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Author: Jen-Yang Chen (65)


Oct
2017

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a serious health problem in China and Southeast Asia. Relapse is the major cause of mortality, but mechanisms of relapse are mysterious. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and host genomic instability (GI) have correlated with NPC development.

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Aug
2017

Rta, an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immediate-early protein, reactivates viral lytic replication that is closely associated with tumorigenesis. In previous studies, we demonstrated that in epithelial cells Rta efficiently induced cellular senescence, which is an irreversible Garrest likely to provide a favorable environment for productive replications of EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). To restrict progression of the cell cycle, Rta simultaneously upregulates CDK inhibitors and downregulates MYC, CCND1, and JUN, among others.

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Jan
2017

Lytic reactivation of EBV has been reported to play an important role in human diseases, including NPC carcinogenesis. Inhibition of EBV reactivation is considered to be of great benefit in the treatment of virus-associated diseases. For this purpose, we screened for inhibitory compounds and found that apigenin, a flavonoid, seemed to have the ability to inhibit EBV reactivation.

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Dec
1969

Evidence on the association between dietary component, dietary pattern and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is scarce. A major challenge is the high degree of correlation among dietary constituents. We aimed to identify dietary pattern associated with NPC and to illustrate the dose-response relationship between the identified dietary pattern scores and the risk of NPC.

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Dec
1969

The lytic reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been reported to be strongly associated with several human diseases, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Inhibition of the EBV lytic cycle has been shown to be of great benefit in the treatment of EBV-associated diseases. The administration of dietary compounds is safer and more convenient than other approaches to preventing EBV reactivation.

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Apr
2016

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignancy derived from the epithelial cells of the nasopharynx. Although a combination of radiotherapy with chemotherapy is effective for therapy, relapse and metastasis after remission remain major causes of mortality. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is believed to be one of causes of NPC development.

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Jan
2015

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major green tea polyphenol, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of a variety of tumor cells. Epidemiological studies have shown that drinking green tea can reduce the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), yet the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In this study, the inhibitory effect of EGCG was tested on a set of Epstein Barr virus-negative and -positive NPC cell lines.

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Sep
2014

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a head and neck cancer prevalent throughout Southern China and Southeast Asia. Patient death following relapse after primary treatment remains all too common but the cause of NPC relapse is unclear. Clinical and epidemiological studies have revealed the high correlation among NPC development, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and host genomic instability.

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Jul
2014

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated cancer that is highly treatable when diagnosed early, with 5-year disease-free survival of approximately 90%. However, NPC is typically diagnosed at advanced stages, in which disease-free survival is <50%. There is, therefore, a need for clinical tools to assist in early NPC detection, particularly among high-risk individuals.

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May
2014

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic replication involves complex processes, including DNA synthesis, DNA cleavage and packaging, and virion egress. These processes require many different lytic gene products, but the mechanisms of their actions remain unclear, especially for DNA cleavage and packaging. According to sequence homology analysis, EBV BALF3, encoded by the third leftward open reading frame of the BamHI-A fragment in the viral genome, is a homologue of herpes simplex virus type 1 UL28.

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Dec
1969

N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation have been suggested to play a role in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Although chemicals have been shown to be a risk factor contributing to the carcinogenesis of NPC, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. We demonstrated recently that N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) enhances the genomic instability and tumorigenicity of NPC cells via induction of EBV reactivation.

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Dec
1969

Endocan (or called Esm-1) has been shown to have tumorigenic activities and its expression is associated with poor prognosis in various cancers. Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded oncoprotein and has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). To further understand the role of LMP1 in the pathogenesis of NPC, microarray analysis of LMP1-regulated genes in epithelial cells was performed.

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Dec
2013

Elevated levels of antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the presence of viral DNA in plasma are reliable biomarkers for the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in high-prevalence areas, such as South-East Asia. The presence of these viral markers in the circulation suggests that a minimal level of virus reactivation may have occurred in an infected individual, although the underlying mechanism of reactivation remains to be elucidated. Here, we showed that treatment with nocodazole, which provokes the depolymerization of microtubules, induces the expression of two EBV lytic cycle proteins, Zta and EA-D, in EBV-positive NPC cells.

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Mar
2013

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC). A distinct seroreactivity pattern to EBV is predictive of subsequent risk of sporadic and familial nasopharyngeal carcinomas. There are currently no accepted screening tools for guiding the clinical management of individuals at high-risk for nasopharyngeal carcinomas, particularly unaffected relatives from nasopharyngeal carcinoma multiplex families.

