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Author: Joachim Cordes (45)


Jan
2018

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder with significant socioeconomic burden. Although current pharmacological treatments are effective for treating positive symptoms, medications have little-to-no effect in the treatment of negative symptoms.
To assess the efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) for negative symptoms in schizophrenia in randomized clinical trials (RCTs).

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Feb
2018

Weight gain among psychiatric inpatients is a widespread phenomenon. This change in body mass index (BMI) can be caused by several factors. Based on recent research, we assume the following factors are related to weight gain during psychiatric inpatient treatment: psychiatric medication, psychiatric diagnosis, sex, age, weight on admission and geographic region of treatment.

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Mar
2018

In a previous single center study we found that a standardized drug treatment algorithm (ALGO) was more cost effective than treatment as usual (TAU) for inpatients with major depression. This report aimed to determine whether this promising initial finding could be replicated in a multicenter study.
Treatment costs were calculated for two time periods: the study period (from enrolment to exit from study) and time in hospital (from enrolment to hospital discharge) based on daily hospital charges.

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Dec
2017

Auditory verbal hallucinations (AH) are core symptoms of schizophrenia. They are often severely distressing and refractory to therapy. Their perception is associated with increased activity in temporoparietal areas of the brain.

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Aug
2017

The variability of responses to plasticity-inducing repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) challenges its successful application in psychiatric care. No objective means currently exists to individually predict the patients' response to rTMS.
We used machine learning to develop and validate such tools using the pre-treatment structural Magnetic Resonance Images (sMRI) of 92 patients with schizophrenia enrolled in the multisite RESIS trial (http://clinicaltrials.

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Aug
2017

Chronic tinnitus is a frequent, difficult to treat disease with high morbidity.
This multicenter randomized, sham-controlled trial investigated the efficacy and safety of 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left temporal cortex in patients with chronic tinnitus.
Tinnitus patients were randomized to receive 10 sessions of either real or sham 1-Hz-rTMS (2000 stimuli, 110% motor threshold) to the left temporal cortex.

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Sep
2017

Treatment algorithms are considered as key to improve outcomes by enhancing the quality of care. This is the first randomized controlled study to evaluate the clinical effect of algorithm-guided treatment in inpatients with major depressive disorder.
Inpatients, aged 18 to 70 years with major depressive disorder from 10 German psychiatric departments were randomized to 5 different treatment arms (from 2000 to 2005), 3 of which were standardized stepwise drug treatment algorithms (ALGO).

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Dec
1969

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is one of the most common factors underlying the high rate of mortality observed in patients with schizophrenia. Recent research on this topic revealed that many of the patients studied were, in fact, in a medicated state. As such, it is unclear whether MetS is causally associated with the disorder itself or the medication used to treat it.

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Jul
2017

Polypharmacy in the treatment of severe psychiatric disorders may include promising treatment options, yet may also be subject to additional side effects and interactions. In patients with severe depression, the prevalence of antidepressive (AD) combination treatment has not been thoroughly assessed yet.We assessed the prevalence of antidepressive combination treatment in a sample of hospital patients at the LVR-Clinic in Düsseldorf, Germany in 2012.

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Aug
2016

Whether or not second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) represent an advantage over first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) in the treatment of schizophrenia is not certain. Effectiveness studies published in the past 10 years have not unequivocally confirmed the superiority of SGAs over FGAs. We aimed to compare quality of life in patients with schizophrenia on an FGA strategy with those on an SGA strategy.

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Jun
2016

The 'gold standard' for clinical studies is a randomised controlled trial usually comparing specific treatments. If the scientific study expands to strategy comparison with each strategy including various treatments, the research problems are increasingly complicated. The strategy debate in the psychiatric community is the starting point for the development of our new design.

