Helping You Find Full Text Journal Articles

Search Results:

Author: James L J Bilzon (32)


Dec
1969

To assess the influence of the anatomical placement of a tri-axial accelerometer on the prediction of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in traumatic lower-limb amputees during walking and to develop valid population-specific prediction algorithms.
Thirty participants, consisting of unilateral (n = 10), and bilateral (n = 10) amputees, and non-injured controls (n = 10) volunteered to complete eight activities; resting in a supine position, walking on a flat (0.48, 0.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2017

Despite obesity being highly prevalent in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), our current understanding of the interactions between energy balance components, which may contribute to this, is limited. The primary aim of this study is to identify the intra-individual variability of physical activity dimensions across days and suggest an appropriate monitoring time frame for these constructs in adults with SCI. The secondary aim is to examine these parameters with regard to energy intake and dietary macronutrient composition.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Objective assessment methods to monitor residual limb volume following lower-limb amputation are required to enhance practitioner-led prosthetic fitting. Computer aided systems, including 3D scanners, present numerous advantages and the recent Artec Eva scanner, based on laser free technology, could potentially be an effective solution for monitoring residual limb volumes.
The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Artec Eva scanner (practical measurement) against a high precision laser 3D scanner (criterion measurement) for the determination of residual limb model shape and volume.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Athletes' force-power characteristics influence sled velocity during the skeleton start, which is a crucial determinant of performance. This study characterised force-power profile changes across an 18-month period and investigated the associations between these changes and start performance.
Seven elite- and five talent-squad skeleton athletes' (representing 80% of registered athletes in the country) force-power profiles and dry-land push-track performances were assessed at multiple time-points over two 6-month training periods and one 5-month competition season.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2017

Spinal cord injury (SCI) creates a complex pathology, characterized by low levels of habitual physical activity and an increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. This study aimed to assess the effect of a moderate-intensity upper-body exercise training intervention on biomarkers of cardiometabolic component risks, adipose tissue metabolism, and cardiorespiratory fitness in persons with SCI.
Twenty-one inactive men and women with chronic (>1 yr) SCI (all paraplegic injuries) 47 ± 8 yr of age (mean ± SD) were randomly allocated to either a 6-wk prescribed home-based exercise intervention (INT; n = 13) or control group (CON; n = 8).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2017

The development of velocity across the skeleton start is critical to performance, yet poorly understood. We aimed to understand which components of the sled velocity profile determine performance and how physical abilities influence these components. Thirteen well-trained skeleton athletes (>85% of athletes in the country) performed dry-land push-starts alongside countermovement jump and sprint tests at multiple time-points.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2017

Accurately measuring physical activity and energy expenditure in persons with chronic physical disabilities who use wheelchairs is a considerable and ongoing challenge. Quantifying various free-living lifestyle behaviours in this group is at present restricted by our understanding of appropriate measurement tools and analytical techniques. This review provides a detailed evaluation of the currently available measurement tools used to predict physical activity and energy expenditure in persons who use wheelchairs.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2017

The aim of this study was to assess sensitivity and specificity of surrogate physical ability tests as predictors of criterion firefighting task performance and to identify corresponding minimum muscular strength and endurance standards.
Fifty-one (26 male; 25 female) participants completed three criterion tasks (ladder lift, ladder lower, ladder extension) and three corresponding surrogate tests [one-repetition maximum (1RM) seated shoulder press; 1RM seated rope pull-down; repeated 28 kg seated rope pull-down]. Surrogate test standards were calculated that best identified individuals who passed (sensitivity; true positives) and failed (specificity; true negatives) criterion tasks.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2016

The aim of this study was to develop a systematic task analysis process for determination of minimum acceptable job performance in arduous safety-related occupations.
A task analysis using modifications on established methods was completed in UK firefighters. Subject-matter experts (all male) identified critical, physically arduous tasks generic to all UK firefighters and developed individual, role-specific task simulations.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2016

Spinal cord injury (SCI) creates a complex pathology that can lead to an increase in sedentary behaviours and deleterious changes in body composition. Consequently, individuals with SCI are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes mellitus. While the role of physical activity on the reduction of chronic disease risk is well documented in non-disabled individuals the evidence is less conclusive for persons with SCI.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2017

