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Author: Jani Penttila (25)


Nov
2017

Neuroimaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have most commonly reported volumetric abnormalities in the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and prefrontal cortices. Few studies have examined the relationship between ADHD symptomatology and brain structure in population-based samples. We investigated the relationship between dimensional measures of ADHD symptomatology, brain structure, and reaction time variability-an index of lapses in attention.

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Dec
1969

Here we report the first and most robust evidence about how sleep habits are associated with regional brain grey matter volumes and school grade average in early adolescence. Shorter time in bed during weekdays, and later weekend sleeping hours correlate with smaller brain grey matter volumes in frontal, anterior cingulate, and precuneus cortex regions. Poor school grade average associates with later weekend bedtime and smaller grey matter volumes in medial brain regions.

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Dec
1969

Negative life events (NLE) contribute to anxiety and depression disorders, but their relationship with brain functioning in adolescence has rarely been studied. We hypothesized that neural response to social threat would relate to NLE in the frontal-limbic emotional regions. Participants (N = 685) were drawn from the Imagen database of 14-year-old community adolescents recruited in schools.

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Mar
2016

The serotonin 5-HT1A receptor is a putative drug development target in disorders with cognitive and in particular memory deficits. However, previous human positron emission tomography (PET) studies on 5-HT1A receptor binding and memory functions have yielded discrepant results. We explored the association between verbal memory and 5-HT1A receptor binding in 24 healthy subjects (14 male, 10 female, aged 18-41 years).

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Oct
2015

Neuroimaging findings have been reported in regions of the brain associated with emotion in both adults and adolescents with depression, but few studies have investigated whether such brain alterations can be detected in adolescents with subthreshold depression, a condition at risk for major depressive disorder. In this study, we searched for differences in brain structure at age 14 years in adolescents with subthreshold depression and their relation to depression at age 16 years.
High-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess adolescents with self-reported subthreshold depression (n = 119) and healthy control adolescents (n = 461), all recruited from a community-based sample.

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Dec
2015

The authors examined whether alterations in the brain's reward network operate as a mechanism across the spectrum of risk for depression. They then tested whether these alterations are specific to anhedonia as compared with low mood and whether they are predictive of depressive outcomes.
Functional MRI was used to collect blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses to anticipation of reward in the monetary incentive task in 1,576 adolescents in a community-based sample.

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Dec
1969

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in not necessarily a phenomenon passing away with childhood, instead in some patients attention problems continue, causing disturbances until adulthood. ADHD hampers studying and getting along in working life, social relationships as well as traffic skills. ADHD is also associated with increased risk of substance abuse and criminal behavior.

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Mar
2011

Conventional time and frequency domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) are strongly influenced by anesthetic drugs, and are therefore not able to detect subtle changes in HRV, even during light anesthesia. Approximate entropy of R-R intervals is an HRV measure that has a tendency to decrease during anesthesia, but it is severely compromised by low-frequency variations of the signal. However, the negative effect of the low-frequency variations can be eliminated by differentiating the R-R interval tachogram before analysis.

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Jan
2011

Auditory verbal hallucinations are a cardinal symptom of schizophrenia. Bleuler and Kraepelin distinguished 2 main classes of hallucinations: hallucinations heard outside the head (outer space, or external, hallucinations) and hallucinations heard inside the head (inner space, or internal, hallucinations). This distinction has been confirmed by recent phenomenological studies that identified 3 independent dimensions in auditory hallucinations: language complexity, self-other misattribution, and spatial location.

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Sep
2009

Smoking cues (SCs) refer to smoking-associated environmental stimuli that may trigger craving and withdrawal symptoms, and predispose to relapse in smokers. Although previous brain imaging studies have explored neural responses to SCs, no study has characterized the effects of SCs on cerebral activity in smokers engaged in an attention-demanding cognitive task that is unrelated to smoking. Thirteen tobacco smokers and a demographically matched group of 13 healthy non-smokers participated in a fast event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that involved a visual task integrating SCs and neutral cues (NCs) during emotion recognition trials requiring a high level of attention.

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Jun
2009

Cerebral abnormalities have been detected in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). In comparison to BD with a later onset, early-onset BD has been found to have a poorer outcome. However, it is yet unknown whether neuroanatomical abnormalities differ between age-at-onset subgroups of the illness.