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Feb
2016

The reduced metabolic activity in the prefrontal brain lobes, so-called hypofrontality, is associated with increased electrophysiological delta-band activity. Schizophrenia inpatients (N=35) received sham-controlled 10Hz rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in a randomised design. After treatment, the resting electroencephalography revealed a significant decrease in the delta-band activity, which originated in the right prefrontal cortex and correlated with improvements in facial affect recognition.

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May
2016

Cognitive impairments are one of the main contributors to disability and poor long-term outcome in schizophrenia. Proof-of-concept trials indicate that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has the potential to improve cognitive functioning. We analyzed the effects of 10-Hz rTMS to the left DLPFC on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia in a large-scale and multicenter, sham-controlled study.

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Jun
2015

Investigators are urgently searching for options to treat negative symptoms in schizophrenia because these symptoms are disabling and do not respond adequately to antipsychotic or psychosocial treatment. Meta-analyses based on small proof-of-principle trials suggest efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for the treatment of negative symptoms and call for adequately powered multicenter trials. This study evaluated the efficacy of 10-Hz rTMS applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for the treatment of predominant negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

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Mar
2015

Approximately 20-30% of patients with Major depressive disorder (MDD) develop a chronic course of their disease. Chronic depression is associated with increased health care utilisation, hospitalisation and a higher disease burden. We identified clinical correlates and differences in treatment response of chronic MDD (cMDD) patients compared with non-chronic episodic depression in a huge sample of depressive inpatients.

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Aug
2015

Patients with a psychiatric illness have a higher prevalence of physical diseases and thus a higher morbidity and mortality.
The main aim was to investigate where patients with co-occurring physical diseases and mental disorders (psychotic spectrum or mood) in the health and social service system are identified most frequently before admission into psychiatry. The second aim was to compare the differences in the treatment routes taken by the patients before entry into psychiatric services in all the participating countries (Denmark, Germany, Japan, Nigeria and Switzerland).

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Aug
2015

Facial affect recognition, a basic building block of social cognition, is often impaired in schizophrenia. Poor facial affect recognition is closely related to poor functional outcome; however, neither social cognitive impairments nor functional outcome are sufficiently improved by antipsychotic drug treatment alone. Adjunctive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to enhance cognitive functioning in both healthy individuals and in people with neuropsychiatric disorders and to ameliorate clinical symptoms in psychiatric disorders, but its effects on social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia have not yet been studied.

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Dec
2013

Hyponatremia is a common phenomenon in psychiatry occurring as an adverse effect to drugs or following polydipsia. We performed a retrospective in-depth analysis of hyponatremia cases in a large unselected population of psychiatric inpatients. During a 3-year period, all cases of hyponatremia were identified among patients admitted to a large psychiatric state and university hospital by the institution's electronic laboratory database.

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Mar
2013

People with psychiatric diseases have a severely increased risk for physical morbidity and premature death from physical diseases. The aims of the study were to investigate the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes (DM) and obesity in schizophrenia and depression in three different geographical areas - Asia (Japan), Africa (Nigeria) and Western Europe (Switzerland, Germany and Denmark) - and to search for possible transcultural differences in these correlations, which would also reflect the differences between low-income areas in Africa (Nigeria) and high-income areas in Europe and Japan.
Patients with International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) F2 diseases (schizophrenia spectrum disorders) and F3 diseases (affective disorders) admitted to one Nigerian, one Japanese, two Swiss, two German and six Danish centres during 1 year were included.

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Dec
2013

Physical comorbidities and substance use are commonly reported in patients with mental disorders.
To examine somatic comorbidity in patients with substance use disorders (SUD) compared to patients with mental disorders but no SUD.
Lifetime prevalence data on mental and physical health status were collected from inpatients in 12 mental health care facilities in five different countries.

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Apr
2013

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important risk factor for the development of type-2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. We aimed to compare the MetS prevalence in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) with comparison subjects followed in primary care from a similar region. One hundred and thirty-five BPD patients according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were compared to 1009 subjects from primary care.

