Helping You Find Full Text Journal Articles

Search Results:

Author: John M Christie (47)



View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Phototropins (phots) are plasma membrane-associated serine/threonine kinases that coordinate a range of processes linked to optimizing photosynthetic efficiency in plants. These photoreceptors contain two light-, oxygen-, or voltage-sensing (LOV) domains within their N terminus, with each binding one molecule of flavin mononucleotide as a UV/blue light-absorbing chromophore. Although phots contain two LOV domains, light-induced activation of the C-terminal kinase domain and subsequent receptor autophosphorylation is controlled primarily by the A'α-LOV2-Jα photosensory module.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2017

invasion protein A (SipA) is a dual-function effector protein that plays roles in both actin polymerization and caspase-3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells. To date its function in other cell types has remained largely unknown despite its expression in multiple cell types and its extracellular secretion during infection. Here we show that in macrophages SipA induces increased caspase-3 activation early in infection.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2016

UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) is a photoreceptor for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light that initiates photomorphogenic responses in plants. UV-B photoreception causes rapid dissociation of dimeric UVR8 into monomers that interact with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) to initiate signal transduction. Experiments with purified UVR8 show that the dimer is maintained by salt-bridge interactions between specific charged amino acids across the dimer interface.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2016

Phototropin (phot1) is a blue light-activated plasma membrane-associated kinase that acts as the principal photoreceptor for shoot phototropism in Arabidopsis in conjunction with the signalling component Non-Phototropic Hypocotyl 3 (NPH3). PHOT1 is uniformly expressed throughout the Arabidopsis hypocotyl, yet decapitation experiments have localized the site of light perception to the upper hypocotyl. This prompted us to investigate in more detail the functional role of the hypocotyl apex, and the regions surrounding it, in establishing phototropism.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Hypocotyl phototropism of etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings is primarily mediated by the blue-light receptor kinase phototropin 1 (phot1). Phot1-mediated curvature to continuous unilateral blue light irradiation (0.5 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) is enhanced by overhead pre-treatment with red light (20 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for 15 min) through the action of phytochrome (phyA).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2016

The uses of fluorescent reporters derived from green fluorescent protein have proved invaluable for the visualisation of biological processes in bacteria grown under aerobic conditions. However, their requirement for oxygen has limited their application in obligate anaerobes such as Clostridium difficile. Fluorescent proteins derived from Light, Oxygen or Voltage sensing (LOV) domains have been shown to bridge this limitation, but their utility as translational fusions to monitor protein expression and localisation in a strict anaerobic bacterium has not been reported.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2016

Bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins are critical determinants of infection for many animal and plant pathogens. However, monitoring of the translocation and delivery of these important virulence determinants has proved to be technically challenging. Here, we used a genetically engineered LOV (light-oxygen-voltage) sensing domain derivative to monitor the expression, translocation, and localization of bacterial T3SS effectors.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2016

Phototropins (phots) regulate a range of adaptive processes in plants that serve to optimize photosynthetic efficiency and promote growth. Light sensing by Arabidopsis thaliana phots is predominantly mediated by the Light, Oxygen and Voltage sensing 2 (LOV2) flavin-binding motif located within the N-terminus of the photoreceptor. Here we characterize the photochemical and biochemical properties of phot from the marine picoalga Ostreococcus tauri phototropin (Otphot) and examine its ability to replace phot-mediated function in Arabidopsis.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2015

Chromophore-binding domains from plant and bacterial photoreceptor proteins have recently gathered increasing attention as new sources of genetically encoded fluorescent proteins (FPs). In particular, FPs based on the flavin-binding LOV (light, oxygen, or voltage sensing) domain offer advantages over green fluorescent protein (GFP) owing to their smaller size, pH and thermal stability, utility under anaerobic conditions and their ability to generate reactive oxygen species. This review focuses on the potential applications of this emerging class of fluorescent reporters, discusses the advantages and limitations of LOV-based FPs, whilst offering insights regarding the further development of this technology for bioimaging and photodynamic therapy.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2015

UVR8 is a novel UV-B photoreceptor that regulates a range of plant responses and is already used as a versatile optogenetic tool. Instead of an exogenous chromophore, UVR8 uniquely employs tryptophan side chains to accomplish UV-B photoreception. UV-B absorption by homodimeric UVR8 induces monomerization and hence signaling, but the underlying photodynamic mechanisms are not known.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2015

