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Author: Joan I Schall (55)


Dec
2016

Hormonally sensitive organs in the neonate can change size within days of birth as circulating maternal estrogen wanes. Although several reports document the size of these organs through infancy, few focus attention on the near-birth period. Clinical and research evaluation of hormonal and genitourinary disorders would benefit from reference size standards.

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May
2016

The present study determined the plasma amino acid status in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) in the modern medical and nutritional care setting and investigated the effect of choline supplementation on amino acid status. A total of 110 children aged 5 to 18 years with CF and PI were randomized to receive choline-enriched structured lipid (LYM-X-SORB) or placebo with similar energy and fat content. Plasma amino acids were measured at baseline and 3 and 12 months.

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Dec
2016

Pancreatic enzyme therapy does not normalize dietary fat absorption in patients with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency. Efficacy of LYM-X-SORB (LXS), an easily absorbable lipid matrix that enhances fat absorption, was evaluated in a 12-month randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial with plasma fatty acids (FA) and coefficient of fat absorption (CFA) outcomes. A total of 110 subjects (age 10.

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Dec
2014

Suboptimal vitamin D (vitD) status is common in children and young adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The vitD supplemental dose needed to normalize vitD status in this population is unknown.
In this double-blind trial, subjects infected with HIV ages 8.

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Apr
2016

Choline depletion is seen in cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency in spite of enzyme treatment and may result in liver, fatty acid, and muscle abnormalities. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of an easily absorbed choline-rich structured lipid (LYM-X-SORB™ [LXS]) to improve choline status.
Children with CF and pancreatic insufficiency were randomized to LXS or placebo in a 12-month double blind trial.

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Sep
2016

There is uncertainty whether long-term daily dosing with vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation (vitD3) above the 4000-IU/d dietary reference intake upper tolerable limit in children and adults is safe. As part of a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we determined if supplementation with 7000-IU/d vitD3 for 12 months in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-Infected subjects was safe and/or associated with metabolic outcomes.
A total of 58 HIV-infected subjects-aged 9-24.

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Jul
2015

Suboptimal vitamin D (vit D) status (<32 ng/mL) is ubiquitous among African American children with type SS sickle cell disease (SCD-SS). The vit D supplemental dose to normalize vit D status is unknown. Five to 20-year-old African American children with (n=21) and without (n=23) SCD-SS were randomized to vit D3 supplementation (4000 or 7000 IU/d) and evaluated at 6 and 12 weeks for changes in vit D and SCD status.

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Dec
1969

Since vitamin D insufficiency is common worldwide in people with HIV, we explored safety and efficacy of high dose cholecalciferol (D₃) in Botswana, and evaluated potential modifiers of serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D change (Δ25D).
Prospective randomized double-blind 12-week pilot trial of subjects ages 5.0-50.

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Aug
2015

The malabsorption blood test (MBT), consisting of pentadecanoic acid (PA), a free fatty acid, and triheptadecanoic acid (THA), a triglyceride that requires pancreatic lipase for absorption of the heptadecanoic acid (HA), was developed to assess fat malabsorption in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI). The objective was to construct a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model to describe PA and HA disposition in healthy subjects and CF subjects. A model was simultaneously fit to PA and HA concentrations, consisting of 1-compartment disposition and a transit model to describe absorption.

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Apr
2015

Human monocytes activated by toll-like receptor 2/1 ligand (TLR2/1L) show enhanced expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D-activating enzyme 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1). The resulting intracrine conversion of precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) to active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) can stimulate expression of antibacterial cathelicidin (CAMP). To determine whether this response is functional in HIV-infected subjects (HIV+ ), serum from HIV+ subjects pre- and post-vitamin D supplementation was utilized in monocyte cultures with or without TLR2/1L.