An extensive battery of physical tests is typically employed to evaluate athletic status and/or development, often resulting in a multitude of output variables. The authors aimed to identify independent physical predictors of elite skeleton start performance to overcome the general problem of practitioners employing multiple tests with little knowledge of their predictive utility.
Multiple 2-d testing sessions were undertaken by 13 high-level skeleton athletes across a 24-wk training season and consisted of flexibility, dry-land push-track, sprint, countermovement-jump, and leg-press tests.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2016

Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging is considered to provide a valid and reliable estimation of body composition when stringent scanning protocols are adopted. However, applied practitioners are not always able to achieve this level of control and the subsequent impact on measurement precision is not always taken into account when evaluating longitudinal body composition changes. The primary aim of this study was to establish the reliability of DXA in an applied elite sport setting to investigate whether real body composition changes can be detected.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2015

In persons completing exhaustive daily exercise, sleep and energy restriction have been highlighted as risk factors for hypothermia in cold environments. The present study therefore sought to determine the effect of sleep deprivation (SDEP), with and without energy restriction, on the thermal response to cold.
In a random order, ten recreationally active men (mean ± SD: age 25 ± 6 years, body fat 17 ± 5 %) completed three 53 h trials: a control (CON: 436 min/night sleep), SDEP (0 min sleep), and sleep deprivation and energy restriction (SDEP + ER: 0 min sleep and 10% daily energy requirements).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2014

This study aimed to assess the influence of anatomical placement of an accelerometer on physical activity energy expenditure prediction in manual wheelchair users.
Ten accelerometer units (ActiGraph GT3X+) were attached to a multiaxis shaker table and subjected to a sinusoidal oscillation procedure to assess mechanical validity and reliability. Fifteen manual wheelchair users (mean ± SD: age, 36 ± 11 yr; body mass, 70 ± 12 kg) then completed five activities, including desk work and wheelchair propulsion (2, 4, 6, and 8 km·h).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2014

In the United Kingdom, all branches of the armed forces use 2.4-km run time and/or the 20-m multistage shuttle run test (MSRT) to assess the aerobic fitness of their personnel. This study quantified the relationship between these two tests in 156 army recruits and officer cadets (100 men and 56 women) to ensure equivalence in the required aerobic fitness standards.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Load Carriage using backpacks is an occupational task and can be a recreational pursuit. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for changes in neuromuscular function of the m. quadriceps femoris following load carriage.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2013

Accelerometers are commonly used to quantify physical activity. There is no accordance regarding the most suitable attachment site. This study assessed the reliability and validity of accelerometer output (PAC) from 2 placements.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2012

This study compared the physical demands and progression of basic training for male and female British Army recruits in single-sex platoons. Thirty male and 30 female recruits were monitored for energy expenditure (EE) (doubly labeled water), physical activity (3-dimensional accelerometry) and cardiovascular strain (percent heart rate reserve) during 6 weeks over the 14-week course. First time pass rate was similar for male (60%) and female (57%) recruits.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2012

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a carbohydrate (CHO) and protein (PRO) drink consumed immediately after endurance exercise on saliva antimicrobial proteins known to be important for host defense. Eleven male runners ran for 2 hr at 75% VO2max on 2 occasions and immediately postexercise were provided, in randomized order, either a placebo solution (CON) or a CHO-PRO solution containing 1.2 g CHO/kg body mass (BM) and 0.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2010

Decrements in muscle function may reduce physical and skilled performance and have been shown to be greater following walking unloaded on negative gradients. We examined the effects of prolonged walking with load carriage at level and negative gradients on muscle function.
There were 10 male participants who completed two bouts of load carriage carrying a 25-kg backpack for 2 h at 6.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2010

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of two nights of sleep deprivation with or without energy restriction on immune indices at rest and in response to cold exposure. On three randomised occasions ten males slept normally [mean (SD): 436 (21) min night(-1); CON], were totally sleep-deprived (SDEP), or were totally sleep-deprived and 90% energy-restricted (SDEP + ER) for 53 h. After 53 h (1200 h) participants performed a seated cold air test (CAT) at 0.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2009

