known about who uses CBAOs or how this use affects other health and social services. This study of people living with AIDS in Ontario, Canada (n = 297) examined the demographic and health-related characteristics of people with AIDS who do and do not use CBAOs and their patterns of mainstream service utilization.

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May
2006

This study examined demographic, health-related, social support, and service utilization characteristics of clients with high and low use of a community-based AIDS service organization in Canada. The study confirmed that the organizations' services were reaching the most vulnerable persons living with HIV/AIDS. It found that a significantly greater number of high users compared with low users were single, lived alone, and reported poorer health.

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Feb
2006

This study examined differences in children's behavior and expenditures for health and social services used when their parents with dysthymia did or did not respond to antidepressant therapy.
Children ages 4 to 16 years of consenting parents enrolled in a treatment trial for dysthymia who did and did not respond to treatment were compared at baseline and 24 months. The responder was a parent with at least a 40% reduction in his or her baseline depressive symptoms using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale.

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Sep
2005

To determine which sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients admitted to a general activation service (GAS) are predictive of discharge to patients' discharge goal locations (DGLs).
Prospective cohort study.
Rehabilitation and complex continuing care hospital in southern Ontario, Canada.

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Apr
2005

As new technologies extend the lives of people living with HIV/AIDS (PHA), the need increases for services that optimize their quality-of-life cost effectively. This study of PHAs (n = 297) in Ontario, Canada, examined the prevalence of depression, and its association with quality-of-life, coping strategies, social support, and use of health and social services. Results showed that depression was widespread (54.

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Apr
2005

In this paper the available literature on the communication skills of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) is reviewed. Current issues regarding diagnosing and understanding disorders with a core social deficit are examined as well as the potential application of sociolinguistic analyses to the study of Asperger Syndrome, such as that provided from within a Systemic Functional Linguistic framework. The need for investigations that address a broader view of "language" and its use in social situations by individuals with AS as opposed to their mastery of syntactic aspects of language, will be discussed.

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Mar
2005

This article reports the results of a recent study to evaluate the usefulness of physical models of molecular structures as a new tool with which to teach concepts of molecular structure and function. Of seven different learning tools used by students in this introductory biochemistry class, the use of the physical models in a laboratory was rated as most useful. These results suggest that physical models can play an important role in capturing the interest of students in the subject of molecular structure and function.

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Dec
1969

To determine the effectiveness of cultural sensitivity training on the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers, and to assess the satisfaction and health outcomes of patients from different minority groups with health care providers who received training.
In this randomised controlled trial, 114 health care providers (nurses and homecare workers) and 133 patients (from two community agencies and one hospital) were randomly assigned to experimental (training) and control groups, and were followed for 18 months.
Providers completed the Cultural Awareness Questionnaire and the Dogmatism Scale.

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Oct
2004

The use of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) in screening for suspected renovascular disease may result in increased detection of renal artery aneurysms. We report the CE-MRA findings at diagnosis and follow-up in nine hypertensive patients with unsuspected renal artery aneurysms. A search of renal CE-MRAs of suspected renal artery stenosis at two tertiary referral institutions over 5 1/2 years was performed.

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Jan
2004

Research is an essential component of effective, evidence-based nursing practice. Limited scientific data have been published on Canadian Aboriginals, and even less information is available on HIV prevention efforts aimed at Aboriginal youth. The need for more research on HIV and AIDS among Aboriginals, and especially Aboriginal youth, is highlighted throughout the article as a means to improving prevention interventions for this vulnerable population.

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Apr
2004

The prevalence of mental health problems, some of which seem to be occurring among younger cohorts, leads researchers and policy-makers to search for practical solutions to reduce the burden of suffering on children and their families, and the costs to society both immediate and long term. Numerous programs are in place to reduce or alleviate problem behaviour or disorders and/or assist positive youth development. Evaluated results are dispersed throughout the literature.

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Jan
2004

The burden of comorbid dysthymia and other comorbid psychiatric illnesses in a Canadian primary care setting was measured. Two groups of primary care patients: those who scored positive for comorbid dysthymia versus those who scored negative for any psychiatric disorder were compared.
This was a cross-sectional survey in a Health Service Organization (HSO) in Ontario, Canada.

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Jan
2004

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of a 7 1/2 hour educational program designed to provide staff with the knowledge, skill, and confidence to manage physical self-protective behaviors of cognitively impaired long-term care residents. This RCT using a pretest/post-test design was conducted using consenting staff members (n = 40) who were randomly allocated to either a control or experimental group. The main outcome measure was a skills lab that evaluated participants 'responses to simulated patients.

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Dec
1969

This randomized controlled trial compared the effectiveness of self-directed learning (SDL) and faculty directed, demonstration-return-demonstration learning (DRD) for psychomotor clinical nursing skills and level of knowledge of second year baccalaureate nursing students. The self-directed learning approach of a university was compared to a community college's approach of tutor demonstration-student return demonstration for students from the University. Data were collected using questionnaires measuring academic outcomes after the students were exposed to the different learning approaches.

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Apr
2002

There is little information on the long-term effects and costs of a combination of Sertraline and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for the treatment of dysthymia in primary care.
In a single-blind, randomized clinical trial, 707 adults (18-74 years of age inclusive) with DSM-IV dysthymic disorder, with or without past and/or current major depression, as an acute or chronic episode, in a community-based primary care practice in Ontario, Canada, were randomized to treatment with either Sertraline alone (50-200 mg), or IPT alone (10 sessions), or Sertraline plus IPT combined. In the acute treatment phase (first 6 months) all groups received full active treatment.

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Apr
2002

The growing number of patients with congestive heart failure has increased both the pressure on hospital resources and the need for community management of the condition. Improving hospital-to-home transition for this population is a logical step in responding to current practice guidelines' recommendations for coordination and education. Positive outcomes have been reported from trials evaluating multiple interventions, enhanced hospital discharge, and follow-up through the addition of a case management role.

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