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Author: Jeffrey C Glennon (38)


Jan
2018

Functional connectivity has been shown to be a very promising tool for studying the large-scale functional architecture of the human brain. In network research in fMRI, functional connectivity is considered as a set of pair-wise interactions between the nodes of the network. These interactions are typically operationalized through the full or partial correlation between all pairs of regional time series.

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Dec
2017

Reduced top-down control by cortical areas is assumed to underlie pathological forms of aggression. While the precise underlying molecular mechanisms are still elusive, it seems that balancing the excitatory and inhibitory tones of cortical brain areas has a role in aggression control. The molecular mechanisms underpinning aggression control were examined in the BALB/cJ mouse model.

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Jan
2018

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid and are associated with changes in striatal volumes and N-Acetylaspartate (NAA) and glutamate levels. Here, we investigated the relation between dorsal striatal volume and NAA and glutamate levels. We additionally compared striatal volume and shape between ASD, OCD and controls.

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Dec
1969

Research has implicated glutamatergic projections between the various frontal subregions in the pathogenesis of compulsivity and impulsivity. Reducing striatal glutamate release, or antagonising the action of glutamate at its receptors, may therefore represent viable treatment strategies. Several glutamatergic agents with regulatory approval for other indications are available and may be of potential benefit in the treatment of compulsivity/impulsivity in psychiatric disorders in paediatric patients.

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Jan
2018

We conducted meta-analyses of relationships between highly prevalent substance use during pregnancy and offspring conduct disorder problems. In total 36 studies were included. Odds ratios (ORs) were 2.

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Aug
2017

Multiple computational studies have demonstrated that essentially all current analytical approaches to determine effective connectivity perform poorly when applied to synthetic functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) datasets. In this study, we take a theoretical approach to investigate the potential factors facilitating and hindering effective connectivity research in fMRI.
In this work, we perform a simulation study with use of Dynamic Causal Modeling generative model in order to gain new insights on the influence of factors such as the slow hemodynamic response, mixed signals in the network and short time series, on the effective connectivity estimation in fMRI studies.

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Dec
1969

The authors sought to explore how conduct, hyperactivity/inattention, and emotional symptoms are associated with neural reactivity to social-emotional stimuli, and the extent to which psychosocial stress modulates these relationships.
Participants were community adolescents recruited as part of the European IMAGEN study. Bilateral amygdala regions of interest were used to assess the relationship between the three symptom domains and functional MRI neural reactivity during passive viewing of dynamic angry and neutral facial expressions.

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Jan
2018

The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in animal models of palatogenesis has been shown, but only limited research has been carried out in humans. To date, no miRNA expression study on tissues or cells from cleft palate patients has been published. We compared miRNA expression in palatal fibroblasts from cleft palate patients and age-matched controls.

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Dec
1969

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between ASD and ADHD symptoms by applying causal modeling. We used a large phenotypic data set of 417 children with ASD and/or ADHD, 562 affected and unaffected siblings, and 414 controls, to infer a structural equation model using a causal discovery algorithm.

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Jan
2017

Heterozygous mutations or deletions of the human Euchromatin Histone Methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1) gene are the main causes of Kleefstra syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by impaired memory, autistic features and mostly severe intellectual disability. Previously, Ehmt1heterozygous knockout mice were found to exhibit cranial abnormalities and decreased sociability, phenotypes similar to those observed in Kleefstra syndrome patients. In addition, Ehmt1knockout mice were impaired at fear extinction and novel- and spatial object recognition.

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Nov
2017

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid with the overlap based on compulsive behaviors. Although previous studies suggest glutamatergic deficits in fronto-striatal brain areas in both disorders, this is the first study to directly compare the glutamate concentrations across the two disorders with those in healthy control participants using both categorical and dimensional approaches. In the current multi-center study (four centers), we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 51 children with ASD, 29 with OCD, and 53 healthy controls (aged 8-13 years) to investigate glutamate (Glu) concentrations in two regions of the fronto-striatal circuit: midline anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and left dorsal striatum.

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Nov
2016

Clock genes, ADHD and aggression.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2016 Nov 9. Epub 2016 Nov 9.
Floriana Mogavero, Amanda Jager, Jeffrey C Glennon
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with comorbid aggression and sleep disturbances. The sleep/wake cycle is under the control of the circadian system which is moderated by clock genes. Clock genes can regulate the transcription of monoamine oxidase A, which is involved in the degradation of monoamines.

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Dec
1969

Compulsivity, the closely linked trait impulsivity and addictive behaviour are associated with several neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). All three disorders show impaired fronto-striatal functioning, which may be related to altered glutamatergic signalling. Genetic factors are also thought to play an important role in the aetiology of compulsivity-related disorders.

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Dec
1969

Numerous factor analytic studies consistently support a distinction between two symptom domains of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Both dimensions show high internal consistency and moderate to strong correlations with each other. However, it is not clear what drives this strong correlation.