The present palette of opsin-based optogenetic tools lacks a light-gated potassium (K(+)) channel desirable for silencing of excitable cells. Here, we describe the construction of a blue-light-induced K(+) channel 1 (BLINK1) engineered by fusing the plant LOV2-Jα photosensory module to the small viral K(+) channel Kcv. BLINK1 exhibits biophysical features of Kcv, including K(+) selectivity and high single-channel conductance but reversibly photoactivates in blue light.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2015

Plants are photoautotrophic sessile organisms that use environmental cues to optimize multiple facets of growth and development. A classic example is phototropism - in shoots this is typically positive, leading to growth towards the light, while roots frequently show negative phototropism triggering growth away from the light. Shoot phototropism optimizes light capture of leaves in low light environments and hence increases photosynthetic productivity.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Nov
2015

These updated guidelines on the management of variceal haemorrhage have been commissioned by the Clinical Services and Standards Committee (CSSC) of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) under the auspices of the liver section of the BSG. The original guidelines which this document supersedes were written in 2000 and have undergone extensive revision by 13 members of the Guidelines Development Group (GDG). The GDG comprises elected members of the BSG liver section, representation from British Association for the Study of the Liver (BASL) and Liver QuEST, a nursing representative and a patient representative.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2015

UVR8 is a recently discovered ultraviolet-B (UV-B) photoreceptor protein identified in plants and algae. In the dark state, UVR8 exists as a homodimer, whereas UV-B irradiation induces UVR8 monomerization and initiation of signaling. Although the biological functions of UVR8 have been studied, the fundamental reaction mechanism and associated kinetics have not yet been fully elucidated.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2015

The phototropin 1 (phot1) blue light receptor mediates a number of adaptive responses, including phototropism, that generally serve to optimize photosynthetic capacity. Phot1 is a plasma membrane-associated protein, but upon irradiation, a fraction is internalized into the cytoplasm. Although this phenomenon has been reported for more than a decade, its biological significance remains elusive.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2015

Plant flavoprotein photoreceptors.

Plant Cell Physiol 2015 Mar 15;56(3):401-13. Epub 2014 Dec 15.
John M Christie, Lisa Blackwood, Jan Petersen, Stuart Sullivan
Plants depend on the surrounding light environment to direct their growth. Blue light (300-500 nm) in particular acts to promote a wide variety of photomorphogenic responses including seedling establishment, phototropism and circadian clock regulation. Several different classes of flavin-based photoreceptors have been identified that mediate the effects of blue light in the dicotyledonous genetic model Arabidopsis thaliana.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2015

Tryptophan residues at the dimer interface of the plant photoreceptor UVR8 promote monomerisation after UV-B absorption via a so far unknown mechanism. Using FTIR spectroscopy we assign light-induced structural transitions of UVR8 mainly to amino acid side chains without major transformations of the secondary structure of the physiologically relevant C-terminal extension. Additionally, we assign the monomerisation associated increase and red shift of the UVR8 tryptophan emission to a photoinduced rearrangement of tryptophan side chains and a relocation of the aspartic acid residues D96 and D107, respectively.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Opening of stomata in the plant facilitates photosynthetic CO2 fixation and transpiration. Blue-light perception by phototropins (phot1, phot2) activates the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, causing stomata to open. Here we describe a regulator that connects these components, a Ser/Thr protein kinase, BLUS1 (BLUE LIGHT SIGNALING1), which mediates a primary step for phototropin signalling in guard cells.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Sep
2013

In the filamentous heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120, vegetative cells and heterocysts are interdependent on each other and engaged in exchanges of metabolites for survival when grown under diazotrophic conditions. In this organism, the periplasm appears to be continuous along each filament, with a shared outer membrane; however, barriers exist preventing free diffusion of the fluorescent protein GFP (27 kDa) targeted into the periplasmic space. Here we expressed a smaller fluorescent protein iLOV (≈ 13 kDa) fused to the All3333 (a putative homologue of NrtA) signal sequence corresponding to those recognized by the TAT protein translocation system, which exports iLOV to the periplasm of either heterocysts or vegetative cells.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2013

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is one of the most extensively studied animal pathogens because it remains a major threat to livestock economies worldwide. However, the dynamics of FMDV infection are still poorly understood. The application of reverse genetics provides the opportunity to generate molecular tools to further dissect the FMDV life cycle.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

In this work, we describe the utility of Light, Oxygen, or Voltage-sensing (LOV) flavoprotein domains from plant phototropins as a reporter for protein expression and function. Specifically, we used iLOV, an enhanced and more photostable variant of LOV. A pET-based plasmid for protein expression was constructed, encoding a C terminal iLOV-octahistidine (His8)-tag and a HRV 3C protease cleavage recognition site.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2013

