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Author: Josef Priller (90)


Feb
2018

Deep phenotyping and longitudinal assessment of predementia at-risk states of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are required to define populations and outcomes for dementia prevention trials. Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is a pre-mild cognitive impairment (pre-MCI) at-risk state of dementia, which emerges as a highly promising target for AD prevention.
The German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) is conducting the multicenter DZNE-Longitudinal Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Study (DELCODE), which focuses on the characterization of SCD in patients recruited from memory clinics.

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Jan
2018

Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the huntingtin gene (). Molecular chaperones have been implicated in suppressing or delaying the aggregation of mutant Htt. Usingandassays, we have identified a trimeric chaperone complex (Hsc70, Hsp110, and J-protein) that completely suppresses fibrilization of HttExon1QThe composition of this chaperone complex is variable as recruitment of different chaperone family members forms distinct functional complexes.

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Nov
2017

Drug Res (Stuttg) 2017 Nov 25;67(S 01):S10. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
Josef Priller

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Sep
2017

Regular alcohol consumption affects cognitive performance and the development of dementia. So far, findings are contradicting, which might be explained in part by dose-related effects. For this narrative review, we undertook a literature search for surveys investigating the impact of alcohol consumption on cognitive performance and the development of dementia.

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Aug
2017

Previous studies have demonstrated increased tau plasma levels in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD. Much less is known whether increased tau plasma levels can already be detected in the pre-MCI stage of subjective cognitive decline (SCD). In the present study we measured tau plasma levels in 111 SCD patients and 134 age- and gender-matched cognitively healthy controls participating in the DZNE (German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases) longitudinal study on cognition and dementia (DELCODE).

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Dec
1969

Monocytes are circulating, short-lived mononuclear phagocytes, which in mice and man comprise two main subpopulations. Murine Ly6Cmonocytes display developmental plasticity and are recruited to complement tissue-resident macrophages and dendritic cells on demand. Murine vascular Ly6Cmonocytes patrol the endothelium, act as scavengers, and support vessel wall repair.

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Jun
2017

Microglia constitute a highly specialized network of tissue-resident immune cells that is important for the control of tissue homeostasis and the resolution of diseases of the CNS. Little is known about how their spatial distribution is established and maintained in vivo. Here we establish a new multicolor fluorescence fate mapping system to monitor microglial dynamics during steady state and disease.

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Dec
1969

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bupropion in the treatment of apathy in Huntington's disease (HD).
In this phase 2b multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, individuals with HD and clinical signs of apathy according to the Structured Clinical Interview for Apathy-Dementia (SCIA-D), but not depression (n = 40) were randomized to receive either bupropion 150/300mg or placebo daily for 10 weeks. The primary outcome parameter was a significant change of the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) score after ten weeks of treatment as judged by an informant (AES-I) living in close proximity with the study participant.

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May
2017

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations frequently cause neurological diseases. Modeling of these defects has been difficult because of the challenges associated with engineering mtDNA. We show here that neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) retain the parental mtDNA profile and exhibit a metabolic switch toward oxidative phosphorylation.

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Dec
1969

Positive symptoms of schizophrenia such as delusions and hallucinations are thought to arise from an alteration in predictive mechanisms of the brain. Here, we empirically tested the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with an enhanced signalling of higher-level predictions that shape perception into conformity with acquired beliefs. Twenty-one patients with schizophrenia and twenty-eight healthy controls matched for age and gender took part in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment that assessed the effect of an experimental manipulation of cognitive beliefs on the perception of an ambiguous visual motion stimulus.

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Feb
2017

The CNS is protected by the immune system, including cells that reside directly within the CNS and help to ensure proper neural function, as well as cells that traffic into the CNS with disease. The CNS-resident immune system is comprised mainly of innate immune cells and operates under homeostatic conditions. These myeloid cells in the CNS parenchyma and at CNS-periphery interfaces are highly specialized but also extremely plastic cells that immediately react to any changes in CNS homeostasis and become reactive in the context of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease.

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Dec
2016

The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a pivotal role in maintaining optimal dopamine signaling. DAT-overactivity has been linked to various neuropsychiatric disorders yet so far the direct pathological consequences of it has not been fully assessed. We here generated a transgenic rat model that via pronuclear microinjection overexpresses the DAT gene.