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Sep
2016

Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, i.e., unconcernedness and lack of prosocial feelings, may manifest in Conduct Disorder (CD), but also in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

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Feb
2017

MicroRNAs (miRs) are small regulatory molecules, which orchestrate neuronal development and plasticity through modulation of complex gene networks. MicroRNA-137 (miR-137) is a brain-enriched RNA with a critical role in regulating brain development and in mediating synaptic plasticity. Importantly, mutations in this miR are associated with the pathoetiology of schizophrenia (SZ), and there is a widespread assumption that disruptions in miR-137 expression lead to aberrant expression of gene regulatory networks associated with SZ.

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Jun
2016

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood and is characterized by obsessions (recurrent, intrusive, persistent thoughts, impulses and/or ideas that often cause anxiety or distress) and compulsions (ritualized and stereotypic behaviours or mental acts that are often performed to relieve anxiety or distress associated with obsessions). Although OCD is a heritable disorder, its complex molecular etiology is poorly understood.
We combined enrichment analyses and an elaborate literature review of the top-ranked genes emerging from the 2 published genome-wide association studies of OCD and candidate genes implicated through other evidence in order to identify biological processes that, when dysregulated, increase the risk for OCD.

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Oct
2015

Paediatric psychopharmacology holds great promise in two equally important areas of enormous biomedical and social impact, namely the treatment of behavioural abnormalities in children and adolescents, and the prevention of psychiatric disorders with adolescent- or adult-onset. Yet, in striking contrast, pharmacological treatment options presently available in child and adolescent psychiatry are dramatically limited. The most important currently unmet needs in paediatric psychopharmacology are: the frequent off-label prescription of medications to children and adolescents based exclusively on data from randomized controlled studies involving adult patients; the frequent lack of age-specific dose, long-term efficacy and tolerability/safety data; the lack of effective medications for many paediatric psychiatric disorders, most critically autism spectrum disorder; the scarcity and limitations of randomized placebo-controlled trials in paediatric psychopharmacology; the unexplored potential for the prevention of psychiatric disorders with adolescent- and adult-onset; the current lack of biomarkers to predict treatment response and severe adverse effects; the need for better preclinical data to foster the successful development of novel drug therapies; and the effective dissemination of evidence-based treatments to the general public, to better inform patients and families of the benefits and risks of pharmacological interventions during development.

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Dec
1969

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious condition with a lifetime prevalence exceeding 16% worldwide. MDD is a heterogeneous disorder that involves multiple behavioral symptoms on the one hand and multiple neuronal circuits on the other hand. In this review, we integrate the literature on cognitive and physiological biomarkers of MDD with the insights derived from mathematical models of brain networks, especially models that can be used for fMRI datasets.

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May
2015

Compulsivity and impulsivity are cross-disorder traits observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Aberrant fronto-striatal glutamatergic signalling is core to the understanding of compulsive and impulsive disorders. In this review, the glutamate (Glu) neurochemistry of fronto-striatal circuits in paediatric and adult ASD, ADHD and OCD, as described in 59 studies, is outlined from the perspective of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS).

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Dec
2013

Recent studies have emphasized an important role for long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) in epigenetic regulation, development, and disease. Despite growing interest in lncRNAs, the mechanisms by which lncRNAs control cellular processes are still elusive. Improved understanding of these mechanisms is critical, because the majority of the mammalian genome is transcribed, in most cases resulting in non-coding RNA products.

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Mar
2014

The main reason for the current lack of effective treatments for the core symptoms of autism is our limited understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying this heterogeneous group of disorders. A primary value of genetic research is enhancing our insight into the biology of autism through the study of identified autism risk genes.
In the current review we discuss (1) the genes and loci that are associated with autism, (2) how these provide us with essential cues as to what neurobiological mechanisms may be involved, and (3) how these mechanisms may be used as targets for novel treatments.

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Mar
2014

The establishment of robust and replicable behavioural testing paradigms with translational value for psychiatric diseases is a major step forward in developing and testing etiology-directed treatment for these complex disorders. Based on the existing literature, we have generated an inventory of applied rodent behavioural testing paradigms relevant to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This inventory focused on previously used paradigms that assess behavioural domains that are affected in ASD, such as social interaction, social communication, repetitive behaviours and behavioural inflexibility, cognition as well as anxiety behaviour.

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Aug
2013

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental conditions with symptoms manifesting before the age of 3, generally persisting throughout life and affecting social development and communication. Here, we have investigated changes in protein biomarkers in blood during childhood and adolescent development.
We carried out a multiplex immunoassay profiling analysis of serum samples from 37 individuals with a diagnosis of ASD and their matched, non-affected siblings, aged between 4 and 18 years, to identify molecular pathways affected over the course of ASDs.

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Feb
2013

The emergence of optogenetics technology facilitated widespread applications for interrogation of complex neural networks, such as activation of specific axonal pathways, previously found impossible with electrical stimulation. Consequently, within the short period of its application in neuroscience research, optogenetics has led to findings of significant importance both during normal brain function as well as in disease. Moreover, the optimization of optogenetics for in vivo studies has allowed the control of certain behavioral responses such as motility, reflex, and sensory responses, as well as more complex emotional and cognitive behaviors such as decision-making, reward seeking, and social behavior in freely moving animals.