Light is a key environmental factor that drives many aspects of plant growth and development. Phototropism, the reorientation of growth toward or away from light, represents one of these important adaptive processes. Modern studies of phototropism began with experiments conducted by Charles Darwin demonstrating that light perception at the shoot apex of grass coleoptiles induces differential elongation in the lower epidermal cells.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2012

UV-B light initiates photomorphogenic responses in plants. Arabidopsis UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) specifically mediates these responses by functioning as a UV-B photoreceptor. UV-B exposure converts UVR8 from a dimer to a monomer, stimulates the rapid accumulation of UVR8 in the nucleus, where it binds to chromatin, and induces interaction of UVR8 with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), which functions with UVR8 to control photomorphogenic UV-B responses.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2012

Fluorescent proteins derived from light, oxygen, or voltage (LOV) domains offer advantages over green fluorescent protein (GFP) from their small size and efficacy under anaerobic conditions. The flavoprotein improved LOV (iLOV) was engineered from the blue light receptor phototropin as a reporter of viral infection. To inform the molecular basis for the improved, photoreversible, fluorescent properties of iLOV, we employed directed evolution and determined five LOV crystallographic structures.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2012

Optogenetics is an emerging field that combines optical and genetic approaches to non-invasively interfere with cellular events with exquisite spatiotemporal control. Although it arose originally from neuroscience, optogenetics is widely applicable to the study of many different biological systems and the range of applications arising from this technology continues to increase. Moreover, the repertoire of light-sensitive proteins used for devising new optogenetic tools is rapidly expanding.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2012

The recently identified plant photoreceptor UVR8 (UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8) triggers regulatory changes in gene expression in response to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light through an unknown mechanism. Here, crystallographic and solution structures of the UVR8 homodimer, together with mutagenesis and far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy, reveal its mechanisms for UV-B perception and signal transduction. β-propeller subunits form a remarkable, tryptophan-dominated, dimer interface stitched together by a complex salt-bridge network.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2011

It is well accepted that lateral redistribution of the phytohormone auxin underlies the bending of plant organs towards light. In monocots, photoreception occurs at the shoot tip above the region of differential growth. Despite more than a century of research, it is still unresolved how light regulates auxin distribution and where this occurs in dicots.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Feb
2011

The marine environment has unique properties of light transmission, with an attenuation of long wavelengths within the first meters of the water column. Marine organisms have therefore evolved specific blue-light receptors such as aureochromes to absorb shorter-wavelength light. Here, we identify and characterize a light, oxygen, or voltage sensing (LOV) containing histidine kinase (LOV-HK) that functions as a new class of eukaryotic blue-light receptor in the pico-phytoplanktonic cell Ostreococcus tauri.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2009

Phototropins (phot1 and phot2) are plasma membrane-associated receptor kinases that respond specifically to blue and UV wavelengths. In addition to a C-terminal Ser/Thr kinase domain, phototropins contain two N-terminal chromophore binding LOV domains that function as photoswitches to regulate a wide range of enzymatic activities in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Through domain swapping, we show that the photochemical properties of Arabidopsis thaliana phot1 rely on interactions between LOV1 and LOV2, which are facilitated by their intervening linker sequence.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jul
2009

Phototropin receptor kinases play an important role in optimising plant growth in response to blue light. Much is known regarding their photochemical reactivity, yet little progress has been made to identify downstream signalling components. Here, we isolated several interacting proteins for Arabidopsis phototropin 1 (phot1) by yeast two-hybrid screening.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2009

The fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus reacts to environmental signals, including light, gravity, touch, and the presence of nearby objects, by changing the speed and direction of growth of its fruiting body (sporangiophore). Phototropism, growth toward light, shares many features in fungi and plants but the molecular mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Phycomyces mutants with altered phototropism were isolated approximately 40 years ago and found to have mutations in the mad genes.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2008

Fluorescent proteins (FPs) based on green fluorescent protein (GFP) are widely used throughout cell biology to study protein dynamics, and have extensive use as reporters of virus infection and spread. However, FP-tagging of viruses is limited by the constraints of viral genome size resulting in FP loss through recombination events. To overcome this, we have engineered a smaller ( approximately 10 kDa) flavin-based alternative to GFP ( approximately 25 kDa) derived from the light, oxygen or voltage-sensing (LOV) domain of the plant blue light receptor, phototropin.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2008