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Feb
2015

Suboptimal vitamin D status is prevalent in HIV-infected patients and associated with increased risk of disease severity and morbidity. We aimed to determine 12-month safety and efficacy of daily 7000 IU vitamin D3 (vitD3) versus placebo to sustain increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and improve immune status in HIV-infected subjects.
This was a double-blind trial of perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV)-infected subjects or behaviorally acquired HIV (BHIV)-infected subjects (5.

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Sep
2014

To report population-based percentile reference values for selected spinal mobility measures in a nationally representative sample of 5,001 US adults ages 20-69 years who were examined in the 2009-2010 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).
Occiput-to-wall distance (OWD), thoracic expansion (TE), and anterior lumbar flexion (ALF; by modified Schober test) were measured by trained examiners in a standardized manner. TE was measured at the xiphisternal level, while the lower reference point for ALF was a line marked at the level of the superior margin of the lateral iliac crests.

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Sep
2014

The long-term effects of the ketogenic diet, a high fat diet for treating intractable epilepsy, on resting energy expenditure (REE) are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 15 months of ketogenic diet treatment on growth and REE in children with intractable epilepsy.
Growth, body composition, and REE were assessed at baseline, 3 months and 15 months in 24 children (14 males, 10 females; mean age 5 y 6 mo [SD 26 mo], range 7 mo-6 y 5 mo), 10 with cerebral palsy [CP]).

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Sep
2014

The study aim was to determine the effect of a dietary intervention on growth, body composition and resting energy expenditure (REE) in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Subjects (5 to 17 yrs) participated in a 12-month trial of the organized lipid matrix LYM-X-SORB™ (LXS) vs. placebo dietary supplements with similar calories, total fat and fatty acids.

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Jun
2014

Unexpectedly high serum B12 concentrations were noted in most study subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) participating in a nutrition intervention at the baseline evaluation. The objectives of this study were to determine dietary, supplement-based, and enzyme-based B12 intake, serum B12 concentrations, and predictors of vitamin B12 status in children with CF and PI.
Serum B12 status was assessed in subjects (5-18 years) and categorized as elevated (serum B12 above reference range for age and sex [Hi-B12]) or within reference range (serum B12 within reference range for age and sex) for age and sex.

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Apr
2014

The aim of the study was to assess the impact of LYM-X-SORB (LXS), an organized lipid matrix that has been shown to be absorbable without pancreatic enzyme therapy on fat-soluble vitamin status in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI).
Children with CF and PI were randomized to daily LXS or an isocaloric placebo comparison supplement for 12 months. Serum vitamins A (retinol), D (25-hydroxyvitamin D[25D]), E (α-tocopherol, α-tocopherol:cholesterol ratio), and K (percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin [%ucOC] and plasma proteins induced by vitamin K absence factor II [PIVKA II]) were assessed at baseline and 12 months.

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Jul
2013

Gastrointestinal disturbances are common in people with cystic fibrosis (CF); however, motility studies in this population have yielded inconsistent results. This study examined gastric emptying (GE) and small bowel transit (SBT) time in children with CF and pancreatic insufficiency compared with a healthy adult reference group.
Participants consumed an 8-ounce liquid test meal (approximately 550 calories, 32 g of fat) labeled with 300 μCi 99m technetium (Tc) sulfur colloid.

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Jul
2013

Infants with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) often exhibit growth failure. This can affect anthropometric and neurodevelopmental outcomes well into childhood. To determine the resting energy expenditure (REE), body composition, and growth in infants with CHD at 3 months of age, with the secondary aim to identify predictors of REE as compared with healthy infants.

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Apr
2013

A Malabsorption Blood Test (MBT) is proposed as an alternative method to the 72-hour stool and dietary collection for assessing the degree of fat malabsorption in people with pancreatic insufficiency. The MBT consists of a simultaneous oral dose of pentadecanoic acid (PA), a free fatty acid, and triheptadecanoic acid (THA), a triglyceride with three heptadecanoic (HA) saturated fatty acids requiring hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase before HA can be intestinally absorbed. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the ability of MBT to detect fat malabsorption in healthy adult subjects using the pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitor Orlistat (Xenical®), and in subjects with CF and PI while on and off routine pancreatic enzyme doses.

