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Author: John Taffe (56)


Dec
1969

Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience significant difficulties in attention, learning, executive functions, and behavioral regulation. Emerging evidence suggests that computerized cognitive training may remediate these impairments. In a double blind controlled trial, 76 children with IDD (4-11 years) were randomized to either an attention training (n = 38) or control program (n = 38).

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Nov
2017

Despite well-documented attention deficits in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), distinctions across types of attention problems and their association with academic attainment has not been fully explored. This study examines visual attention capacities and inattentive/hyperactive behaviours in 77 children aged 4 to 11 years with IDD and elevated behavioural attention difficulties. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 23), Down syndrome (DS; n = 22), and non-specific intellectual disability (NSID; n = 32) completed computerized visual search and vigilance paradigms.

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Dec
2016

Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience heightened attention difficulties which have been linked to poorer cognitive, academic and social outcomes. Although, increasing research has focused on the potential of computerised cognitive training in reducing attention problems, limited studies have assessed whether this intervention could be utilised for those with IDD. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a computerised attention training programme in children with IDD.

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Jun
2017

This study investigates whether the augmentation of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with fluoxetine improves outcomes in anxious school refusing adolescents (11-16.5 years). Sixty-two participants were randomly allocated to CBT alone, CBT + fluoxetine or CBT + placebo.

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Dec
1969

Young people with intellectual disability exhibit substantial and persistent problem behaviours compared with their non-disabled peers. The aim of this study was to compare changes in emotional and behavioural problems for young people with intellectual disability with and without Down syndrome as they transition into adulthood in two different Australian cohorts.
Emotional and behavioural problems were measured over three time points using the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) for those with Down syndrome (n = 323 at wave one) and compared to those with intellectual disability of another cause (n = 466 at wave one).

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Oct
2016

Whilst neuropsychological research has enhanced our understanding of inattentive and hyperactive behaviours among children with intellectual disability (ID), the absence of rating scales developed for this group continues to be a gap in knowledge. This study examined these behaviours in 176 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Down Syndrome (DS), or idiopathic ID using a newly developed teacher rating scale, the Scale of Attention in Intellectual Disability. Findings suggested that children with ASD had a significantly greater breadth of hyperactive/impulsive behaviours than those with DS or idiopathic ID.

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Dec
1969

Changes to the DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) criteria raised concerns among parents and practitioners that the criteria may exclude some children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). Few studies have examined DSM-5 sensitivity and specificity in children less than 5 years of age. This study evaluated 185 children aged 20-55 months with DSM-IV PDD or developmental delay.

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Feb
2016

In the present study we examined the nature and developmental trajectory of self-injurious behaviour in Prader Willi syndrome (PWS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The development of interventions is greatly aided by understanding gene to behaviour pathways, and this requires an accurate description of the behaviour phenotype, that is, which types and natural history of self-injurious behaviour are more common in PWS and ASD and which are shared with other forms of developmental disability. Self-injury displayed by individuals with PWS and individuals with ASD was compared with that reported in a group of individuals with intellectual disability due to mixed aetiology (ID group).

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Jun
2015

The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental trajectories of verbal aggression, physical aggression, and temper tantrums in four genetic syndrome groups. Participants were part of the Australian Child to Adult Development Study (ACAD), which collected information from a cohort of individuals with an intellectual disability at five time points over 18 years. Data were examined from a total of 248 people with one of the four following syndromes: Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, or Williams syndrome.

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Jun
2015

This study examined changes in body mass index (BMI), anorectic cognitions, and psychological distress following day program treatment.
Participants were 42 female patients from the Monash Health Butterfly eating disorder day program, with anorexia nervosa (AN) restricting type (n = 35) or AN binge-eating/purging type (n = 7), ranging from 12 to 24 years.
Participants' BMI increased significantly over time.

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Mar
2015

Difficulties with attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity are thought to be as common among children with intellectual disability (ID) as they are in children without ID. Despite this, there is a lack of scales to specifically assess ADHD symptomatology in children and adolescents with ID. This article describes the development and evaluation of a teacher-completed measure; the Scale of Attention in Intellectual Disability (SAID).

