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Author: Jewell N Walters (10)


Apr
2017

Tumor-associated antigens have emerged as important immunotherapeutic targets in the fight against cancer. Germline tumor antigens, such as WT1, Wilms' tumor gene 1, are overexpressed in many human malignancies but have low expression in somatic tissues. Recent vaccination approaches to target WT1 have been hampered by poor in vivo immune potency, likely due to the conserved self-antigen nature of WT1.

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Dec
1969

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are deadly, toxic proteins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum that can cause significant diseases in humans. The use of the toxic substances as potential bioweapons has raised concerns by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the United States Military. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine to prevent botulinum intoxication.

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Sep
2013

High levels of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) are detected in more than 85% of human cancers. Immunologic analysis supports that hTERT is a widely applicable target recognized by T cells and can be potentially studied as a broad cancer immunotherapeutic, or a unique line of defense against tumor recurrence. There remains an urgent need to develop more potent hTERT vaccines.

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May
2014

Despite an intensive vaccine program influenza infections remain a major health problem, due to the viruses' ability to change its envelope glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA), through shift and drift, permitting influenza to escape protection induced by current vaccines or natural immunity. Recently a new variant, H7N9, has emerged in China causing global concern. First, there have been more than 130 laboratory-confirmed human infections resulting in an alarmingly high death rate (32.

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Mar
2014

Studies of interleukin (IL)-33 reveal a number of pleiotropic properties. Here, we report that IL-33 has immunoadjuvant effects in a human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated model for cancer immunotherapy where cell-mediated immunity is critical for protection. Two biologically active isoforms of IL-33 exist that are full-length or mature, but the ability of either isoform to function as a vaccine adjuvant that influences CD4 T helper 1 or CD8 T-cell immune responses is not defined.

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Jul
2013

Specific control of group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α or PLA2G4A) expression modulates arachidonic acid production, thus tightly regulating the downstream effects of pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. The significance of this pathway in human disease is apparent in a range of pathologies from inflammation to tumorigenesis. While much of the regulation of cPLA2α has focused on posttranslational phosphorylation of the protein, studies on transcriptional regulation of this gene have focused only on proximal promoter regions.

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Apr
2012

The studies of PGE2 (prostaglandin E2) biosynthesis have focused primarily on the role of cyclo-oxygenases. Efforts have shifted towards the specific PGE2 terminal synthases, particularly mPGES-1 (microsomal PGE synthase 1), which has emerged as the crucial inducible synthase with roles in pain, cancer and inflammation. mPGES-1 is induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines with studies focusing on the proximal promoter, mediated specifically through Egr-1 (early growth-response factor 1).

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Feb
2012

Airway inflammation in allergen-induced asthma is associated with eicosanoid release. These bioactive lipids exhibit anti- and pro-inflammatory activities with relevance to pulmonary pathophysiology. We hypothesized that sensitization/challenge using an extract from the ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus in a mouse model of allergic asthma would result in altered phospholipase gene expression, thus modulating the downstream eicosanoid pathway.

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Dec
2011

Cytosolic phospholipase A(2)α (cPLA(2)α) is the most widely studied member of the Group IV PLA(2) family. The enzyme is Ca(2+)-dependent with specificity for phospholipid substrates containing arachidonic acid. As the pinnacle of the arachidonic acid pathway, cPLA(2)α has a primary role in the biosynthesis of a diverse family of eicosanoid metabolites, with potent physiological, inflammatory and pathological consequences.

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Apr
2003

Protein-protein interactions drive the assembly of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) capsid. A key interaction occurs between the C-terminal tail of the scaffold protein (pre-22a) and the major capsid protein (VP5). Previously (Z.

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