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Apr
2013

This study sought to determine if changes in parent-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children with sickle cell disease (SCD-SS) occurred after participation in a nutritional supplementation study and to compare HRQOL responses with normative scores from non-White children.
Parents of children with SCD-SS between the ages of 5 and 13 years completed the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50) at baseline and at 12 months.
For the 47 children (8.

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Mar
2013

Optimal vitamin D status is known to have beneficial health effects and vitamin D supplements are commonly used. It has been suggested that vitamin D supplementation may increase blood lead in children and adults with previous lead exposure. The objective was to determine the safety regarding lead toxicity during 12 weeks of high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in children and young adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Oct
2012

Suboptimal vitamin A status is prevalent in children with type SS sickle cell disease (SCD-SS) and is associated with hospitalizations and poor growth and hematologic status. The supplemental vitamin A dose that optimizes suboptimal vitamin A status in this population is unknown.
The efficacy of Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) doses (based on age and sex) of vitamin A (300, 400, or 600 μg retinyl palmitate/d) or vitamin A + zinc (10 or 20 mg zinc sulfate/d) compared with placebo to optimize vitamin A status was assessed in children aged 2.

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Nov
2012

Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) are at risk for fatty acid (FA) abnormalities and essential FA deficiency, with low linoleic acid (LA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrations and abnormal triene:tetraene (T:T) and arachidonic acid (AA):DHA ratios. The aim of the article was to determine whether type of dietary fat predicted serum LA, DHA, T:T, and AA:DHA ratios in subjects with CF and PI as compared to an unaffected comparison group.
Serum FA concentrations were assessed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography (mol%) and dietary intake by 7-day weighed food records; the 3-day coefficient of fat absorption was calculated.

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Mar
2011

Dominant hand maximal handgrip strength evaluated with a handgrip dynamometer and peak power evaluated with a force plate, adjusted for body size and composition, were compared in African-American children aged 5 to 13 years, with and without type SS sickle cell disease (SCD-SS). Children with SCD-SS (n = 35; age, 9.0 ± 2.

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Jun
2010

Exercise performance in individuals with cystic fibrosis has been shown to be related to the extent of pulmonary dysfunction and undernutrition and genetic profile. The aim of this study was to examine these relationships in young children with cystic fibrosis. The participants were 64 children ages 8 to 11 years (M = 9.

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Sep
2010

For children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency, the efficacy of routine vitamin K supplementation to normalize vitamin K status remains unclear.
This study examined and determined predictors of vitamin K status in subjects aged 8-25 y with CF and pancreatic insufficiency taking various vitamin K supplements.
In 97 subjects, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], dietary intake, vitamin K supplement intake, and vitamin K statusmdashdetermined on the basis of the percentage of serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (%ucOC; sufficient: lt 20%) and plasma proteins induced by vitamin K absence-factor II (PIVKA-II; n = 60; sufficient: le 2 microg/L)mdashwere assessed.

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Dec
2008

The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and protein diet that effectively treats intractable epilepsy (IE).
The purpose of this study was to measure the change in bone mineral content (BMC) in children with IE treated with the KD for 15 mo.
Prepubertal children >or=5 y of age with IE were eligible.

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Nov
2008

Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) are at increased risk for essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency.
To investigate serum markers of EFA status in children with CF and PI and their association with growth, body composition, and lung function.
Serum phospholipid fatty acid, growth, and forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1, percentage predicted) status were assessed at baseline and 12 months in 77 children with CF and PI, 7 to 10 years old.

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Nov
2008

Despite reports of decreased bone density, children with mild to moderate cystic fibrosis (CF)-associated pulmonary disease do not have increased fracture rates. Short stature and delayed puberty complicate interpretations of bone mineral status in many children with chronic diseases. This study sought to characterize bone mineral content (BMC) in children with CF and determine its relationship to growth, body composition, and disease severity.

