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Author: Jessica Green (99)


Dec
1969

The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) which focuses on stage of change has been the main conceptual model used in understanding the lack of motivation to change in patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Whilst there is evidence to support the prognostic value of the TTM in AN, this evidence base sufferers from limitations including limited studies in adults and none in outpatient populations. The primary aim of this study was to clarify whether readiness to change, as measured by the University Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale (URICA) and the Anorexia Nervosa Stages of Change Questionnaire (ANSOCQ) could predict weight gain in adults with AN following treatment in an outpatient setting.

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Dec
2017

A growing interest from both physicians and patients is fueling research in the interaction of symptoms related to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and diet, particularly the low FODMAP diet. Recent studies further define the role of these short-chain fermentable carbohydrates on IBS symptoms and their effects in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Mounting evidence supports the use of a low FODMAP diet in the clinical setting, but this dietary approach is not without potential drawbacks.

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Sep
2017

Lithium is widely used as a mood stabilizer in managing Bipolar Disorder. It is also licensed as an augmenting agent for recurrent depression and treatment resistant depression. However, it has a narrow therapeutic index with potentially significant side effects and adverse drug interactions.

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Dec
2017

Intravenous fluid therapy in children and young people in hospital N29.

Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2017 Dec 7;102(6):327-331. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
Jessica Green, Jonathan Lillie

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Dec
1969

The concept of hygiene is rooted in the relationship between cleanliness and the maintenance of good health. Since the widespread acceptance of the germ theory of disease, hygiene has become increasingly conflated with sterilization. In reviewing studies across the hygiene literature (most often hand hygiene), we found that nearly all studies of hand hygiene utilize bulk reduction in bacterial load as a proxy for reduced transmission of pathogenic organisms.

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Aug
2017

Visual spatial attention has been studied in humans with both electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) individually. However, due to the intrinsic limitations of each of these methods used alone, our understanding of the systems-level mechanisms underlying attentional control remains limited. Here, we examined trial-to-trial covariations of concurrently recorded EEG and fMRI in a cued visual spatial attention task in humans, which allowed delineation of both the generators and modulators of the cue-triggered event-related oscillatory brain activity underlying attentional control function.

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Nov
2017

Inhibition of return (IOR) is typically described as an inhibitory bias against returning attention to a recently attended location as a means of promoting efficient visual search. Most studies examining IOR, however, either do not use visual search paradigms or do not effectively isolate attentional processes, making it difficult to conclusively link IOR to a bias in attention. Here, we recorded ERPs during a simple visual search task designed to isolate the attentional component of IOR to examine whether an inhibitory bias of attention is observed and, if so, how it influences visual search behavior.

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Jun
2017

Plant-associated microorganisms are essential for their hosts' survival and performance. Yet, most plant microbiome studies to date have focused on terrestrial species sampled across relatively small spatial scales. Here, we report the results of a global-scale analysis of microbial communities associated with leaf and root surfaces of the marine eelgrassthroughout its range in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Dec
1969

Don't link carbon markets.

Nature 2017 03;543(7646):484-486
Jessica F Green

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Dec
1969

The 2013 pan-Canadian consensus Report on Resident Duty Hours identified that traditional 24-hour duty periods pose risks to the well-being of residents and should be avoided. In anticipation of duty-hour restrictions, the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Residency Program at the University of Toronto developed and implemented a night float (NF) call model over a three-year span. Quarterly resident surveys have consistently shown that the NF system is preferred to traditional 24-hour call and has resulted in reduced fatigue and improved continuity of patient care.

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Jan
2017

Public transit systems are ideal for studying the urban microbiome and interindividual community transfer. In this study, we used 16S amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to profile microbial communities on multiple transit surfaces across train lines and stations in the Boston metropolitan transit system. The greatest determinant of microbial community structure was the transit surface type.

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Sep
2016

This study examined the association between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom severity and academic outcomes and classroom functioning in a community-based sample of children with and without ADHD.
Participants included children with ADHD (n =179) and a non-ADHD group (n =212). ASD symptom severity, academic and learning skills, and classroom functioning were assessed via teacher report using the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS; ASD and Academic Competence subscales) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; all subscales).

