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Author: Jeffrey Butler (25)


Dec
2017

Concomitant administration of enteral fluoroquinolones (FQs) with divalent or trivalent cation-containing compounds results in a reduction in FQ bioavailability. A review of enteral FQ administration with regards to the timing of divalent or trivalent cation-containing compounds in pediatric patients revealed a high number of inappropriately administered FQs. Suggestions for reducing the number of inappropriately timed FQ administrations are presented here.

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Jun
2017

Background Cultivating hospital environments that support older people's care is a national priority. Evidence on geriatric nursing practice environments, obtained from studies of registered nurses (RNs) in American teaching hospitals, may have limited applicability to Canada, where RNs and registered practical nurses (RPNs) care for older people in predominantly nonteaching hospitals. Purpose This study describes nurses' perceptions of the overall quality of care for older people and the geriatric nursing practice environment (geriatric resources, interprofessional collaboration, and organizational value of older people's care) and examines if these perceptions differ by professional designation and hospital teaching status.

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Nov
2016

To explore nurses' perspectives on how leaders influence function-focused care, defined as care that preserves and restores older people's functional abilities.
Hospitalised older people are at risk of functional decline. Although leaders have the potential to influence function-focused care, few studies have explored nurses' perspectives on how leaders influence function-focused care.

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Dec
1969

Avian influenza viruses of H5 subtype can cause highly pathogenic disease in poultry. In March 2014, a new reassortant H5N6 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus emerged in Lao People's Democratic Republic. We have assessed the pathogenicity, pathobiology and immunological responses associated with this virus in chickens.

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Feb
2016

Older people are at risk of experiencing functional decline and related complications during hospitalization. In countries with projected increases in age demographics, preventing these adverse consequences is a priority. Because most Canadian nurses have received little geriatrics content in their basic education, understanding their learning needs is fundamental to preparing them to respond to this priority.

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Jun
2014

Apnea of prematurity, a common disorder, can severely compromise an infant's condition unless correctly diagnosed and treated. Infants with a history of apnea of prematurity can be discharged home but then be rehospitalized for an apneic event, an apparent life-threatening event, or sudden infant death syndrome. The definition of a clinically significant cardiopulmonary event, such events' documentation, and the treatment approach were standardized, and discharge criteria were refined.

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Jul
2014

A concise total synthesis of the complex indole alkaloid (±)-actinophyllic acid was accomplished by a sequence of reactions requiring only 10 steps from readily-available, known starting materials. The approach featured a Lewis acid-catalyzed cascade of reactions involving stabilized carbocations that delivered the tetracyclic core of the natural product in a single chemical operation. Optimal conversion of this key intermediate into (±)-actinophyllic acid required judicious selection of a protecting group strategy.

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May
2014

ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs.

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Sep
2013

Actinophyllic acid is a biologically active indole alkaloid with a unique structural framework that incorporates five contiguous stereocenters. A total synthesis of (±)-actinophyllic acid has been completed that proceeds in only 10 steps from readily available, known compounds and with the isolation of nine intermediates. The synthesis features a novel cascade of reactions of N-stabilized carbocations with π-nucleophiles to create the tetracyclic core of actinophyllic acid in a single chemical operation.

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Dec
1969

Metabolomic analyses can provide valuable information about the internal metabolism of an organism; however, these studies can become quickly complicated by the large number of metabolites that are often detected. Overcoming this limitation requires high-resolution analytical separation techniques, coupled with high-power deconvolution software. Additionally, much care must be taken in metabolomic sample preparation to quench active enzymes and avoid artifactual changes in the metabolome.

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Apr
2013

Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) directed against the lipoyl domain of the E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDC-E2) are detected in 95% of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and are present before the onset of clinical disease. The recent demonstration that AMAs recognize xenobiotic modified PDC-E2 with higher titers than native PDC-E2 raises the possibility that the earliest events involved in loss of tolerance are related to xenobiotic modification. We hypothesized that reactivity to such xenobiotics would be predominantly immunoglobulin M (IgM) and using sera from a large cohort of PBC patients and controls (n = 516), we examined in detail sera reactivity against either 6,8-bis(acetylthio) octanoic acid (SAc)-conjugated bovine serum albumin (BSA), recombinant PDC-E2 (rPDC-E2) or BSA alone.

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Feb
2013

Mit mutations that disrupt function of the mitochondrial electron transport chain can, inexplicably, prolong Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan. In this study we use a metabolomics approach to identify an ensemble of mitochondrial-derived α-ketoacids and α-hydroxyacids that are produced by long-lived Mit mutants but not by other long-lived mutants or by short-lived mitochondrial mutants. We show that accumulation of these compounds is dependent on concerted inhibition of three α-ketoacid dehydrogenases that share dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) as a common subunit, a protein previously linked in humans with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease.