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Dec
1969

Seroepidemiological studies imply a correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). N-nitroso compounds, phorbols, and butyrates are chemicals found in food and herb samples collected from NPC high-risk areas. These chemicals have been reported to be risk factors contributing to the development of NPC, however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood.

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Dec
1969

A case-control study was conducted to evaluate the role of adult diet on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Taiwan.
A total of 375 incident NPC cases and 327 controls matched to the cases on sex, age, and residence were recruited between July 1991 and December 1994. A structured questionnaire inquiring complete dietary history, socio-demographic characteristics, and other potential confounding factors was used in the personal interview.

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Dec
1969

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) induces an uncoordinated S-phase-like cellular environment coupled with multiple prophase-like events in cells replicating the virus. The EBV encoded Ser/Thr kinase BGLF4 has been shown to induce premature chromosome condensation through activation of condensin and topoisomerase II and reorganization of the nuclear lamina to facilitate the nuclear egress of nucleocapsids in a pathway mimicking Cdk1. However, the observation that RB is hyperphosphorylated in the presence of BGLF4 raised the possibility that BGLF4 may have a Cdk2-like activity to promote S-phase progression.

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Dec
2013

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with several human malignancies including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Reactivation of latent EBV has been considered to contribute to the carcinogenesis of NPC. Blocking the EBV lytic cycle has been shown effective in the treatment of EBV-associated diseases.

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Feb
2012

The replication and transcription activator (RTA) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a molecular switch that initiates a productive replication of latent KSHV genomes. KSHV RTA (K-RTA) is composed of 691 amino acids with high Ser and Thr content (17.7%), but to what extent these Ser and Thr are modified in vivo has not been explored.

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Jan
2012

Many herpesviral immediate-early proteins promote their robust lytic phase replications by hijacking the cell cycle machinery. Previously, lytic replication of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was found to be concurrent with host cell cycle arrest. In this study, we showed that ectopic expression of EBV immediate-early protein Rta in HEp-2 cells resulted in increased G1/S population, hypophosphorylation of pRb and decreased incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine.

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Dec
2011

Persistent activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6) has been known to cause liver fibrosis. In this study, our objective was to investigate the effects of chebulagic acid and chebulinic acid, two hydrolysable tannins of tropical almond (Terminalia chebula) fruits, on collagen synthesis and signal transduction in transforming growth factor-β1-stimulated HSC-T6 cells. The expression of Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, collagen I(α1)/III, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) mRNAs was determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and their protein levels were assessed by western blotting.

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Apr
2011

Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with 6-16% of the gastric carcinoma (GC) cases, the effect of EBV infection on the tumorigenesis process and the responsiveness to chemotherapy remain unclear. We compared chemosensitivity of the EBV-positive GC (AGSEBV) and EBV-negative GC (AGS) cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Although 5-FU inhibited the growth of both cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner, the sensitivity of EBV-positive GC cells to 5-FU was lower than that of EBV-negative GC cells.

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Mar
2011

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Rta belongs to a lytic switch gene family that is evolutionarily conserved in all gamma-herpesviruses. Emerging evidence indicates that cell cycle arrest is a common means by which herpesviral immediate-early protein hijacks the host cell to advance the virus's lytic cycle progression. To examine the role of Rta in cell cycle regulation, we recently established a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible Rta system in 293 cells.

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Feb
2011

In the present study, the authors compared the long-term risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) of male participants in an NPC multiplex family cohort with that of controls in a community cohort in Taiwan after adjustment for anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seromarkers and cigarette smoking. A total of 43 incident NPC cases were identified from the 1,019 males in the NPC multiplex family cohort and the 9,622 males in the community cohort, for a total of 8,061 person-years and 185,587 person-years, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio was 6.

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Dec
2010

Seroepidemiological studies implicate a correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Moreover, N-nitroso compounds are known chemical carcinogens in preserved foodstuffs and cigarettes and have been implicated as risk factors contributing to the development of NPC. Here, NPC cell lines latently infected with EBV, NA and HA, and the corresponding EBV-negative NPC cell lines, NPC-TW01 and HONE-1, were used as the model system in this study.