The aim of the study was to determine the influence of immediate and 1-hr-delayed carbohydrate (CHO) and protein (PRO) feeding after prolonged exercise on leukocyte trafficking, bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation, saliva secretory IgA (S-IgA) responses, and circulating stress hormones. In randomized order, separated by 1 wk, 9 male runners completed 3 feeding interventions after 2 hr of running at 75% VO2max. During control (CON), participants received water (12 ml/kg body mass [BM]) immediately and 1 hr postexercise.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2009

The aim was to test the hypothesis that one night of sleep deprivation will impair pre-loaded 30 min endurance performance and alter the cardio-respiratory, thermoregulatory and perceptual responses to exercise. Eleven males completed two randomised trials separated by 7 days: once after normal sleep (496 (18) min: CON) and once following 30 h without sleep (SDEP). After 30 h participants performed a 30 min pre-load at 60% [VO(2 max) followed by a 30 min self-paced treadmill distance test.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2008

The aim was to investigate the effects of 48 hr of fluid, energy, or combined fluid and energy restriction on circulating leukocyte and lymphocyte subset counts (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) and bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation at rest and after exercise. Thirteen healthy men (M +/- SEM age 21 +/- 1 yr) participated in 4 randomized 48-hr trials. During control (CON) participants received their estimated energy (2,903 +/- 17 kcal/day) and fluid (3,912 +/- 140 ml/day) requirements.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2009

A one night period without sleep is not uncommon amongst athletes travelling across time zones and military personnel during training and operations. However, the effect of one night without sleep on immune indices in response to strenuous exercise remains unknown. The objective was to determine the effect of one night without sleep on immune indices in response to subsequent strenuous exercise.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2008

To investigate whether unstimulated whole saliva flow rate (UFR) and osmolality (Sosm) track changes in hydration status during 48h of restricted fluid intake (RF) or combined fluid and energy restriction (RF+RE). Following the 48h periods, UFR and Sosm were assessed after acute exercise dehydration and rehydration.
Thirteen healthy males completed three trials in a randomised order: control (CON) where participants received their estimated energy (12,154+/-230kJ/d: mean+/-S.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2008

This study assessed the physical demands of the 24-week Combined Infantryman's Course (CIC) for Parachute Regiment (Para) recruits and developed physical selection standards for applicants. Fifty recruits were monitored over five separate periods (35 d in total during weeks 1-2, 5, 9, 15 and 19-20). Energy expenditure (doubly labelled water), physical activity (accelerometry) and cardiovascular strain (% heart rate reserve) were measured.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2008

This study aimed to identify risk factors for training injuries resulting in referral to a remedial instructor (RI) or medical discharge (MD) among British Army recruits undertaking initial training. Physical performance and anthropometric data for 11,937 male and 1,480 female recruits were examined as potential risk factors for RI referral and MD, using Cox regression. There was a trend showing that female recruits' MD rates were higher than male recruits' rates (p = 0.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2007

The aim was to investigate the effects of a 48 h period of fluid, energy or combined fluid and energy restriction on salivary IgA (s-IgA) responses at rest and after exercise. Thirteen healthy males (age 21 (sem 1) years) participated in four randomised 48 h trials. In the control trial participants received their estimated energy (12,154 (sem 230) kJ/d) and water (3912 (sem 140) ml/d) requirements.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2007

To determine the effect of a 48-h period of either fluid restriction (FR), energy restriction (ER), or fluid and energy restriction (F + ER) on 30-min treadmill time trial (TT) performance in temperate conditions.
Thirteen males participated in four randomized 48-h trials (mean +/- SD: age, 21 +/- 3 yr; VO2max 50.9 +/- 4.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2006

The effects of the first 19 weeks of U.K. Parachute Regiment (PARA) training on upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) incidence and immune function (circulating leukocyte counts, lymphocyte subsets, lipopolysaccharide-stimulated neutrophil degranulation, and salivary immunoglobulin A concentrations) were investigated for 14 PARA recruits and 12 control subjects.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2004

Firstly, to identify whether saliva flow rate, osmolality, and total protein are potential markers of hydration, we compared changes in these parameters with changes in plasma osmolality during progressive dehydration. Secondly, we compared the sensitivity of saliva parameters to track hydration changes with the sensitivity of urine osmolality. Thirdly, to test the hypothesis that dehydration, rather than neuroendocrine regulation, is responsible for the decrease in saliva flow rate during prolonged exercise, we compared flow rate and catecholamine responses to prolonged exercise with and without fluids.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Back to top