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Sep
2016

Antibiotic resistance is increasingly widespread, largely due to human influence. Here, we explore the relationship between antibiotic resistance genes and the antimicrobial chemicals triclosan, triclocarban, and methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butylparaben in the dust microbiome. Dust samples from a mixed-use athletic and educational facility were subjected to microbial and chemical analyses using a combination of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, shotgun metagenome sequencing, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

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Aug
2016

Small bowel obstructions (SBOs) are a known perioperative complication of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and common etiologies include internal hernia, port site hernia, jejunojejunostomy stricture, ileus and adhesions. Less commonly, SBO can be caused by superior mesenteric artery syndrome, intussusception and intraluminal blood clot. We present a case of SBO caused by intraluminal blood clot from jejunojejunostomy staple line bleeding in a patient with a normal coagulation profile.

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Dec
1969

This study examined relationships between executive functioning (EF) and ADHD/ASD symptoms in 339 6-8 year-old children to characterise EF profiles associated with ADHD and ADHD + ASD. ADHD status was assessed using screening surveys and diagnostic interviews. ASD symptoms were measured using the Social Communication Questionnaire, and children completed assessments of EF.

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Nov
2016

Urban green space provides health benefits for city dwellers, and new evidence suggests that microorganisms associated with soil and vegetation could play a role. While airborne microorganisms are ubiquitous in urban areas, the influence of nearby vegetation on airborne microbial communities remains poorly understood. We examined airborne microbial communities in parks and parking lots in Eugene, Oregon, using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform to identify bacterial taxa, and GIS to measure vegetation cover in buffer zones of different diameters.

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Dec
1969

Bacterial metabolisms are responsible for critical chemical transformations in nearly all environments, including oceans, freshwater, and soil. Despite the ubiquity of bacteria in the atmosphere, little is known about the metabolic functioning of atmospheric bacterial communities. To gain a better understanding of the metabolism of bacterial communities in the atmosphere, we used a combined empirical and model-based approach to investigate the structure and composition of potentially active bacterial communities in air sampled at a high elevation research station.

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Dec
1969

Microorganisms have shaped our planet and its inhabitants for over 3.5 billion years. Humankind has had a profound influence on the biosphere, manifested as global climate and land use changes, and extensive urbanization in response to a growing population.

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Dec
2016

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms are elevated in populations of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examined cross-sectional associations between ASD symptoms and family functioning in children with and without ADHD. Participants were recruited to a longitudinal cohort study, aged 6-10 years (164 ADHD; 198 controls).

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Dec
1969

To examine the association between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms and (a) social functioning, (b) mental health, (c) quality of life and (d) sleep in children with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Participants were 6-10-year-old children with ADHD (N=164) and without ADHD (N=198). ADHD was assessed via community-based screening (wave 1) and case confirmation using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV (DISC-IV) (wave 2).

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Nov
2015

Observations from human microbiome studies are often conflicting or inconclusive. Many factors likely contribute to these issues including small cohort sizes, sample collection, and handling and processing differences. The field of microbiome research is moving from 16S rDNA gene sequencing to a more comprehensive genomic and functional representation through whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of complete communities.

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Dec
2015

This study examined the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in a community-based sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and non-ADHD controls. We also examined the relationship between ASD symptoms and ADHD subtype, ADHD symptom severity and child gender. Participants were 6-10-year-old children (164 ADHD; 198 non-ADHD control) attending 43 schools in Melbourne, Australia, who were participating in the Children's Attention Project.

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Dec
1969

Dispersal of microbes between humans and the built environment can occur through direct contact with surfaces or through airborne release; the latter mechanism remains poorly understood. Humans emit upwards of 10(6) biological particles per hour, and have long been known to transmit pathogens to other individuals and to indoor surfaces. However it has not previously been demonstrated that humans emit a detectible microbial cloud into surrounding indoor air, nor whether such clouds are sufficiently differentiated to allow the identification of individual occupants.