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Apr
2010

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNase (BGLF5) is an alkaline nuclease and has been suggested to be important in the viral life cycle. However, its effect on host cells remains unknown. Serological and histopathological studies implied that EBV DNase seems to be correlated with carcinogenesis.

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Oct
2009

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is an epithelial malignancy with a remarkable racial and geographic distribution. Previous cytogenetic studies have shown nasopharyngeal carcinoma to be characterized by gross genomic aberrations. However, identification of susceptible gene loci in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma has been poorly discussed.

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Nov
2009

An association between specific human leukocyte antigens (HLA) alleles and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been reported for sporadic NPC, but studies of familial NPC are lacking. We evaluated this association with familial NPC in a study of 301 NPC cases and 1010 family and community controls from Taiwan. Class I HLA alleles were characterized using a sequence-based typing protocol.

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Apr
2009

This study aimed to assess independent effects of EBV and cigarette smoking on nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which have never been assessed in long-term follow-up studies. A cohort of 9,622 men was enrolled from 1984 to 1986. Blood samples collected at study entry were tested for antibodies against EBV antigens (anti-EBV) viral capsid antigen immunoglobulin A and DNase.

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May
2009

Infective endocarditis is characterized by inflammatory infiltrates of mononuclear cells in infected cardiac valve leaflets. To delineate the role of valve interstitial cells (VICs) in leukocyte recruitment, we stimulated human VICs with glucosyltransferase, a modulin from viridians streptococci. Interstitial cells were activated directly by glucosyltransferase in a dose-dependent manner through concerted mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathways; activation resulted in up-regulation of synthesis and release of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, or monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and enhanced transwell migration of U937 monocytic cells or primary mononuclear cells.

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May
2009

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an endemic malignancy prevalent in South East Asia. Epidemiological studies have associated this disease closely with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Previous studies also showed that EBV reactivation is implicated in the progression of NPC.

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Feb
2009

The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) plays a key role in transformation of B-lymphocytes mediated by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and can induce tumor formation in transgenic mice. However, the precise mechanism underlying EBNA2-mediated tumorigenesis remains elusive. Here, we report that EBNA2 can compromise mitotic spindle checkpoint (MSC) induced by the spindle inhibitor nocodazole and cause chromosomal instability (CIN) in HEp-2, U2-OS and BJAB cells.

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Jan
2009

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) replication and transcription activator (Rta/BRLF1) is an immediate-early transcription factor that controls the conversion of the latent viral genome into one undergoing lytic replication. By using a doxycycline-inducible expression system, the present study demonstrates that EBV Rta efficiently elicits growth arrest in the human epithelial cell line HEK293. In cells arrested by EBV Rta, the expression of p21 (CDKN1A), p27 (CDKN1B) and cyclin E were increased.

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Aug
2008

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and exposure to environmental carcinogens. In this study, an inducible Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation NPC cell line, NA, was used to investigate the impact of recurrent 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-sodium n-butyrate (TPA/SB) treatment and EBV reactivation on chromosomal abnormalities utilizing array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). It was observed that most copy-number aberrations (CNA) were progressively nonrandomly clustered on chromosomes 3, 8, and 9, as the frequency of TPA/SB treatment and EBV reactivation increased.

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Aug
2008

Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) oncoprotein, mimics a constitutively activated tumor necrosis factor receptor and activates various signaling pathways, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt. LMP1 is essential for EBV-mediated B-cell transformation and is sufficient to transform several cell lines. Cellular transformation has been associated strongly with genomic instability, while DNA repair plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability.

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Aug
2008

The tumor suppressor gene p53 plays a central role in the maintenance of normal cell growth and genetic integrity, while its impact on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) life cycle remains elusive. We found that p53 is important for histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced EBV lytic gene expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Restoration of p53 in p53-null, EBV-infected H1299 cells augments the potential for viral lytic cycle initiation.

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Mar
2008

To survive macrophage killing is critical in the pathogenesis of viridians streptococci-induced infective endocarditis (IE). Streptococcus mutans, an opportunistic IE pathogen, generally does not survive well phagocytic killing in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells.

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Feb
2008

Streptococcus mutans causes dental caries and infective endocarditis. The aim of this study was to determine genomic diversity among serotype c S. mutans laboratory and clinical strains and to characterize the genetic events involved.