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Dec
1969

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a model organism that has seen extensive use over the last four decades in multiple areas of investigation. In this study we explore the response of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to acute anoxia using gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). We focus on the readily-accessible worm exometabolome to show that C.

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Nov
2011

Our laboratory has hypothesized that xenobiotic modification of the native lipoyl moiety of the major mitochondrial autoantigen, the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2), may lead to loss of self-tolerance in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). This thesis is based on the finding of readily detectable levels of immunoreactivity of PBC sera against extensive panels of protein microarrays containing mimics of the inner lipoyl domain of PDC-E2 and subsequent quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). Importantly, we have demonstrated that murine immunization with one such mimic, 2-octynoic acid coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA), induces anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) and cholangitis.

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Jul
2011

Routes to structurally unique spiro-fused pyrazolidoylisoxazolines are reported. These methods start with monosubstituted hydrazines or hydrazides and utilize the nitrile oxide 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction to generate the targeted spiro-fused bis-heterocycles. Molecular shape space diversity analyses were performed on these pyrazolidoylisoxazolines showing that manipulation of the appended R groups significantly changes the molecular shape.

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Jun
2011

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a model organism best known for its powerful genetics. There is an increasing need in the worm community to couple genetics with biochemistry. Isolation of functionally active proteins or nucleic acids without the use of strong oxidizing denaturants or of subcellular compartments from C.

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Dec
2010

The Caenorhabditis elegans mitochondrial (Mit) mutants have disrupted mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) functionality, yet, surprisingly, they are long lived. We have previously proposed that Mit mutants supplement their energy needs by exploiting alternate energy production pathways normally used by wild-type animals only when exposed to hypoxic conditions. We have also proposed that longevity in the Mit mutants arises as a property of their new metabolic state.

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Aug
2010

A diastereoselective organocatalytic aldol/oxa-Michael reaction has been developed to efficiently deliver medicinally relevant 2,3-ring-substituted chromanones. Development of this synthetic strategy revealed an unexpected kinetic anti-Saytzeff elimination; an origin for the observed selectivity is suggested on the basis of the results of quantum chemical calculations. This unusual kinetic selectivity necessitated an isomerization protocol that in turn led to the discovery of an intriguing Pd-mediated isomerization/intramolecular Friedel-Crafts-type alkylation.

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Jun
2010

A variety of nucleophiles, thiolates, alkoxides, amines, iodide, and cyanide, react with oxazino-, oxazolino-, and benzoxazin[3,2-b]indazoles under microwave conditions to yield a diverse set of 2-substituted 1H-indazolones. The synthetic utility of these indazoles is further demonstrated by ANRORC (addition of the nucleophile, ring-opening, and ring closure) reactions to yield isomeric pyrazoloindazolones by a process wherein iodide acts first as a nucleophile and subsequently as a leaving group.

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Jan
2010

A developing therapy of cystic fibrosis caused by the DeltaF508 mutation in CFTR employs correction of defective CFTR chloride channel gating by a 'potentiator' and of defective CFTR protein folding by a 'corrector'. Based on SAR data for phenylglycine-type potentiators and bithiazole correctors, we designed a hybrid molecule incorporating an enzymatic hydrolysable linker to deliver the potentiator (PG01) fragment 2 and the corrector (Corr-4a) fragment 13. The hybrid molecule 14 contained PG01-OH and Corr-4a-linker-CO(2)H moieties, linked with an ethylene glycol spacer through an ester bond.

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Apr
2009

The transcriptional status of a gene can be maintained through multiple rounds of cell division during development. This epigenetic effect is believed to reflect heritable changes in chromatin folding and histone modifications or variants at target genes, but little is known about how these chromatin features are inherited through cell division. A particular challenge for maintaining transcription states is DNA replication, which disrupts or dilutes chromatin-associated proteins and histone modifications.

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Jan
2008

The parent 5H-indazolo[3,2-b]benzo[d]-1,3-oxazine heterocycle as well as a series of novel analogues have been synthesized utilizing two subsequent intramolecular heterocyclizations in one pot. A variety of diversity groups were added to explore the scope of this reaction and to provide a number of new compounds for biological screening.

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Mar
2002

Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) and basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals are important in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) but are under recognized even in end stage disease. We determined the prevalence of these calcium crystals in synovial fluid (SF) of persons undergoing total knee arthroplasty for degenerative arthritis.
SF samples were obtained from 53 knee joints undergoing total arthroplasty for a pre-operative diagnosis of OA.

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