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Sep
2014

Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) have a significant reduction in the number of oxytocin-producing neurons (42%) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. A number of animal studies and observations of humans show that lesions in this region can produce PWS-like symptoms. Given the evidence for potential oxytocin deficiency, we tested the effects of a course of intranasal oxytocin on PWS symptoms.

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Dec
2014

Longitudinal research has demonstrated that social outcomes for adults with autism are restricted, particularly in terms of employment and living arrangements. However, understanding of individual and environmental factors that influence these outcomes is far from complete. This longitudinal study followed a community sample of children and adolescents with autism into adulthood.

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Dec
1969

There is substantial evidence for facial emotion recognition (FER) deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The extent of this impairment, however, remains unclear, and there is some suggestion that clinical groups might benefit from the use of dynamic rather than static images. High-functioning individuals with ASD (n = 36) and typically developing controls (n = 36) completed a computerised FER task involving static and dynamic expressions of the six basic emotions.

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Jul
2014

The current study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Emotion Regulation and Social Skills Questionnaire (ERSSQ), a rating scale designed specifically to assess the social skills of young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The participants were 84 children and young adolescents with ASD, aged between 7.97 and 14.

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Nov
2013

Lavender essential oil shows evidence of sedative properties in neurophysiological and animal studies but clinical trials of its effectiveness as a treatment of agitation in people with dementia have shown mixed results. Study methods have varied widely, however, making comparisons hazardous. To help remedy previous methodological shortcomings, we delivered high grade lavender oil in specified amounts to nursing home residents whose agitated behaviours were recorded objectively.

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May
2014

Fatigue is a common, persistent complaint following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Effective treatment is not well established.
.

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Oct
2013

This study describes the mental illness and psychosocial outcomes of adolescents who experienced a depressive disorder and identifies predictors of full remission and recurrence.
140 adolescents with major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or depressive disorder NOS were offered psychosocial and/or antidepressant treatment across two clinical trials. Three to nine years later (mean 5.

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Nov
2013

Treatment for depression is not effective in all patients and it is therefore important to identify factors that can be used to tailor treatments. One potential factor is insomnia. Several repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) studies have reported on this symptom, however, they did not take into account the presence of hypersomnia or that insomnia was related to their outcome measure.

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Jun
2013

Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in adolescents with depressive disorders. To date there is limited evidence of the extent to which sleep disturbances are associated with treatment response in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the extent to which self-reported sleep disturbances are associated with treatment response in adolescents with depression.

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Jun
2013

The importance of effectively identifying and managing sexuality issues following acquired brain injury is being increasingly recognized within clinical and research domains. However, a tool specifically developed to measure sexuality following brain injury is yet to be validated.
In this study, the reliability and validity of the Brain Injury Questionnaire of Sexuality (BIQS) was evaluated.

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Dec
1969

The present study aimed to examine the association between frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption and cognitive functioning following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Sixty moderately to severely injured individuals had completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) to measure preinjury alcohol use soon after injury and were recruited and assessed with AUDIT and Time Line Follow-Back (TLFB), as a measure of frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption at 6-9 months post injury. Fifty participants completed both AUDIT and TLFB at a follow-up assessment at 12-15 months post injury.

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Apr
2013

Increasingly more attention has been paid to non-pharmacological interventions as treatment of agitated behaviors that accompany dementia. The aim of the current study is to test if personalized one-to-one interaction activities based on Montessori principles will improve agitation, affect, and engagement more than a relevant control condition.
We conducted a randomized crossover trial in nine residential facilities in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia (n = 44).

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Apr
2013

To investigate variables associated with the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption following a brief alcohol intervention in individuals with traumatic brain injury.
Initial sample of 60 participants with traumatic brain injury (mean age = 35 years) with preinjury history of alcohol use; of whom, 50 were evaluated at follow-up.
Randomized controlled trial, stratified for gender, which used a random-effects regression model to examine the association of predictor variables with the frequency and quantity of alcohol use 6 months following a brief alcohol intervention.

