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Author: Jean-Christophe Poncer (27)


Nov
2017

The K-Clco-transporter KCC2 (SLC12A5) tunes the efficacy of GABAreceptor-mediated transmission by regulating the intraneuronal chloride concentration [Cl]. KCC2 undergoes activity-dependent regulation in both physiological and pathological conditions. The regulation of KCC2 by synaptic excitation is well documented; however, whether the transporter is regulated by synaptic inhibition is unknown.

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Aug
2017

Brain development involves extensive migration of neurons. Microtubules (MTs) are key cellular effectors of neuronal displacement that are assembled from α/β-tubulin heterodimers. Mutation of the α-tubulin isotype TUBA1A is associated with cortical malformations in humans.

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May
2017

The structure and function of spines and excitatory synapses are under the dynamic control of multiple signalling networks. Although tyrosine phosphorylation is involved, its regulation and importance are not well understood. Here we study the role of Pyk2, a non-receptor calcium-dependent protein-tyrosine kinase highly expressed in the hippocampus.

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Dec
2017

The fundamental role of the brain-specific myelin transcription factor 1-like (MYT1L) gene in cases of intellectual disability and in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders is increasingly recognized. Yet, its function remains under-investigated. Here, we identify a network of helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcriptional regulators controlled by MYT1L, as indicated by our analyses in human neural stem cells and in the human brain.

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Dec
2015

Expression of the neuronal K/Cl transporter KCC2 is tightly regulated throughout development and by both normal and pathological neuronal activity. Changes in KCC2 expression have often been associated with altered chloride homeostasis and GABA signaling. However, recent evidence supports a role of KCC2 in the development and function of glutamatergic synapses through mechanisms that remain poorly understood.

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Dec
1969

Serotonergic neurons of the raphe nuclei exhibit anatomical, neurochemical and elecrophysiological heterogeneity that likely underpins their specific role in multiple behaviors. However, the precise organization of serotonin (5-HT) neurons to orchestrate 5-HT release patterns throughout the brain is not well understood. We compared the electrophysiological and neurochemical properties of dorsal and median raphe 5-HT neurons projecting to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala (BLA) and dorsal hippocampus (dHP), combining retrograde tract tracing with brain slice electrophysiology and single-cell RT-PCR in Pet1-EGFP mice.

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Sep
2014

A long-term in vitro preparation of diseased brain tissue would facilitate work on human pathologies. Organotypic tissue cultures retain an appropriate neuronal form, spatial arrangement, connectivity and electrical activity over several weeks. However, they are typically prepared with tissue from immature animals.

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Jan
2015

Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are widely used in the treatment of a variety of neurological and psychiatric conditions including anxiety, insomnia and epilepsy. BZDs are thought to act predominantly by affecting the gating of GABAA receptor channels, resulting in enhanced GABA-mediated currents in neurons. However, mutations mimicking the effect of BZDs on GABAAR channel gating have been shown to also impact the membrane dynamics and synaptic anchoring of the receptors.

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Sep
2013

The neuronal K/Cl transporter KCC2 exports chloride ions and thereby influences the efficacy and polarity of GABA signaling in the brain. KCC2 is also critical for dendritic spine morphogenesis and the maintenance of glutamatergic transmission in cortical neurons. Because KCC2 plays a pivotal role in the function of central synapses, it is of particular importance to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its regulation.

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Dec
1969

Dentate gyrus granule cells (GCs) have been suggested to synthesize both GABA and glutamate immediately after birth and under pathological conditions in the adult. Expression of the GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD67 by GCs during the first few weeks of postnatal development may then allow for transient GABA synthesis and synaptic release from these cells. Here, using the GAD67-EGFP transgenic strain G42, we explored the phenotype of GAD67-expressing GCs in the mouse dentate gyrus.

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Apr
2013

Hippocampal parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV INs) provide fast and reliable GABAergic signalling to principal cells and orchestrate hippocampal ensemble activities. Precise coordination of principal cell activity by PV INs relies in part on the efficacy of excitatory afferents that recruit them in the hippocampal network. Feed-forward (FF) inputs in particular from Schaffer collaterals influence spike timing precision in CA1 principal cells whereas local feedback (FB) inputs may contribute to pacemaker activities.

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Aug
2012

Dentate gyrus granule cells have been suggested to corelease GABA and glutamate both in juvenile animals and under pathological conditions in adults. Although mossy fiber terminals (MFTs) are known to express glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in early postnatal development, the functional role of GABA synthesis in MFTs remains controversial, and direct evidence for synaptic GABA release from MFTs is missing. Here, using GAD67-GFP transgenic mice, we show that GAD67 is expressed only in a population of immature granule cells in juvenile animals.