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Sep
2008

Vitamin D is a particularly concerning nutrient for children with homozygous SS sickle cell disease (SCD-SS) due to their increased skin melanin concentrations, reduced levels of physical activity, and poor vitamin D intake. The goal of this study was to compare the vitamin D status of children with SCD-SS to healthy African-American children living in the same geographic area. Growth, dietary intake, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) concentrations were measured in 61 African-American subjects with SCD-SS and 89 healthy African-American control subjects age 5 to 18 years from the Philadelphia, PA, region (latitude 39.

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Jun
2008

The aim of this study was to evaluate the resting energy expenditure (REE) of children with intractable epilepsy (IE) compared with healthy children, and to determine factors that contribute to the pattern of REE. REE, growth status, and body composition were assessed in 25 prepubertal children with IE (15 males, 10 females; mean age 5y 5mo [SD 2y 2mo] range 2-9y) with and without cerebral palsy (CP) and compared with those in 75 healthy children of similar age, sex, and fat free mass (FFM; 43 males, 32 females; mean age 6y 4mo [SD 1y 8mo], range 2-9y). Of the 25 children with IE, 12 had generalized and 13 partial seizures; 10 children had CP (four hemiplegia, one diplegia, and five tetraplegia); 18 were ambulators.

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Dec
2007

Cystic fibrosis (CF) with pancreatic insufficiency is associated with poor absorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamin D. Pancreatic enzyme supplementation does not completely correct fat malabsorption in CF patients.
The objective of the study was to compare the vitamin D status of children, adolescents, and young adults with CF who were treated with routine vitamin D and pancreatic enzyme supplements with the vitamin D status of a healthy reference group from a similar geographic area.

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Mar
2008

Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) are at risk for fat-soluble vitamin deficiency, including vitamin A. Recent evidence suggests current practices of vitamin A intake results in elevated serum retinol.
Serum retinol was assessed in 78 subjects (8 to 25 years old) with CF and PI by high performance liquid chromatography, and compared to the U.

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Jun
2007

Growth retardation is common among children with epilepsy, and poor dietary intake may be one of the causes. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to compare the nutrient intake of children 1 to 8 years of age with intractable epilepsy to healthy children of the same age from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 to 2002 (N=1,718) and with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Children with intractable epilepsy were divided into two age groups: 1.

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May
2007

Dietary intake (24-hour recall) was evaluated prospectively over four annual visits in 97 children and adolescents (53 female), aged 1.5 to 18.7 years, with sickle cell disease, type SS.

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May
2007

Previous studies of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) reported poor growth and delayed maturation. However, the prevalence, magnitude, and correlates of suboptimal growth remain poorly understood. A prospective longitudinal study was undertaken to determine the effects of disease severity and nutritional status on growth, an indicator of childhood well-being.

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Jan
2007

The aim of this study was to describe vitamin D status in children with intractable epilepsy prescribed newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) before initiation of and during 15-month treatment with the ketogenic diet (KD).
Serum vitamin D (25-OHD and 1,25-OHD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were assessed in prepubertal children with intractable epilepsy before initiation of and during KD therapy. Three-day weighed dietary records including KD and vitamin and mineral supplementation were obtained at baseline and at 1 month.

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Jan
2007

To support age-appropriate growth and to prevent and treat malnutrition in children with cystic fibrosis (CF), energy requirements for those children are often set above the requirements for healthy children. Care providers use one of several empirically derived formulas to calculate energy requirements, yet the validity of these formulas has seldom been tested.
We evaluated 6 proposed formulas for calculating energy requirements in children with CF against a total energy requirement for children with CF (TER-CF) derived from measured total energy expenditure, fecal fat energy loss, and the theoretic energy required for age-appropriate tissue accretion.