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Mar
2008

The C-terminal repeating sequences of Clostridium difficile toxin A (designated ARU) are homologous to the carbohydrate-binding domain of streptococcal glucosyltransferases (GTFs) that were recently identified as potent modulins. To test the hypothesis that ARU might exert a similar biological activity on endothelial cells, recombinant ARU (rARU), which was noncytotoxic to cell cultures, was analyzed using human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The rARU could bind directly to endothelial cells in a serum- and calcium-dependent manner and induce the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in a dose-dependent manner.

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Dec
2007

Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Presence of EBV IgA antibodies is rare among healthy individuals and is used as a marker of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in high-incidence populations. Reasons for EBV IgA seropositivity are unknown, but high EBV IgA levels have been found among unaffected close family members and spouses to nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients in Chinese populations.

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May
2007

Previous studies of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) replication focused mainly on the viral and cellular factors involved in replication compartment assembly and controlling the cell cycle. However, little is known about how EBV reorganizes nuclear architecture and the chromatin territories. In EBV-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma NA cells or Akata cells, we noticed that cellular chromatin becomes highly condensed upon EBV reactivation.

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Oct
2006

BHRF1, an early gene product of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is structurally and functionally homologous to Bcl-2, a cellular anti-apoptotic protein. BHRF1 has been shown to protect cells from apoptosis induced by numerous external stimuli. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is an epithelial cancer associated closely with EBV infection.

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Feb
2006

Recruitment of monocytes plays important roles during vegetation formation and endocardial inflammation in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis (IE). Bacterial antigens or modulins can activate endothelial cells through the expression of cytokines or adhesion molecules and modulate the recruitment of leukocytes. We hypothesized that glucosyltransferases (GTFs), modulins of viridans group streptococci, may act directly to up-regulate the expression of adhesion molecules and also interleukin-6 (IL-6) to augment monocyte attachment to endothelial cells.

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Mar
2006

To persist in the oral cavity, bacteria must be able to tolerate environmental fluctuation, particularly in pH, nutrients, and essential elements. Glucosyltransferases B, C, and D of Streptococcus mutans synthesize glucans, and play essential roles in the sucrose-dependent adhesion of the organism to tooth surfaces. Transcriptions of gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD could be differentially regulated through independent promoters.

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Nov
2005

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an Epstein-Barrvirus (EBV)-associated malignancy. Previous studies have shown that NPC is associated with specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles which function in adaptive immunity to present viral and other antigens to the immune system. The role of innate immunity in NPC development is unknown.

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Feb
2006

The utility of EBV load as a tumor marker in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients suggests that it might also serve as a screening test for individuals who are at high risk for developing NPC. We previously demonstrated that unaffected individuals from high-risk families had elevated anti-EBV antibody levels compared to community controls. In this study, we measured EBV load using 2 different real-time PCR assays (targeting BamH1W and polymerase gene sequences, respectively) carried out in 2 independent research labs in serum samples from 19 untreated NPC cases, 11 healthy community controls and 100 unaffected individuals from families in which 2 or more individuals were affected with NPC.

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Jun
2005

The glucosyltransferases (GTFs) of viridans streptococci, common pathogens of infective endocarditis, are extracellular proteins that convert sucrose into exopolysaccharides and glucans. GTFs B, C, and D of Streptococcus mutans are modulins that induce, in vitro and in vivo, the production of cytokines, in particular interleukin-6 (IL-6), from monocytes. The roles of S.

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Apr
2005

The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a viral oncogene, is essential for transformation of resting B cells by the virus. We previously demonstrated that LMP1 could repress DNA repair in p53-wild-type and p53-deficient human epithelial cells. In this study, using a host cell reactivation (HCR) assay, we demonstrated that p53-enhanced DNA repair was repressed by LMP1 in p53-deficient cells.

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Mar
2005

The thymidine kinase encoded by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV TK) is an important target for antiviral therapy and the treatment of EBV-associated malignancies. Through computer-assisted alignment with other human herpesviral TK proteins, EBV TK was shown to contain a conserved ATP-binding motif as for the other TK enzymes. To investigate functional roles of three highly conserved residues (G294, K297, T298) within this region, site-directed mutagenesis was employed to generate various mutants.

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Feb
2005

Rta, an immediate-early protein of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is a transcriptional activator that induces lytic gene expression and triggers virus reactivation. Being located predominantly in the nucleus, Rta can exert its transactivation function through either direct DNA binding or certain indirect mechanisms mediated by cellular signalling and other transcriptional factors. This study examined whether the subcellular localization of Rta was critical for the induction of target genes.

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