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Dec
2017

Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative condition characterized by a triad of movement disorder, neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits. The striatum is particularly vulnerable to the effects of mutant huntingtin, and cell loss can already be found in presymptomatic stages. Since the striatum is well known for its role in reinforcement learning, we hypothesized to find altered behavioral and neural responses in HD patients in a probabilistic reinforcement learning task performed during functional magnetic resonance imaging.

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Feb
2017

Microglia are resident immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS), which are essential for immune defence and critically contribute to neuronal functions during homeostasis. Until now, little is known about microglia biology in humans in part due to the lack of microglia-specific markers. We therefore investigated the expression of the purinergic receptor P2Yin human brain tissue.

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Dec
1969

Perivascular, subdural meningeal and choroid plexus macrophages are non-parenchymal macrophages that mediate immune responses at brain boundaries. Although the origin of parenchymal microglia has recently been elucidated, much less is known about the precursors, the underlying transcriptional program and the dynamics of the other macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS). It was assumed that they have a high turnover from blood-borne monocytes.

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Apr
2016

Microglia, innate immune cells of the CNS, sense infection and damage through overlapping receptor sets. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 recognizes bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and multiple injury-associated factors. We show that its co-receptor CD14 serves three non-redundant functions in microglia.

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Dec
2015

Demographic changes are increasing the pressure to improve therapeutic strategies against cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Besides drug treatment, physical activity seems to be a promising intervention target as epidemiological and clinical studies suggest beneficial effects of exercise training on cognition. Using comparable inclusion and exclusion criteria, we analyzed the efficacy of drug therapy (cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, and Ginkgo biloba) and exercise interventions for improving cognition in AD and MCI populations.

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Dec
2015

The functional dynamics and cellular sources of oxidative stress are central to understanding MS pathogenesis but remain elusive, due to the lack of appropriate detection methods. Here we employ NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetime imaging to detect functional NADPH oxidases (NOX enzymes) in vivo to identify inflammatory monocytes, activated microglia, and astrocytes expressing NOX1 as major cellular sources of oxidative stress in the central nervous system of mice affected by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This directly affects neuronal function in vivo, indicated by sustained elevated neuronal calcium.

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Mar
2016

The pathogenesis of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is multifactorial and incompletely understood. The development of therapies for these disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) is thus far very challenging. Neuroinflammation is one of the processes that contribute to the pathogenesis of CNS diseases, and therefore represents an important therapeutic target.

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Nov
2015

Temporary immunosuppression has been identified as a major risk factor for the development of pneumonia after acute central nervous system injury. Although overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system was previously shown to mediate suppression of systemic cellular immune responses after stroke, the role of the parasympathetic cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the antibacterial defense in lung remains largely elusive.
The middle cerebral artery occlusion model in mice was used to examine the influence of the parasympathetic nervous system on poststroke immunosuppression.

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Nov
2015

Dopamine is the predominant catecholamine in the brain and functions as a neurotransmitter. Dopamine is also a potent immune modulator. In this study, we have characterized the expression of dopamine receptors on murine microglia.

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May
2015

Assemblies of huntingtin (HTT) fragments with expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts are a pathological hallmark of Huntington's disease (HD). The molecular mechanisms by which these structures are formed and cause neuronal dysfunction and toxicity are poorly understood. Here, we utilized available gene expression data sets of selected brain regions of HD patients and controls for systematic interaction network filtering in order to predict disease-relevant, brain region-specific HTT interaction partners.

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Jun
2015

Pericytes are mural cells with contractile properties. Here, we provide evidence that microvascular pericytes modulate cerebral blood flow in response to neuronal activity ('functional hyperemia'). Besides their role in neurovascular coupling, pericytes are responsive to brain damage.

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Jun
2015

Delusions, a core symptom of schizophrenia, are thought to arise from an alteration in predictive coding mechanisms that underlie perceptual inference. Here, we aimed to empirically test the hypothesized link between delusions and perceptual inference.
28 patients with schizophrenia and 32 healthy controls matched for age and gender took part in a behavioral experiment that assessed the influence of stabilizing predictions on perception of an ambiguous visual stimulus.

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Mar
2015

This study investigated the hypothesis that AFQ056 (mavoglurant), a selective metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist, reduces chorea in Huntington's disease (HD).
This 32-day randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, proof-of-concept study investigated AFQ056 (25-150 mg [incremental doses], twice-daily) versus placebo in patients with HD. Primary efficacy assessments were the chorea-sum score and orientation index (nondominant hand) from the quantitative motor (Q-Motor) grasping task at day 28.