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Nov
2006

To describe the usual pattern of intake and adherence to cystic fibrosis (CF) food and pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) recommendations in preadolescent children with CF and pancreatic insufficiency (PI).
Children, 8 to 11 years old, with CF and PI were assessed for PERT adherence ratio (number taken/number prescribed per day) and energy and fat intake for 7 days (weighed food records), adherence to PERT and dietary recommendations, pulmonary function, growth status and stool fat malabsorption. Using the PERT adherence ratio, children were divided into good (> or =80%), moderate (60% to 79%) and poor (<60%) adherence groups.

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Sep
2006

Suboptimal growth and nutritional status are common among children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI). A better understanding of energy balance is required to improve prevention and treatment of malnutrition.
Our objective was to characterize energy balance and the reporting accuracy of dietary intake in children with CF by evaluating the relations between energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), fecal energy loss, nutritional status, and growth.

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Jul
2006

Persons with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) are at risk of vitamin A deficiency because of steatorrhea, despite pancreatic enzyme replacement. Long-standing vitamin A supplementation may increase the risk of vitamin A toxicity.
The aim was to describe the vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations of preadolescent children with CF, PI, and mild-to-moderate pulmonary disease, who were cared for under current practice recommendations.

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Jul
2006

To investigate plasma zinc status in relation to dietary and supplemental zinc intake, growth and pulmonary status in preadolescent children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI).
Fasting plasma zinc was assessed in children (age, 8-11 years) with CF and PI. Food (7-day weighed records) and supplemental zinc intake, serum alkaline phosphatase and albumin, pulmonary function (spirometry), coefficient of fat absorption (%COA, 72-hour fecal fat) and growth status [height adjusted for genetic potential (AHAZ), weight (WAZ) and BMI Z scores (BMIZ)] were assessed.

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Apr
2006

Vitamin E status was compared in 69 children (7.0-10.0 years) with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III sample (6.

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Nov
2005

The ketogenic diet (KD) is a 90% fat diet that is an effective treatment for intractable epilepsy. Rapid initiation of the KD requires hospital admission because of the complexity of the protocol and frequent mild and moderate adverse events. The purpose of the study was to compare the efficacy of a gradual KD initiation with the standard KD initiation preceded by a 24- to 48-h fast.

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Oct
2005

Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) experience poor growth, altered body composition, and delayed maturation. Deficits in bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area (BA) have not been well characterized. The objectives of this study were to assess whole-body BMC (WBBMC) and WBBA in children with SCD, type SS (SCD-SS), compared with healthy control subjects, adjusted for growth and body composition, and to determine the relationships of WBBMC and WBBA to bone age and hematologic parameters in children with SCD-SS.

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Sep
2005

To determine whether children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF), pancreatic insufficiency (PI), and mild-to-moderate lung disease have an increased risk of fracture compared with concurrent healthy control subjects.
A lifetime fracture history questionnaire was administered to 186 subjects (ages 6 to 25 years) with CF, PI and mild-to-moderate lung disease and 427 healthy white control subjects (ages 4 to 25 years).
A fracture was reported by 24% of subjects with CF and 23% of healthy control subjects.

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Oct
2005

Poor nutrition and growth status are common in people with cystic fibrosis (CF), and females often have a worse clinical course. Relationships between sexual maturity, nutrition, resting energy expenditure (REE), and pulmonary status in females with CF and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) were evaluated.
Pre- and post-menarcheal females with CF and PI (8-29 yr) were compared to healthy females.

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Apr
2005

To evaluate fecal elastase 1 (FE) levels in young children with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency and to explore the relationship between FE and growth, nutrition, pulmonary status and fat absorption over a 24-month period.
FE, indicating pancreatic lipase activity, was assessed in children (6.0 to 8.

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Jul
2004

To determine the relation of serum vitamin A status to growth, nutritional and hematologic status, and to the number of hospitalizations in children with sickle cell disease-SS (homozygous for the S allele, SCD-SS).
Children (2-9.9 years of age) with SCD-SS were assessed for serum retinol, hemoglobin, hematocrit, reticulocyte count, height, weight, body mass index, and recalled dietary intake.

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