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Author: Jennifer R Redman (18)


Dec
2000

There is debate in Victoria, Australia concerning the effects of various drugs, including opioids, on driving skills and accident rates, and the development of appropriate legislative responses. There are legislative difficulties around drugs and driving because of the lack of adequate epidemiological and performance-based studies. In relation to opioids, although there are studies that have shown the prevalence of opioids in both non-fatal and fatal crashes, these studies do not demonstrate that the use of opioids is associated with any elevated crash risk and they fail to take into account issues regarding tolerance.

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Dec
2000

Although fatigue and sleep disturbance are commonly reported following traumatic brain injury (TBI), understanding of their nature and treatment remains limited.
This article reviews a series of investigations of the nature and causes of fatigue and sleep disturbance following TBI.
A large cohort of community-based patients with TBI, recruited from a TBI rehabilitation program, completed measures of subjective fatigue and sleep disturbances, as well as attentional measures.

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Oct
2011

Ecstasy users report a number of complaints after its use including disturbed sleep. However, little is known regarding which attributes of ecstasy use are associated with sleep disturbances, which domains of sleep are affected or which factors may predict those ecstasy users likely to have poor sleep quality and/or excessive daytime sleepiness.
This study examined questionnaire responses of social drug users (n = 395) to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale.

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Dec
1969

While much research has investigated the effects of exogenous melatonin on sleep, less is known about the relationship between the timing of the endogenous melatonin rhythm and the sleep-wake cycle. Significant inter-individual variability in the phase relationship between sleep and melatonin rhythms has been reported although the extent to which the variability reflects intrinsic and/or environmental differences is unknown. We examined the effects of different sleeping schedules on the time of dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) in 28 young, healthy adults.

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Sep
2011

Breaks are often used by drivers to counteract sleepiness and time-on-task fatigue during prolonged driving. We examined the temporal profile of changes in driving performance, electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and subjective measures of sleepiness and fatigue during prolonged nocturnal driving in a car simulator. In addition, the study examined the impact of regular breaks from driving on performance, sleepiness and fatigue.

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Nov
2010

Ecstasy users report a number of adverse events following use including disturbed sleep. Previous research has suggested that MDMA affects the circadian system, however, the acute effects following a single, moderate dose have not been well characterised. The current study investigated how MDMA affected the circadian system, as measured by the amount and temporal distribution of wheel-running activity in male rats (n=90), housed individually under a 12-12 h light-dark (LD) cycle prior to treatment.

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May
2010

This study compared the effects of three doses of cannabis and alcohol (placebo, low and high doses), both alone and in combination, on the driving performance of young, novice drivers and more experienced drivers. Alcohol was administered as ethanol (95%) mixed with orange juice in doses of approximately 0, 0.4 and 0.

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Jul
2009

This study examined the effects of nocturnal exposure to dim, narrowband blue light (460 nm, approximately 1 lux, 2 microW/cm2), compared to dim broad spectrum (white) ambient light ( approximately 0.2 lux, 0.5 microW/cm2), on subjective and objective indices of sleepiness during prolonged nighttime performance testing.

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Dec
2008

While it has been suggested that the novel wake promoting drug modafinil may have some utility with respect to drowsy driving in healthy adults, this has not been investigated until now. The present study was designed to assess the effects of modafinil on objective and self-assessed driving simulator performance during an overnight period of sleep loss.
Sixteen healthy participants (eight males and eight females) remained awake overnight on two separate occasions during which they ingested either a single 300 mg dose of modafinil or a placebo capsule at either 0230 or 0330 h.

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May
2008

To evaluate changes in sleep quality and objectively assessed sleep parameters after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to investigate the relationship between such changes and mood state and injury characteristics.
Survey and laboratory-based nocturnal polysomnography.
Sleep laboratory.

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Apr
2006

Forty opioid substitution patients (methadone, n = 14; LAAM, n = 14; and buprenorphine, n = 12) who were participating in a study on the impact of opiate substitution treatment on driving ability and 22 non-opiate-using control subjects were administered 14.7 g/70 kg of alcohol in two separate sessions, one 2-3 hours before opioid pharmacotherapy dosing and the other 1-2 hours after dosing. The mean blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in the post-opioid dose session was significantly lower than that in the pre-opioid dose session (p < .

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Mar
2006

Neurobehavioural performance deficits associated with sleep loss have been extensively studied, in particular, the effects on psychomotor performance. However, there is no consensus as to which, if any, cognitive functions are impaired by sleep loss. To examine how sleep loss might affect cognition, the automatic processes supporting word recognition were examined using the masked priming paradigm in participants who had been exposed to two consecutive days of sleep restriction.

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Feb
2006

To explore subjective sleep reports from people in the chronic stages of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to examine the extent and nature of sleep complaints in this population.
Survey.
All participants were community based at the time of data collection.

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Dec
2005

Australia has a growing aging migrant population and rates of dementia in residential care are high. The communication of persons with dementia and limited English language proficiency in residential care is an area that has received little attention in the research literature.
Thirty-nine Italian-background older persons with severe dementia residing in either mainstream (n = 20) or Italian-specific (n = 19) aged care facilities were observed and language use was recorded.

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Dec
1969

While napping has previously been shown to alleviate the effects of sleep loss, before advocating the use of naps in transport accident campaigns it is necessary to consider whether a nap opportunity in a noisy uncomfortable environment can produce the same benefits as a nap opportunity in conditions that are conducive to sleep. To examine this, eight participants drove a driving simulator for 50 min at 11:00h on three different test days. The simulator used has previously been found to be sensitive to the effects of sleep loss, alcohol consumption, and time of day.

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Dec
2003

While methadone is currently the primary pharmacotherapy used in the treatment of heroin dependence in Australia, levo-alpha-acetyl-methodol (LAAM) and buprenorphine are new pharmacotherapies that are being examined as alternatives to methadone maintenance treatment. The aim of this research is to consider the effects of the methadone, buprenorphine and LAAM, as used in maintenance pharmacotherapy for heroin dependence, upon simulated driving. Clients stabilised in methadone, LAAM and buprenorphine treatment programs for 3 months, and a control group of non-drug-using participants, took part in this study which involved operating a driving simulator over a 75 min period.

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Sep
2003

This study examined the effects of bright light exposure, as compared to dim light, on daytime subjective sleepiness, incidences of slow eye movements (SEMs), and psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance following 2 nights of sleep restriction.
The study had a mixed factorial design with 2 independent variables: light condition (bright light, 1,000 lux; dim light, < 5 lux) and time of day. The dependent variables were subjective sleepiness, PVT performance, incidences of SEMs, and salivary melatonin levels.

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