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Jun
2012

Previous studies on the association between affective disorders and the metabolic syndrome yielded inconclusive results. Therefore, we examined the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in 230 men and women with unipolar major depressive disorder during inpatient treatment and compared it to 1,673 subjects from primary care from a similar region in northern Germany. We used the AHA/NHBLI criteria to determine the rate of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and each single criterion of MetS in both groups.

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Apr
2014

This study was designed to investigate whether a preventive weight management program (WMP) reduces weight gain during olanzapine (OLZ) treatment. Moreover, we examined the effects of intervention on metabolic parameters.
Patients (N = 100) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (DSM-IV) who had commenced treatment with OLZ were recruited.

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Dec
2011

Central nervous system (CNS) monoamine deficits have been linked to a number of pathological conditions such as major depressive disorder. Individual biological variations in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) might account for the variation in responses of neurotransmitter systems observed after the administration of clomipramine. The prolactin response to clomipramine has been widely used to assess CNS functioning.

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Nov
2010

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in men and women who use alcohol has been inconsistent in the literature. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of MetS in patients with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence who are currently abstinent in a controlled environment, and in control subjects followed in primary care from a similar region in Northern Germany.
Cross-sectional study.

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Nov
2010

Chronic management of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders is frequently complicated by symptomatic relapse. An open-label, randomized, active-controlled, 2-year trial evaluated 710 patients with schizophrenia or related disorders who were switched from stable treatment with oral risperidone, olanzapine, or conventional neuroleptics to risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) or oral quetiapine. Primary effectiveness evaluation was time-to-relapse.

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Aug
2010

The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of anxious depression in an inpatient population, to describe its clinical and sociodemographic correlates, and to compare treatment outcomes between patients with anxious and nonanxious depression. Furthermore, the efficacy of algorithm-guided treatment versus treatment as usual in patients with anxious versus nonanxious depression was evaluated.
Data were collected on 429 inpatients with the diagnosis of a depressive episode (according to ICD-10) and a score of ≥ or = 15 on the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-21).

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May
2010

We conducted a randomized, sham-controlled repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) study in chronic schizophrenia in-patients (n=35) to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of 10 Hz stimulation. Patients, who were on stable antipsychotic treatment, were randomly assigned to the active or sham condition. In the active rTMS group, ten sessions with a total of 10,000 stimuli were applied over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex at 110% of motor threshold.

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Nov
2009

Current meta-analysis revealed small, but significant effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. There is a need for further controlled, multicenter trials to assess the clinical efficacy of rTMS on negative symptoms in schizophrenia in a larger sample of patients. The objective of this multicenter, randomized, sham-controlled, rater- and patient-blind clinical trial is to investigate the efficacy of 3-week 10-Hz high frequency rTMS add on to antipsychotic therapy, 15 sessions per 3 weeks, 1,000 stimuli per session, stimulation intensity 110% of the individual motor threshold) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for treating negative symptoms in schizophrenia, and to evaluate the effect during a 12 weeks of follow-up.

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Sep
2009

Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs) in psychiatric pharmacotherapy are common, potentially harmful, and among the most frequent types of adverse events. To date, most of the data regarding CADRs to psychotropic medications are anecdotal, and systematic studies are lacking, particularly with respect to modern "second-generation" drugs.
Data were drawn from a database of 208,401 psychiatric inpatients monitored by the multicenter drug safety surveillance project Drug Safety in Psychiatry (Arzneimittelsicherheit in der Psychiatrie [AMSP]) during the years 1993-2005.

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Aug
2009

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a tool that enables clinicians and neuroscientists to modulate cortical activity in a non-invasive way. High-frequency rTMS has predominantly an activating effect on the stimulated brain region while low-frequency rTMS has an inhibitory effect. In addition to its usefulness as a research tool and in neurological diagnostics, rTMS may prove useful as a therapeutic option in psychiatry, especially in disorders that are associated with regional changes in cortical activity.