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Jan
2015

This study investigated the relationship between motor performance and social-communicative impairment in children with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-CT).
An upper limb Fitts' aiming task was used as a measure of motor performance and the Social Responsiveness Scale as a measure of social-communicative/autistic impairment in the following groups: ADHD-CT (n = 11) and typically developing (TD) controls (n = 10).
Children with ADHD-CT displayed greater variability in their movements, reflected in increased error variance over repeated aiming trials compared with TD controls.

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Dec
1969

Although cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for anxiety, its delivery needs to be adapted for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). It also requires clients' active engagement for maximum benefit. This study was a pilot randomised controlled trial involving an anxiety treatment programme adapted for people with TBI, based on CBT and motivational interviewing (MI).

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Dec
2012

This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically developing children (n = 20). The participants were administered standardised tests of structural language skills, and parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and the Developmental Behaviour Checklist.

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Mar
2012

High rates of behavior and emotional problems have been consistently reported in children and adolescents with autism. Elevated rates of mental health problems have also been reported in adults with autism. Little is known, however, about the longitudinal development of behavior and emotional problems in autism.

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Apr
2012

This study investigated whether children with autism have atypical development of morphological and syntactic skills, including whether they use rote learning to compensate for impaired morphological processing and acquire grammatical morphemes in an atypical order. Participants were children aged from 3-6 years who had autism (n = 17), developmental delay without autism (n = 7), and typically-developing children (n = 19). Language samples were taken from participants during the administration of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and transcripts were coded using the Index of Productive Syntax, and for usage of Brown's grammatical morphemes.

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Mar
2012

Standardised normative data for checklists of behavioural and emotional disturbance have a demonstrated usefulness for clinicians, researchers, and service providers.
The Developmental Behaviour Checklist for Adults (DBC-A) was the instrument used in a large-scale Australian study (n = 1,538) of emotional and behavioural disturbance.
To assist the field, normative data is now available on the DBC-A for adults with ID from age 18-85 years, across three levels of intellectual disability (ID).

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Feb
2012

Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is caused by a heterozygous mutation or deletion of the ZEB2 gene. It is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance in association with intellectual disability (ID) and variable other features including agenesis of the corpus callosum, seizures, congenital heart defects, microcephaly, short stature, hypotonia, and Hirschsprung disease. The current study investigated the behavioral phenotype of MWS.

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Aug
2012

This paper examines the upper-limb movement kinematics of young children (3-7 years) with high-functioning autism using a point-to-point movement paradigm. Consistent with prior findings in older children, a difference in movement preparation was found in the autism group (n = 11) relative to typically developing children. In contrast to typically developing children, the presence of a visual distractor in the movement task did not appear to impact on early movement planning or execution in children with autism, suggesting that this group were not considering all available environmental cues to modulate movement.

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Apr
2012

Research has suggested an abnormal acceleration in head circumference growth in children with autism within the first 12 months of life. This study aimed to examine head circumference at birth and head circumference growth rates in young children with autism and developmental delay, and young children with developmental delay without autism.
This study assessed head circumference at birth and rate of change in head circumference in young children with autism (n=86) and children with developmental delay without autism (n=40).

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Jun
2012

Despite the recognized importance of emotion regulation (ER) for healthy psychological development, ER research has focused predominantly on the developmental periods of infancy, early childhood, and adulthood, while the middle childhood to adolescence years have been relatively neglected. An obstacle to ER research during these periods is the paucity of valid age-appropriate measures. This study reports on the psychometric evaluation of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (ERQ-CA), a revision of the adult measure.

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Mar
2012

The neurobiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not particularly well understood, and biomedical treatment approaches are therefore extremely limited. A prominent explanatory model suggests that social-relating symptoms may arise from dysfunction within the mirror neuron system, while a recent neuroimaging study suggests that these impairments in ASD might reduce with age.
Participants with autism spectrum disorder (i.

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May
2011

In longitudinal studies of developmental and disease processes, participants are followed prospectively with intermediate milestones identified as they occur. Frequently, studies enroll participants over a range of ages including ages at which some participants' milestones have already passed. Ages at milestones that occur prior to study entry are left censored if individuals are enrolled in the study or left truncated if they are not.