Phototropins (phot1 and phot2) are blue-light receptor kinases controlling a range of responses that optimize the photosynthetic efficiency of plants. Light sensing is mediated by two flavin-binding motifs, known as LOV1 and LOV2, located within the N-terminal region of the protein. Photoexcitation via LOV2 leads to activation of the C-terminal kinase domain and consequently receptor autophosphorylation.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2008

Phototropins (phot1 and phot2) are blue light-activated serine/threonine protein kinases that function to mediate a variety of adaptive processes that serve to optimize the photosynthetic efficiency of plants and thereby promote their growth. Light sensing by the phototropins is mediated by a repeated motif located within the N-terminal region of the protein designated the LOV domain. Although phototropins possess two LOV photosensors (LOV1 and LOV2), recent biophysical and structure-function analyses clearly indicate that the LOV2 domain plays a predominant role in regulating phototropin kinase activity owing to specific protein changes that occur in response to LOV2 photoexcitation.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2007

Phototropins (phot1 and phot2) are blue light receptor kinases that control a range of photoresponses that serve to optimize the photosynthetic efficiency of plants. Light sensing by the phototropins is mediated by a repeated motif at the N-terminal region of the protein known as the LOV domain. Bacterially expressed LOV domains bind flavin mononucleotide noncovalently and are photochemically active in solution.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Mar
2007

Phototropins (phot1 and phot2) are blue light-activated serine/threonine protein kinases that elicit a variety of photoresponses in plants. Light sensing by the phototropins is mediated by two flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-binding domains, designated LOV1 and LOV2, located in the N-terminal region of the protein. Exposure to light results in the formation of a covalent adduct between the FMN chromophore and a conserved cysteine residue within the LOV domain.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2007

Phototropins (phot1 and phot2) are plant blue-light receptors that mediate phototropism, chloroplast movement, stomatal opening, rapid inhibition of growth of etiolated seedlings, and leaf expansion in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Their N-terminal region contains two light, oxygen, or voltage (LOV) domains, which bind flavin mononucleotide and form a covalent adduct between a conserved cysteine and the flavin mononucleotide chromophore upon photoexcitation. The C-terminal region contains a serine/threonine kinase domain that catalyzes blue-light-activated autophosphorylation.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Phototropin blue-light receptors.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2007 ;58:21-45
John M Christie
Phototropins are blue-light receptors controlling a range of responses that serve to optimize the photosynthetic efficiency of plants. These include phototropism, light-induced stomatal opening, and chloroplast movements in response to changes in light intensity. Since the isolation of the Arabidopsis PHOT1 gene in 1997, phototropins have been identified in ferns and mosses where their physiological functions appear to be conserved.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2004

Light plays a crucial role in activating phototropins, a class of plant photoreceptors that are sensitive to blue and UV-A wavelengths. Previous studies indicated that phototropin uses a bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN) within its light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain to generate a protein-flavin covalent bond under illumination. In the C-terminal LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin 1, formation of this bond triggers a conformational change that results in unfolding of a helix external to this domain called Jalpha [Harper, S.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Aug
2004

The prevalence of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) reported in different countries varies widely, indicating that genetic or environmental factors may be important in the etiology of the disease. The aim of this study was to examine this issue further by determining the overall prevalence of PBC in one state in Australia and to examine the prevalence among different migrant groups within this population.
Thorough case-finding methods were used to identify all cases of PBC in Victoria, Australia.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2002

Phototropins (phot1 and phot2) are autophosphorylating serine/threonine kinases that function as photoreceptors for phototropism, light-induced chloroplast movement, and stomatal opening in Arabidopsis. The N-terminal region of phot1 and phot2 contains two specialized PAS domains, designated LOV1 and LOV2, which function as binding sites for the chromophore flavin mononucleotide (FMN). Both LOV1 and LOV2 undergo a self-contained photocycle, which involves the formation of a covalent adduct between the FMN chromophore and a conserved active-site cysteine residue (Cys39).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jun
2002

Phototropins (phot1 and phot2, formerly designated nph1 and npl1) are blue-light receptors that mediate phototropism, blue light-induced chloroplast relocation, and blue light-induced stomatal opening in Arabidopsis. Phototropins contain two light, oxygen, or voltage (LOV) domains at their N termini (LOV1 and LOV2), each a binding site for the chromophore flavin mononucleotide (FMN). Their C termini contain a serine/threonine protein kinase domain.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

May
2002

Blue and ultraviolet-A light regulate a wide range of responses in plants, including phototropism, chloroplast migration and stomatal opening. However, the photoreceptors for these light responses have been identified only recently. The phototropins (phot1 and phot2) represent a new class of receptor kinases that appear to be exclusive to plants.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Back to top