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Mar
2009

Analysis of cortical folding may provide insight into neurodevelopment deviations, which, in turn, can predispose to depression that responds particularly poorly to medications. We hypothesized that patients with treatment-resistant depression would exhibit measurable alterations in cortical folding.
We computed hemispheric global sulcal indices (g-SIs) in T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance images obtained from 76 patients and 70 healthy controls.

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Feb
2009

The inhibition of cerebral monoamine oxidases (MAOs) by cigarette smoke components could participate to the tobacco addiction. However, the actual extent of this inhibition in vivo in smokers is still poorly known. We investigated cerebral MAO-A availability in 7 tobacco-dependent subjects and 6 healthy nonsmokers, using positron emission tomography (PET) and the MAO-A selective radioligand [C]befloxatone.

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Oct
2008

Adult-onset schizophrenia has repeatedly been associated with disturbances in the temporal lobes and alterations in cortical folding, which are thought to reflect neurodevelopmental impairment. Early-onset schizophrenia (EOS; onset before 18 years) is considered to involve even more pronounced neurodevelopmental deviance across a wide range of brain structural measures. We hypothesized that overall alteration of cortical folding also applies to EOS, and EOS involves prominent structural aberrations in superior temporal and collateral sulci.

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Apr
2009

Components of the corticocerebellar circuit and the midbrain individually play a central role in addictive processes and have been associated with altered volumes and impairment of cognitive flexibility in alcohol-dependent subjects. The microstructure of white matter bundles composing the corticocerebellar network and passing through the midbrain was studied using diffusion tensor imaging in a group of detoxified alcohol-dependent men (n=20) and a group of healthy men (n=24). The relationship between properties of these white matter bundles and cognitive flexibility performance was investigated in alcohol-dependent subjects.

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Nov
2006

Although cephalosporins are generally safe, they have been reported to cause neurotoxic effects in some subjects. We report on a 16-year-old boy with no previous history of psychiatric illness, who developed symptoms of delirium during treatment of paronychia infection with cephalexin. Possible reasons for our patient's particular vulnerability to adverse drug effects in the central nervous system include his young age, a developmental delay, and an earlier head injury.

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Dec
1969

[Not Available].

Duodecim 2006 ;122(9):1030-3
Jani Penttila, Jarmo Hietala

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Jun
2006

Cardiac output (CO) has traditionally been measured using invasive techniques, which involve an element of risk. Thus, a reliable less-invasive method for determining CO would be very valuable for research use. We tested whether simple analysis of the arterial pulse waveform, not requiring large-vessel catheterisation or expensive equipment, could provide an estimate of CO that is accurate enough for pharmacological studies.

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Oct
2005

Proposed mechanisms of action of SSRIs.

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2005 Oct;44(10):968; discussion 969
Jani Penttilä, Jarmo Hietala

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Sep
2005

Anticholinergic agents have widespread therapeutic indications in clinical medicine. In addition, certain other drug groups-such as neuroleptics, antidepressants and antihistamines-possess distinct anticholinergic properties that reduce tolerance and compliance. Especially in patients with heart disease, attention should be paid to cardiac anticholinergic drug effects.

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Dec
2004

We have previously reported that repeated dosing with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram decreases striatal [11C]raclopride binding in healthy volunteers. As the SSRI-class antidepressant drugs are believed to have a similar mechanism of action, we wanted to explore whether the prototype SSRI drug, fluoxetine, shares the effects of citalopram on subcortical dopamine neurotransmission. Eight healthy male volunteers were studied using a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study design.

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May
2004

We evaluated the cardiovascular effects of intravenously (i.v.) and buccally administered dexmedetomidine, a selective alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist.

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Dec
2003

To determine the absolute bioavailability of extravascularly administered dexmedetomidine, a novel a2-adrenoceptor agonist, in healthy subjects.
Single 2 microg x kg-1 doses of dexmedetomidine were given intravenously, intramuscularly, perorally and buccally (where the solution is not swallowed) to 12 healthy male subjects. The drug concentration-time data were analysed using linear one-compartment (buccal and peroral data), or two-compartment modelling (intravenous data), or noncompartmental methods (intramuscular data).

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