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Sep
2015

Ultrasound is a critical diagnostic imaging tool in obstetrics and gynecology (Ob/Gyn). Obstetric ultrasound is taught during residency, but we suspected a gap in Gyn ultrasound education. Proficiency in Gyn ultrasound allows real-time interpretation and management of pelvic disease and facilitates technical skill development for trainees learning blinded procedures.

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Dec
1969

Understanding patterns in the distribution and abundance of functional traits across a landscape is of fundamental importance to ecology. Mapping these distributions is particularly challenging for species-rich groups with sparse trait measurement coverage, such as flowering plants, insects, and microorganisms. Here, we use likelihood-based character reconstruction to infer and analyze the spatial distribution of unmeasured traits.

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Aug
2015

The purpose of this study was to determine the seasonal variance of potentially pathogenic bacterial and viral organisms in nasopharyngeal specimens obtained from asymptomatic health care professionals (HCPs) during the 2014 winter and summer months.
Nasopharyngeal specimens from 100 HCPs were collected from Huntsville Hospital (Huntsville, AL) during the winter and from 100 HCPs during the summer. All subjects were tested for 22 viruses and 19 bacteria using Target Enriched Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction.

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Dec
1969

In unisensory contexts, spatially-focused attention tends to enhance perceptual processing. How attention influences the processing of multisensory stimuli, however, has been of much debate. In some cases, attention has been shown to be important for processes related to the integration of audio-visual stimuli, but in other cases such processes have been reported to occur independently of attention.

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Jun
2015

This study examined changes in body mass index (BMI), anorectic cognitions, and psychological distress following day program treatment.
Participants were 42 female patients from the Monash Health Butterfly eating disorder day program, with anorexia nervosa (AN) restricting type (n = 35) or AN binge-eating/purging type (n = 7), ranging from 12 to 24 years.
Participants' BMI increased significantly over time.

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Jun
2016

The current research sought to validate the Chernyshenko Conscientiousness Scales (CCS), a novel measure designed to assess six facets of conscientiousness. Data from 7,569 U.S.

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Sep
2014

The phyllosphere--the aerial surfaces of plants, including leaves--is a ubiquitous global habitat that harbors diverse bacterial communities. Phyllosphere bacterial communities have the potential to influence plant biogeography and ecosystem function through their influence on the fitness and function of their hosts, but the host attributes that drive community assembly in the phyllosphere are poorly understood. In this study we used high-throughput sequencing to quantify bacterial community structure on the leaves of 57 tree species in a neotropical forest in Panama.

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Aug
2014

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicates that one of the largest problems threatening healthcare includes antibiotic resistance. Tetracycline, an effective antibiotic that has been in use for many years, is becoming less successful in treating certain pathogens. To better understand the temporal patterns in the growth of antibiotic resistance, patient diagnostic test records can be analyzed.

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Dec
1969

Most people on the planet own mobile phones, and these devices are increasingly being utilized to gather data relevant to our personal health, behavior, and environment. During an educational workshop, we investigated the utility of mobile phones to gather data about the personal microbiome - the collection of microorganisms associated with the personal effects of an individual. We characterized microbial communities on smartphone touchscreens to determine whether there was significant overlap with the skin microbiome sampled directly from their owners.

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Apr
2014

Given the increasing incidence of bacteraemia causing significant morbidity and mortality in older patients, this study aimed to compare the clinical features, laboratory findings and mortality of patients over the age of 80 to younger adults.
This study was a retrospective, observational study. Participants were taken to be all patients aged 18 and above with confirmed culture positive sepsis, admitted to a large metropolitan hospital in the year 2010.

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Mar
2014

Humans can spend the majority of their time indoors, but little is known about the interactions between the human and built-environment microbiomes or the forces that drive microbial community assembly in the built environment. We sampled 16S rRNA genes from four different surface types throughout a university classroom to determine whether bacterial assemblages on each surface were best predicted by routine human interactions or by proximity to other surfaces within the classroom. We then analyzed our data with publicly-available datasets representing potential source environments.