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May
2011

The ReSTAGE collaboration evaluated four menstrual markers of entry to late-stage menopausal transition. The aim of this study was to assess the additional usefulness of "persistence" in relation to a clinically accessible menstrual marker of late menopausal transition, taking age into account.
In this study, a secondary analysis of menstrual calendar data in two ReSTAGE-collaborating studies with comparatively low age at beginning of menstrual calendar observation was performed.

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May
2009

The aim of the current study was to investigate the manifestation of repetitive behaviour profiles in young children with a Pervasive Developmental Disorder. The sample consisted of 137 developmentally delayed children with a DSM-IV-TR Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) and 61 developmentally delayed children without a PDD. An exploratory factor analytic investigation using 12 ADI-R repetitive behaviour items from parent report of children with a PDD reported the emergence of two factors.

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Dec
1969

Sums of responses to behaviour checklist items are commonly used as outcome measures. We argue for the use of mean scores. For sets of responses registering absence and presence at different levels of intensity of behaviours we also show that mean scores may usefully be 'decomposed' into separate measures of the range and the intensity of problematic behaviours.

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Sep
2008

To investigate associations between the prevalence of sexual difficulties reported in published studies and design features of those studies to determine if differences in design contribute to variation in prevalence estimates.
Systematic review, multivariate analysis.
Studies published internationally in English.

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Sep
2007

Invited commentary on Witwer & Lecavalier's evaluation of the SCQ and DBC-ASA.

J Intellect Dev Disabil 2007 Sep;32(3):188; author reply 189
John Taffe

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Jan
2008

Criteria for staging the menopausal transition are not established. This article evaluates five bleeding criteria for defining early transition and provides empirically based guidance regarding optimal criteria.
Prospective menstrual calendar data from four population-based cohorts: TREMIN, Melbourne Women's Midlife Health Project (MWMHP), Seattle Midlife Women's Health Study (SMWHS), and Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) with annual serum FSH from MWMHP and SWAN.

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Jan
2007

A 24-item short form of the 96-item Developmental Behaviour Checklist was developed to provide a brief measure of Total Behaviour Problem Score for research purposes. The short form Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC-P24) was chosen for low bias and high precision from among 100 randomly selected item sets. The DBC-P24 was developed from epidemiological data in the first three waves of the Australian Child to Adult Development study, and cross validated for groups with autism, fragile X, Prader-Willi, and Williams in this longitudinal study and in cross sectional Dutch, English, and Finnish samples of young people with intellectual disability.

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Oct
2006

Comorbid severe mental health problems complicating intellectual disability are a common and costly public health problem. Although these problems are known to begin in early childhood, little is known of how they evolve over time or whether they continue into adulthood.
To study the course of psychopathology in a representative population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability.

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Sep
2006

The current criterion for onset of late menopausal transition is amenorrhea of 90 d or more. The Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop proposed alternative criteria based on a shorter period of amenorrhea. Empirical data comparing proposed criteria are not available.

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Aug
2006

The Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop proposed bleeding and hormonal criteria for the menopausal transition, but operational definitions of hormone parameters were not specified.
This paper investigates the longitudinal relationship of annual serum FSH levels with four proposed bleeding criteria for the late menopausal transition in two cohort studies. The goal is to provide empirically based guidance regarding application of hormonal criteria that may be optimal for widespread application in clinical and research settings for assessing menopausal stage.

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May
2006

Persons with Prader-Willi syndrome have been known to have a high mortality rate. However, intellectual disability, which usually accompanies Prader-Willi syndrome, is also associated with a higher mortality rate than in the general population. In this study, the death rates in a longitudinal cohort of people with Prader-Willi syndrome are compared with those for an epidemiologically derived control sample of people with intellectual disability from other causes.

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May
2006

To investigate factors associated with the presence, severity, and frequency of hot flushes.
A 9-year prospective study of 438 Australian-born women, aged 45 to 55 years and menstruating at baseline. Annual fasting blood collection, physical measurements, and interviews including questions about bothersome hot flushes in previous 2 weeks were performed.

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