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Dec
1969

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important gene regulators that are abundantly expressed in both the developing and adult mammalian brain. These non-coding gene transcripts are involved in post-transcriptional regulatory processes by binding to specific target mRNAs. Approximately one third of known miRNA genes are located within intronic regions of protein coding and non-coding regions, and previous studies have suggested a role for intronic miRNAs as negative feedback regulators of their host genes.

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Apr
2012

Much research has implicated the serotonin (5-HT) system in cognitive functioning and psychomotor stimulant abuse, but its role depends on the subtypes of 5-HT receptors involved and the nature of the behavioural task. Here we aimed to extend previous studies by examining the role of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C receptors in attentional performance. The effects of the selective 5-HT antagonists WAY-100635 and SB-242084 were assessed alone and for interactions with nicotine in the five-choice serial reaction time task in rats.

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Sep
2008

Serotonin (5-HT) is thought to play an important role in the regulation of behavioral inhibition. Studies manipulating 5-HT function in the rodent brain indicate that 5-HT receptors regulate distinct forms of impulsive behavior, including impulsive responding in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT). The present study investigates the loci of effects mediated by 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors in attention and inhibitory response control using microinfusions targeted at the nucleus accumbens (NAc), prelimbic cortex (PL) and infralimbic cortex (IL).

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Jul
2008

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is strongly implicated in the ability to shift behavior in response to changing stimulus-reward contingencies. However, there is little information on the contribution of different 5-HT receptors in reversal learning. Thus, we investigated the effects of systemic administration of the 5-HT(2A) antagonist M100907 (0, 0.

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Oct
2007

The receptor binding affinities of the three drug candidates 1 (SLV310), 2 (SLV313), and 3 (SLV314) were positioned against the results from nine (a)typical antipsychotic drugs. The receptor binding data from sixteen monoaminergic receptors served as the input in a principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA outcome revealed a unique binding profile of 1, 2, and 3 as compared with the reference compounds 4-8 and 10-12.

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Dec
1969

Several models of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been proposed, ranging from administration of neurotoxins to genetically manipulated models. These models are used to gain insight into ADHD as a disorder and assist in the discovery of new therapeutic strategies. However, the information gained from these models differs, depending to a large extent on the validity (or otherwise) of the model.

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Dec
2006

Present Parkinson's disease treatment strategies are far from ideal for a variety of reasons; it has therefore been suggested that partial dopamine receptor agonism might be a potential therapeutic approach with potentially fewer side effects. In the present study, we describe the in vitro characterization of the nonergot ligand SLV308 (7-[4-methyl-1-piperazinyl]-2(3H)-benzoxazolonemonohydrochloride). SLV308 binds to dopamine D(2), D(3), and D(4) receptors and 5-HT(1) (A) receptors and is a partial agonist at dopamine D(2) and D(3) receptors and a full agonist at serotonin 5-HT(1) (A) receptors.

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Jan
2007

Combined dopamine D(2) receptor antagonism and serotonin (5-HT)(1A) receptor agonism may improve efficacy and alleviate some side effects associated with classical antipsychotics. The present study describes the in vitro and in vivo characterization of 1-(2,3-dihydro-benzo[1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-4-[5-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-pyridin-3-ylmethyl]-piperazine monohydrochloride (SLV313), a D(2/3) antagonist and 5-HT(1A) agonist. SLV313 possessed high affinity at human recombinant D(2), D(3), D(4), 5-HT(2B), and 5-HT(1A) receptors, moderate affinity at 5-HT(7) and weak affinity at 5-HT(2A) receptors, with little-no affinity at 5-HT(4), 5-HT(6), alpha(1), and alpha(2) (rat), H(1) (guinea pig), M(1), M(4), 5-HT(3) receptors, and the 5-HT transporter.

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Feb
2006

We recently found that rats' ability to discriminate durations of exteroceptive stimuli is disrupted by the non-selective 5-HT receptor agonist quipazine. Ketanserin reversed this effect, suggesting that the effect may be mediated by 5-HT2A receptors. Here, we report that the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) also disrupts temporal discrimination, and that this effect can be reversed by ketanserin and the highly selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist (+/-)2,3-dimethoxyphenyl-1-[2-(4-piperidine)-methanol] (MDL-100907).

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Nov
2004

Global serotonin (5-HT) depletion increases the number of premature responses made on the five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRT) in rats. In contrast, the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist M100907 decreases this measure of impulsivity. Mounting evidence suggests that 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors have opposing effects on behaviour, and that the 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB 242084 produces a pattern of behaviour similar to 5-HT depletion.

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May
2003

The central serotonergic systems are a major target for drugs used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia in which disruption of frontal cortex function has been implicated. However, it is not known precisely how serotonin (5-HT) modulates the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to affect cognitive function and behaviour.
To investigate the roles of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors in mPFC on performance of the five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRT), which assesses visuospatial attention, impulsivity and motivational processes.

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