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Aug
2014

Current literature suggests that a large proportion of chest X-rays (CXRs) performed in emergency department (ED) patients with chest pain and suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are unnecessary. The Canadian ACS Guidelines aim to guide clinicians in the appropriate use of CXR within this patient population. This study determined the prevalence of clinically significant CXR abnormalities and assessed the utility of the guidelines in a population of ED patients with chest pain and suspected ACS.

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Feb
2014

This article is the second of two examining the causes of increased intracranial pressure in children. Key features and management associated with brain tumours and intracranial bleeds are highlighted. The conditions are accompanied by illustrative case studies to give an idea of what children's nurses may encounter in a patient presenting with raised intracranial pressure.

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Dec
1969

Architectural design has the potential to influence the microbiology of the built environment, with implications for human health and well-being, but the impact of design on the microbial biogeography of buildings remains poorly understood. In this study we combined microbiological data with information on the function, form, and organization of spaces from a classroom and office building to understand how design choices influence the biogeography of the built environment microbiome.
Sequencing of the bacterial 16S gene from dust samples revealed that indoor bacterial communities were extremely diverse, containing more than 32,750 OTUs (operational taxonomic units, 97% sequence similarity cutoff), but most communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Deinococci.

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Dec
2013

Similar to other Southern African countries, Swaziland has been severely affected by HIV, with over a quarter of its reproductive-age adults estimated to be living with the virus, equating to an estimate of 170,000 people living with HIV. The last several years have witnessed an increase in the understanding of the potential vulnerabilities among men who have sex with men (MSM) in neighbouring countries with similarly widespread HIV epidemics. To date, there are no data characterizing the burden of HIV and the HIV prevention, treatment and care needs of MSM in Swaziland.

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Dec
2013

Intracranial pathologies in children need urgent identification and management. This article is presented in two parts, with part one describing intracranial pressure and outlining the features and management of meningitis. Part two, to be published in February 2014, outlines the features and management of brain tumours and intracranial bleeds.

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Apr
2013

This report details the outcome of the 1st Hospital Microbiome Project workshop held on June 7th-8th, 2012 at the University of Chicago, USA. The workshop was arranged to determine the most appropriate sampling strategy and approach to building science measurement to characterize the development of a microbial community within a new hospital pavilion being built at the University of Chicago Medical Center. The workshop made several recommendations and led to the development of a full proposal to the Alfred P.

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Apr
2013

The Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery program is an educational program developed by the Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons, which includes a handson skills training component, a cognitive component, and an assessment component for laparoscopic surgery. Its main objective is to provide surgical residents and practicing surgeons with the opportunity to learn fundamental skills and obtain the theoretical knowledge required to perform laparoscopic surgery, guaranteeing a better performance in the operating room, and thus, improving patient security.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of telesimulation for teaching the Fundamentals of Laparosopic Surgery program in Colombia.

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Dec
1969

Diverse bacterial communities live on and in human skin. These complex communities vary by skin location on the body, over time, between individuals, and between geographic regions. Culture-based studies have shown that human to human and human to surface contact mediates the dispersal of pathogens, yet little is currently known about the drivers of bacterial community assembly patterns on human skin.

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Dec
1969

It has become widely accepted that the direction of another individual's eye gaze induces rapid, automatic, attentional orienting, due to it being such a vital cue as to where in our environment we should attend. This automatic orienting has also been associated with the directional-arrow cues used in studies of spatial attention. Here, we present evidence that the response-time cueing effects reported for spatially non-predictive gaze and arrow cues are not the result of rapid, automatic shifts of attention.

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Aug
2013

This systematic review evaluated empirical studies examining motor skills in children during and following treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Most studies indicated that children on-treatment display poorer gross and fine motor abilities than healthy peers, but generally have intact visual-motor integration skills. Studies have reported gross motor difficulties in 5-54% of survivors.

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Sep
2013

Genomic approaches to characterizing bacterial communities are revealing significant differences in diversity and composition between environments. But bacterial distributions have not been mapped at a global scale. Although current community surveys are way too sparse to map global diversity patterns directly, there is now sufficient data to fit accurate models of how bacterial distributions vary across different environments and to make global scale maps from these models.

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