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Mar
2010

Agranulocytosis is a severe side effect of clozapine which requires stopping this medication immediately in the case of progressive neutropenia. There are, however, cases of benign neutropenia under clozapine that do not progress. The ability to predict progression vs.

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Dec
1969

Blunting of prolactin response after serotonergic stimulation during a major depressive episode has been described by several investigators. In this study, the neuroendocrine responses to clomipramine were assessed in remitted patients suffering from hereditary depression.
Twenty remitted patients from 11 large families with multigenerational, multiple cases of major affective disorder (bipolar disorder n=15, recurrent depression n=5, according DSM-IV) and 12 healthy relatives were investigated.

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Jan
2008

Disturbed autonomic nervous system (ANS) function in schizophrenia might contribute to increased cardiovascular mortality. We obtained heart rate variability indices from 40 unmedicated schizophrenic patients and 58 matched controls. Mainly we found that patients displaying stronger psychotic symptoms as assessed by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale exhibit more severe cardiac ANS disturbances compared with controls.

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Dec
1969

We report the case of a 26-year-old woman suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD), major depression and bulimia nervosa according to DSM-IV who showed unexplained impairment of the vitamin K-dependent coagulation pathway. Subsequently we discuss different manifestations of self damaging behaviour and comorbidities, as well as psychosocial issues potentially leading to coagulation abnormalities or complications in patients with BPD.

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Dec
1969

A case of asystole (> 5 s) during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is reported in a patient who was subsequently diagnosed to have Brugada syndrome (BS). This hereditary sodium-channelopathy is characterized by typical, though intermittent, ECG abnormalities and carries a high risk of ventricular arrythmia and sudden cardiac death. The general occurence of BS is rare; however, it is more prevalent in men and in southeast Asian populations.

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Nov
2007

Recently, in a post-mortem and a subsequent structural MR study, a significantly increased gyrification index (GI) was demonstrated in the frontal lobe in individuals with schizophrenia. To examine whether frontal lobe hypergyria is region-specific and whether this might be a suitable endophenotype in the search for the genetic basis of schizophrenia, the frontal as well as parieto-occipital GI were determined in MRI scans of families affected with schizophrenia.
In the MRI scans of 48 subjects suffering from schizophrenia, in 82 of their first-degree relatives and in 41 control subjects, the GI was determined in three sections anterior to the genu of the corpus callosum and three sections posterior to the splenium, thus allowing for a selective determination of this measure in the frontal as well as the parietal lobe.

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Oct
2006

Gray matter reduction and ventricular enlargement belong to the best replicated findings in schizophrenia. Brain morphologic changes were also found in non-schizophrenic family members (FM). The intention of this study was to examine whether non-psychotic first-degree relatives reveal similar morphologic changes as schizophrenic patients and how state of genetic loading contribute to these abnormalities.

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Dec
2004

There is some evidence for prefrontal (PF) lobe changes in schizophrenia while the parieto-occipital (PO) region seems to be unaffected. This magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study was performed to examine shape differences as part of the spectrum of structural abnormalities in schizophrenia. The measurements were done on families affected with schizophrenia to identify the influence of genetic and environmental factors on these changes.

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Oct
2004

Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic with a low incidence of extrapyramidal-motoric side effects. Its chemical structure is related to clozapine, which is known to induce neutropenia in up to 3% and agranulocytosis in approximately 1% of patients. It has been discussed controversially whether olanzapine also has a potential to induce neutropenia and agranulocytosis.

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May
2002

To investigate the effect of genetic loading on brain structure in schizophrenia, we hypothesized that separating families into uniaffected and multiply affected would reveal effects of schizophrenia and family type. Volumes and asymmetries of the amygdala-hippocampus-complex (AHC) and sylvian fissure (SF) were determined using magnetic resonance imaging of subjects with schizophrenia from 12 uniaffected and 14 multiply affected families, and ten healthy controls. AHC volume was reduced in schizophrenia, particularly on the right side in subjects from uniaffected families.

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