Helping You Find Full Text Journal Articles

Search Results:

Author: Josiane Bourque (14)


Dec
2017

The authors sought to model the different trajectories of psychotic-like experiences (PLE) during adolescence and to examine whether the longitudinal relationship between cannabis use and PLE is mediated by changes in cognitive development and/or change in anxiety or depression symptoms.
A total of 2,566 youths were assessed every year for 4-years (from 13- to 16-years of age) on clinical, substance use and cognitive development outcomes. Latent class growth models identified three trajectories of PLE: low decreasing (83.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

This study investigated the neural correlates of psychotic-like experiences in youths during tasks involving inhibitory control, reward anticipation, and emotion processing. A secondary aim was to test whether these neurofunctional correlates of risk were predictive of psychotic symptoms 2 years later.
Functional imaging responses to three paradigms-the stop-signal, monetary incentive delay, and faces tasks-were collected in youths at age 14, as part of the IMAGEN study.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2016

Onset of alcohol use by 14 relative to 21 years of age strongly predicts elevated risk for severe alcohol use problems, with 27% versus 4% of individuals exhibiting alcohol dependence within 10 years of onset. What remains unclear is whether this early alcohol use (i) is a marker for later problems, reflected as a pre-existing developmental predisposition, (ii) causes global neural atrophy or (iii) specifically disturbs neuro-maturational processes implicated in addiction, such as executive functions or reward processing. Since our group has demonstrated that a novel intervention program targeting personality traits associated with adolescent alcohol use can prevent the uptake of drinking and binge drinking by 40 to 60%, a crucial question is whether prevention of early onset alcohol misuse will protect adolescent neurodevelopment and which domains of neurodevelopment can be protected.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Jan
2017

Schizophrenia has been defined as a dysconnection syndrome characterized by aberrant functional brain connectivity. Using task-based fMRI, we assessed to what extent the nature of the cognitive context may further modulate abnormal functional brain connectivity.
We analyzed data matched for motion in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls who performed 3 different tasks.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Craving is a core feature of tobacco use disorder as well as a significant predictor of smoking relapse. Studies have shown that appetitive smoking-related stimuli (e.g.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

While overall more men than women smoke cigarettes, women and girls take less time to become dependent after initial use and have more difficulties quitting the habit. One of the factors contributing to these differences may be that women crave cigarettes more than men and that their desire to smoke is influenced by hormonal fluctuations across the menstrual cycle. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was twofold: (a) to examine potential sex/gender differences in functional neuroanatomy of craving and to (b) delineate neural correlates of cigarette cravings in women across their menstrual cycle.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
2014

Despite knowledge of the harmful consequences of smoking on health, tobacco users continue to smoke. Neuroimaging studies have begun to provide insight into the mechanisms underlying this response. Regions involved in executive control and affective processing/persuasion are activated when viewing the negative value of smoking, but these systems can interact in ways that promote or hinder its impact on behavior.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Apr
2014

The addictive nature of smoking is characterized by responses to cigarette stimuli that significantly impede smoking cessation efforts. Studies have shown that smokers are roused by appetitive smoking-related stimuli, and their consumption tends to be unaffected by the negative value of smoking.
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the goal of this study was two-fold: to examine the brain reactivity of chronic smokers when processing the negative value of smoking using aversive smoking-related cues; to further characterize this response by comparing the latter to the processing of aversive nonsmoking-related and appetitive smoking-related cues.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Growing evidence suggests that cannabis abuse/dependence is paradoxically associated with better cognition in schizophrenia. Accordingly, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of visuospatial abilities in 14 schizophrenia patients with cannabis abuse (DD), 14 nonabusing schizophrenia patients (SCZ), and 21 healthy controls (HCs). Participants performed a mental rotation task while being scanned.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Oct
2013

In schizophrenia cannabis abuse/dependence is associated with poor compliance and psychotic relapse. Despite this, the reasons for cannabis abuse remain elusive, but emotions may play a critical role in this comorbidity. Accordingly, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of emotional memory in schizophrenia patients with cannabis abuse (dual-diagnosis, DD).

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Impulsivity has been shown to play a pivotal role in the onset, pattern of consumption, relapse and, most notably, craving of illicit and licit drugs such as cigarette smoking. The goal of this study was to examine the neurobiological influence of trait impulsivity during cue-induced cigarette craving. Thirty-one chronic smokers passively viewed appetitive smoking-related and neutral images while being scanned and reported their feelings of craving.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Clozapine, the most widely used option in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, has been shown to be superior to other antipsychotic medications in improving cognitive function in patients. However, the results have not been consistent and the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been elucidated. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate verbal and nonverbal cognition (using visuospatial processing tests) in patients treated with clozapine (initially treatment resistant) and those treated with other second-generation antipsychotics, relative healthy control subjects.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Schizophrenia has been associated with disturbed levels of sex-steroid hormones, including estrogen and testosterone. In the present study we have examined the implication of a less studied hormone progesterone. Forty-three patients with schizophrenia (21 women) and 43 control participants (21 women) underwent functional MRI while viewing emotionally positive, negative, and neutral images.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Dec
1969

Despite a large number of functional neuroimaging investigations of emotion processing in schizophrenia, very few have included women. In the present study 21 schizophrenia and 23 healthy women underwent functional MRI (3T) on two occasions (during the follicular and luteal phase of their menstrual cycle) while viewing blocks of emotionally negative, positive and neutral images. During exposure to negatively charged images patients showed relatively less activations than controls during the luteal phase, but no between-group differences were observed during the follicular phase.

View Full Text PDF Listings View primary source full text article PDFs.

Back to top