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Oct
2014

To retrospectively determine the frequency of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) autoantibodies in patients with different forms of dementia.
Clinical characterization of 660 patients with dementia, neurodegenerative disease without dementia, other neurological disorders and age-matched healthy controls combined with retrospective analysis of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the presence of NMDAR antibodies. Antibody binding to receptor mutants and the effect of immunotherapy were determined in a subgroup of patients.

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Mar
2015

Clinical evaluation of patients and diagnosis of disorder is crucial to make decisions on appropriate therapies. In addition, in the case of genetic disorders resulting from gene abnormalities, phenotypic effects may guide basic research on the mechanisms of a disorder to find the mutated gene and therefore to propose novel targets for drug therapy. However, this approach is complicated by two facts.

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Jan
2015

In bacterial meningitis, excessive immune responses carry significant potential for damage to brain tissue even after successful antibiotic therapy. Bacterial meningitis is regarded primarily as the domain of innate immunity, and the role of lymphocytes remains unclear. We studied the contribution of lymphocytes to acute inflammation and neurodegeneration in experimental Toll-like receptor 2-driven meningitis, comparing wild-type mice with RAG-1-deficient mice that have no mature T and B lymphocytes.

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Mar
2015

Dopaminergic hyperfunction and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction have both been implicated in psychosis. Dopamine-releasing drugs and NMDAR antagonists replicate symptoms associated with psychosis in healthy humans and exacerbate symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Though hippocampal dysfunction contributes to psychosis, the impact of NMDAR hypofunction on hippocampal plasticity remains poorly understood.

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Jul
2014

Tissue fibrosis, or scar formation, is a common response to damage in most organs of the body. The central nervous system (CNS) is special in that fibrogenic cells are restricted to vascular and meningeal niches. However, disruption of the blood-brain barrier and inflammation can unleash stromal cells and trigger scar formation.

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May
2014

Mononuclear phagocytic cells in the CNS used to be defined according to their anatomical location and surface marker expression. Recently, this concept has been challenged by the results of developmental and gene expression profiling studies that have used novel molecular biological tools to unravel the origin of microglia and to define their role as specialized tissue macrophages with long lifespans. Here, we describe how these results have redefined microglia and helped us to understand how different myeloid cell populations operate in the CNS based on their cell-specific gene expression signatures, distinct ontogeny and differential functions.

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Dec
1969

Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) are able to colonize the central nervous system (CNS) at sites of damage. This ability makes BMDCs an ideal cellular vehicle for transferring therapeutic genes/molecules to the CNS. However, conditioning is required for bone marrow-derived myeloid cells to engraft in the brain, which so far has been achieved by total body irradiation (TBI) and by chemotherapy (e.

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Nov
2013

A heritable behavioral phenotype, the so-called Dysregulation Profile (DP), characterized by extreme scores on the syndrome scales Anxious/Depressed (A/D), Attention Problems (AP), and Aggressive Behavior (AGG), has been identified on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). It characterizes children with severe affective and behavioral dysregulation. The present study examined possible alterations of the inflammatory system in CBCL-DP using a clinical sample of n = 133 children and adolescents.

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Nov
2013

Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare, autosomal-recessive, progressive neurological disease caused by mutations in either the NPC1 gene (in 95% of cases) or the NPC2 gene. This observational, multicentre genetic screening study evaluated the frequency and phenotypes of NP-C in consecutive adult patients with neurological and psychiatric symptoms. Diagnostic testing for NP-C involved NPC1 and NPC2 exonic gene sequencing and gene dosage analysis.

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May
2013

Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential regulators of immune responses; however, transcriptional mechanisms that establish DC lineage commitment are poorly defined. Here, we report that the PU.1 transcription factor induces specific remodeling of the higher-order chromatin structure at the interferon regulatory factor 8 (Irf8) gene to initiate DC fate choice.

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Feb
2013

Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that spreading depolarization facilitates neuronal injury when its duration exceeds a certain time point, termed commitment point. We here investigated whether this commitment point is shifted to an earlier period, when spreading depolarization is accompanied by a perfusion deficit.
Electrophysiological and cerebral blood flow changes were studied in a rat cranial window model followed by histological and immunohistochemical analyses of cortical damage.

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Mar
2013

Despite its limited regenerative capacity, the central nervous system (CNS) shares more repair mechanisms with peripheral tissues than previously recognized. Scar formation is a ubiquitous healing mechanism aimed at patching tissue defects via the generation of fibrous extracellular matrix (ECM). This process, orchestrated by stromal cells, can unfavorably affect the capacity of tissues to restore function.

