Helping You Find Full Text Journal Articles

Search Results:

Author: Jacquelyn A Brown (17)



View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2017

Organ interactions resulting from drug, metabolite or xenobiotic transport between organs are key components of human metabolism that impact therapeutic action and toxic side effects. Preclinical animal testing often fails to predict adverse outcomes arising from sequential, multi-organ metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. Human microphysiological systems (MPS) can model these interactions and are predicted to dramatically improve the efficiency of the drug development process.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2016

Understanding blood-brain barrier responses to inflammatory stimulation (such as lipopolysaccharide mimicking a systemic infection or a cytokine cocktail that could be the result of local or systemic inflammation) is essential to understanding the effect of inflammatory stimulation on the brain. It is through the filter of the blood-brain barrier that the brain responds to outside influences, and the blood-brain barrier is a critical point of failure in neuroinflammation. It is important to note that this interaction is not a static response, but one that evolves over time.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2015

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a critical structure that serves as the gatekeeper between the central nervous system and the rest of the body. It is the responsibility of the BBB to facilitate the entry of required nutrients into the brain and to exclude potentially harmful compounds; however, this complex structure has remained difficult to model faithfully in vitro. Accurate in vitro models are necessary for understanding how the BBB forms and functions, as well as for evaluating drug and toxin penetration across the barrier.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2014

Maternal immune activation and subsequent interleukin-6 (IL-6) induction disrupt normal brain development and predispose the offspring to developing autism and schizophrenia. While several proteins have been identified as having some link to these developmental disorders, their prevalence is still small and their causative role, if any, is not well understood. However, understanding the metabolic consequences of environmental predisposing factors could shed light on disorders such as autism and schizophrenia.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2015

Peripheral biomarkers for major psychiatric disorders have been an elusive target for the last half a century. Dermal fibroblasts are a simple, relevant, and much underutilized model for studying molecular processes of patients with affective disorders, as they share considerable similarity of signal transduction with neuronal tissue.
Cultured dermal fibroblast samples from patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and matched control subjects (n = 16 pairs, 32 samples) were assayed for genome-wide messenger RNA (mRNA) expression using microarrays.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2014

Children with neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1) are at risk for developing numerous nervous system abnormalities, including cognitive problems and brain tumors (optic pathway glioma). Currently, there are few prognostic factors that predict clinical manifestations or outcomes in patients, even in families with an identical NF1 gene mutation. In this study, we leveraged Nf1 genetically engineered mice (GEM) to define the potential role of sex as a clinically relevant modifier of NF1-associated neuronal dysfunction.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2014

Schizophrenia is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder that affects approximately 1% of the population. Reduced expression of the 67-kDa protein isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) is a hallmark of the disease and is encoded by the GAD1 gene. In schizophrenia, GAD67 downregulation occurs in multiple interneuronal subpopulations, including the cannabinoid receptor type 1 positive (CNR1+) cells, but the functional consequences of these disturbances are not well understood.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2013

Lost their ways?

Biol Psychiatry 2013 Sep;74(6):398-9
Jacquelyn A Brown, Károly Mirnics

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) frequently have cognitive and behavioral deficits. Some of these deficits have been successfully modeled in Nf1 genetically-engineered mice that develop optic gliomas (Nf1 OPG mice). In the current study, we show that abnormal motivational influences affect the behavior of Nf1 OPG mice, particularly with regard to their response to novel environmental stimuli.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2011

Attention system abnormalities represent a significant barrier to scholastic achievement in children with neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1). Using a novel mouse model of NF1-associated attention deficit (ADD), we demonstrate a presynaptic defect in striatal dopaminergic homeostasis and leverage this finding to apply [(11)C]-raclopride positron-emission tomography (PET) in the intact animal. While methylphenidate and l-Deprenyl correct both striatal dopamine levels on PET imaging and defective attention system function in Nf1 mutant mice, pharmacologic agents that target de-regulated cyclic AMP and RAS signaling in these mice do not.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2012

Children with the neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome exhibit numerous clinical problems that reflect defective central nervous system (CNS) neuronal function, including learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder, and seizures. These clinical features result from reduced NF1 protein (neurofibromin) expression in NF1+/- (NF1 heterozygosity) brain neurons. Previous studies have shown that mouse CNS neurons are sensitive to the effects of reduced Nf1 expression and exhibit shorter neurite lengths, smaller growth cone areas, and attenuated survival, reflecting attenuated neurofibromin cAMP regulation.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2010

Learning and behavioral abnormalities are among the most common clinical problems in children with the neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1) inherited cancer syndrome. Recent studies using Nf1 genetically engineered mice (GEM) have been instructive for partly elucidating the cellular and molecular defects underlying these cognitive deficits; however, no current model has shed light on the more frequently encountered attention system abnormalities seen in children with NF1. Using an Nf1 optic glioma (OPG) GEM model, we report novel defects in non-selective and selective attention without an accompanying hyperactivity phenotype.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2010

Individuals with the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) inherited cancer syndrome exhibit neuronal dysfunction that predominantly affects the CNS. In this report, we demonstrate a unique vulnerability of CNS neurons, but not peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons, to reduced Nf1 gene expression. Unlike dorsal root ganglion neurons, Nf1 heterozygous (Nf1+/-) hippocampal and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) neurons have decreased growth cone areas and neurite lengths, and increased apoptosis compared to their wild-type counterparts.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2009

Repulsive guidance cues induce growth cone collapse or collapse and retraction. Collapse results from disruption and loss of the actin cytoskeleton. Actin-rich regions of growth cones contain binding proteins that influence filament organization, such as Arp2/3, cortactin, and fascin, but little is known about the role that these proteins play in collapse.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2009

Growth cone responses to guidance cues provide the basis for neuronal pathfinding. Although many cues have been identified, less is known about how signals are translated into the cytoskeletal rearrangements that steer directional changes during pathfinding. Here we show that the response of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to Semaphorin 3A gradients can be divided into two steps: growth cone collapse and retraction.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Back to top