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Jun
2012

Vezatin is an integral membrane protein associated with cell-cell adhesion complex and actin cytoskeleton. It is expressed in the developing and mature mammalian brain, but its neuronal function is unknown. Here, we show that Vezatin localizes in spines in mature mouse hippocampal neurons and codistributes with PSD95, a major scaffolding protein of the excitatory postsynaptic density.

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Dec
1969

The K-Cl co-transporter KCC2 plays multiple roles in the physiology of central neurons and alterations of its function and/or expression are associated with several neurological conditions. By regulating intraneuronal chloride homeostasis, KCC2 strongly influences the efficacy and polarity of the chloride-permeable γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A and glycine receptor (GlyR) mediated synaptic transmission. This appears particularly critical for the development of neuronal circuits as well as for the dynamic control of GABA and glycine signaling in mature networks.

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Jul
2012

Neuronal activity modulates the membrane diffusion of postsynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs), thereby regulating the efficacy of GABAergic synapses. The K289M mutation in GABA(A)Rs subunit γ2 has been associated with the generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) syndrome. This mutation accelerates receptor deactivation and therefore reduces inhibitory synaptic transmission.

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Sep
2011

The K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 plays an essential role in neuronal chloride homeostasis, and thereby influences the efficacy and polarity of GABA signaling. Although KCC2 is expressed throughout the somatodendritic membrane, it is remarkably enriched in dendritic spines, which host most glutamatergic synapses in cortical neurons. KCC2 has been shown to influence spine morphogenesis and functional maturation in developing neurons, but its function in mature dendritic spines remains unknown.

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Sep
2011

On September 12-15, 2010 the French Ion Channels Association organized its annual scientific meeting on the French coast of Mediterranean Sea. This meeting takes place in an attractive location and provides a great opportunity for principal investigators as well as young researchers to present and discuss their recent advances and future challenges in the field of ion channels and transporters. The French Ion Channels Association was created more than 20 years ago and its goal is to organize an annual meeting and more recently to promote interactions (through the website www.

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Apr
2010

Expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP), its more fluorescent mutant forms (e.g., EGFP [enhanced GFP]), or their fusion protein derivatives, affords a number of informative possibilities in cellular neuroscience.

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Mar
2009

Heterozygous mutations in the CLCN2 gene encoding the voltage-gated chloride channel CLC2 have been identified in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). Yet the involvement of CLCN2 in epilepsy remains controversial. To investigate the involvement of CLCN2 in another independent sample, we screened 52 unrelated patients from IGE families and 23 patients with Doose syndrome for mutations in CLCN2.

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Jul
2008

Epidemiological studies have linked maternal infection during pregnancy to later development of neuropsychiatric disorders in the offspring. In mice, experimental inflammation during embryonic development impairs behavioral and cognitive performances in adulthood. Synaptic dysfunctions may be at the origin of cognitive impairments, however the link between prenatal inflammation and synaptic defects remains to be established.

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Dec
2007

GABA acts on GABA(A) receptors to evoke both phasic inhibitory synaptic events and persistent, tonic currents. The gamma2 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor is involved in both phasic and tonic signaling in the hippocampus. Several mutations of this subunit are linked to human epileptic syndromes with febrile seizures, yet it is not clear how they perturb neuronal activity.

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Oct
2006

Synaptic vesicle (SV) exocytosis mediating neurotransmitter release occurs spontaneously at low intraterminal calcium concentrations and is stimulated by a rise in intracellular calcium. Exocytosis is compensated for by the reformation of vesicles at plasma membrane and endosomes. Although the adaptor complex AP-3 was proposed to be involved in the formation of SVs from endosomes, whether its function has an indirect effect on exocytosis remains unknown.

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Oct
2005


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Dec
2004

Several proteins are expressed in both immune and nervous systems. However, their putative nonimmune functions in the brain remain poorly understood. KARAP/DAP12 is a transmembrane polypeptide associated with cell-surface receptors in hematopoeitic cells.

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Nov
2004

Presynaptic calcium influx at most excitatory central synapses is carried by both Cav2.1 and Cav2.2 channels.

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Nov
2004

Long-term, activity-driven synaptic plasticity allows neuronal networks to constantly and durably adjust synaptic gains between synaptic partners. These processes have been proposed to serve as a substrate for learning and memory. Long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) has been observed at many central excitatory synapses and perhaps most extensively studied at Schaffer collaterals synapses onto hippocampal CA1 neurons.

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Jun
2002

Some forms of activity-dependent synaptic potentiation require the activation of postsynaptic Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Activation of CaMKII has been shown to phosphorylate the glutamate receptor 1 subunit of the AMPA receptor (AMPAR), thereby affecting some of the properties of the receptor. Here, a recombinant, constitutively active form of alphaCaMKII tagged with the fluorescent marker green fluorescent protein (GFP) [alphaCaMKII(1-290)-enhanced GFP (EGFP)] was expressed in CA1 pyramidal neurons from hippocampal slices.

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