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May
2013

Cranial irradiation for the treatment of brain tumors causes a delayed and progressive cognitive decline that is pronounced in young patients. Dysregulation of neural stem and progenitor cells is thought to contribute to these effects by altering early childhood brain development. Earlier work has shown that irradiation creates a chronic neuroinflammatory state that severely and selectively impairs postnatal and adult neurogenesis.

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Dec
2012

Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra (SN). Recent evidence suggests that innate and adaptive immune responses can influence dopaminergic cell death in animal models of PD. However, the precise role of mononuclear phagocytes, key players in damaged tissue clearance and cross-talk with cells of adaptive immune system, remains open in PD.

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Oct
2012

Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) secrete soluble factors that stimulate the surrounding microenvironment. Such paracrine effects might underlie the potential benefits of many stem cell therapies. We tested the hypothesis that MSC are able to enhance intrinsic cellular plasticity in the adult rat hippocampus.

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Aug
2012

Preclinical trials confirmed the potential of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to improve functional recovery after experimental stroke. Beneficial effects of MSCs are often attributed to their immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory functions. Surprisingly, the influence of MSCs on the immune system after stroke is poorly understood, but requires special consideration because cerebral ischemia is associated with stroke-induced immunodepression that predisposes to bacterial infections with increased mortality.

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May
2012

Cell therapy with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) was found to protect neurons from damage after experimental stroke and is currently under investigation in clinical stroke trials. In order to elucidate the mechanisms of MSC-induced neuroprotection, we used the in vitro oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD) model of cerebral ischemia. Co-culture of primary cortical neurons with MSCs in a transwell co-culture system for 48 h prior to OGD-reduced neuronal cell death by 30-35%.

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Jan
2012

The metabolic state of a cell is a key determinant in the decision to live and proliferate or to die. Consequently, balanced energy metabolism and the regulation of apoptosis are critical for the development and maintenance of differentiated organisms. Hypoxia occurs physiologically during development or exercise and pathologically in vascular disease, tumorigenesis, and inflammation, interfering with homeostatic metabolism.

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Sep
2011

The diseased brain hosts a heterogeneous population of myeloid cells, including parenchymal microglia, perivascular cells, meningeal macrophages and blood-borne monocytes. To date, the different types of brain myeloid cells have been discriminated solely on the basis of their localization, morphology and surface epitope expression. However, recent data suggest that resident microglia may be functionally distinct from bone marrow- or blood-derived phagocytes, which invade the CNS under pathological conditions.

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Aug
2011

Mononuclear phagocytes are important modulators of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the specific functions of resident microglia, bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells, and perivascular macrophages have not been resolved. To elucidate the spatiotemporal roles of mononuclear phagocytes during disease, we targeted myeloid cell subsets from different compartments and examined disease pathogenesis in three different mouse models of AD (APP(swe/PS1), APP(swe), and APP23 mice). We identified chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2)-expressing myeloid cells as the population that was preferentially recruited to β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits.

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Jun
2011

Midbrain raphe nuclei provide strong serotonergic projections to the hippocampus, in which serotonin (5-HT) exerts differential effects mediated by multiple 5-HT receptor subtypes. The functional relevance of this diversity of information processing is poorly understood. Here we show that serotonin via 5-HT(1B) heteroreceptors substantially reduces synaptic excitation of cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons in area CA1 of the rat hippocampus, in contrast to parvalbumin-expressing basket cells.

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Jun
2011

Large-conductance Ca(2+) -activated (BK) potassium channels are centrally involved in neurovascular coupling, immunity, and neural transmission. The ability to be synergistically activated by membrane depolarization, different ligands and intracellular Ca(2+) links intracellular signaling and membrane excitability. The diverse physiological functions of BK channels crucially depend on regulatory β subunits.

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Apr
2011

The IκB kinase complex induces nuclear factor kappa B activation and has recently been recognized as a key player of autoimmunity in the central nervous system. Notably, IκB kinase/nuclear factor kappa B signalling regulates peripheral myelin formation by Schwann cells, however, its role in myelin formation in the central nervous system during health and disease is largely unknown. Surprisingly, we found that brain-specific IκB kinase 2 expression is dispensable for proper myelin assembly and repair in the central nervous system, but instead plays a fundamental role for the loss of myelin in the cuprizone model.

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