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Author: Juergen Dukart (28)


Jan
2018

Chronic administration of antipsychotic drugs has been linked to structural brain changes observed in patients with schizophrenia. Recent MRI studies have shown rapid changes in regional brain volume following just a single dose of these drugs. However, it is not clear if these changes represent real volume changes or are artefacts ("apparent" volume changes) due to drug-induced physiological changes, such as increased cerebral blood flow (CBF).

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Dec
1969

Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons is a hallmark of Parkinson's disease. However, its link to Parkinson's disease symptoms remains unclear. Striatal resting state functional connectivity differentiates between Parkinson's disease patients and healthy controls and might be a potential mediator of the effects of striatal dopaminergic degeneration onto Parkinson's disease symptoms.

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Dec
1969

Sembragiline is a potent, selective, long-acting, and reversible MAO-B inhibitor developed as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD).
To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of sembragiline in patients with moderate AD.
In this Phase II study (NCT01677754), 542 patients with moderate dementia (MMSE 13-20) on background acetylcholinesterase inhibitors with/without memantine were randomized (1:1:1) to sembragiline 1 mg, 5 mg, or placebo once daily orally for 52 weeks.

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May
2017

Recent advances in understanding Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) etiopathogenesis prompted development of potent intervention strategies and raised need for sensitive outcome measures capable of assessing disease progression and response to treatment. Several biomarkers have been proposed; nevertheless, no general consensus has been reached on the most feasible ones. We observed a wide range of measures over 1 year to assess their ability to monitor the disease status and progression.

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Sep
2017

There is only limited agreement with respect to location, directionality and functional implications of brain structural alterations observed in patients with schizophrenia. Additionally, their link to occurrence of psychotic symptoms remains unclear. A viable way of addressing these questions is to examine populations in an at-risk mental state (ARMS) before the transition to psychosis.

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Feb
2017

Parkinson's disease (PD), characterized by motor dysfunction and cognitive decline, may demonstrate specific patterns of brain atrophy. Although cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies show correlation between regional brain volume loss and cognitive impairment, there is only scarce evidence from longitudinal studies validating the link between cognition and brain anatomy in PD.
To test the relationship between magnitude and spatial extent of atrophy in PD patients with progressive, significant cognitive decline and dementia (PDD).

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Dec
1969

A variety of imaging, neuropsychological, and genetic biomarkers have been suggested as potential biomarkers for the identification of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in patients who later develop Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we systematically evaluated the most promising combinations of these biomarkers regarding discrimination between stable and converter MCI and reflection of disease staging. Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative data of AD (n = 144), controls (n = 112), stable (n = 265) and converter (n = 177) MCI, for which apolipoprotein E status, neuropsychological evaluation, and structural, glucose, and amyloid imaging were available, were included in this study.

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Feb
2016

Neocortical atrophy reduces PET signal intensity, potentially affecting the diagnostic efficacy of β-amyloid (Aβ) brain PET imaging. This study investigated whether partial-volume effect correction (PVEC), adjusting for this atrophy bias, improves the accuracy of (18)F-florbetaben Aβ PET.
We analyzed (18)F-florbetaben PET and MRI data obtained from 3 cohorts.

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Dec
1969

Several studies have demonstrated that fully automated pattern recognition methods applied to structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) aid in the diagnosis of dementia, but these conclusions are based on highly preselected samples that significantly differ from that seen in a dementia clinic. At a single dementia clinic, we evaluated the ability of a linear support vector machine trained with completely unrelated data to differentiate between Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Lewy body dementia, and healthy aging based on 3D-T1 weighted MRI data sets. Furthermore, we predicted progression to AD in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at baseline and automatically quantified white matter hyperintensities from FLAIR-images.

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Jul
2015

Positron emission tomography (PET) data are commonly analyzed in terms of regional intensity, while covariant information is not taken into account. Here, we searched for network correlates of healthy cognitive function in resting state PET data. PET with [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose and a test of verbal working memory (WM) were administered to 35 young healthy adults.

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Dec
1969

Both functional and also more recently resting state magnetic resonance imaging have become established tools to investigate functional brain networks. Most studies use these tools to compare different populations without controlling for potential differences in underlying brain structure which might affect the functional measurements of interest. Here, we adapt a simulation approach combined with evaluation of real resting state magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate the potential impact of partial volume effects on established functional and resting state magnetic resonance imaging analyses.

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Oct
2014

Despite advances in understanding basic organizational principles of the human basal ganglia, accurate in vivo assessment of their anatomical properties is essential to improve early diagnosis in disorders with corticosubcortical pathology and optimize target planning in deep brain stimulation. Main goal of this study was the detailed topological characterization of limbic, associative, and motor subdivisions of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in relation to corresponding corticosubcortical circuits. To this aim, we used magnetic resonance imaging and investigated independently anatomical connectivity via white matter tracts next to brain tissue properties.

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Mar
2014

This study investigated the neural regions involved in blood pressure reactions to negative stimuli and their possible modulation by attention. Twenty-four healthy human subjects (11 females; age = 24.75 ± 2.

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Jan
2014

There remains much scientific, clinical, and ethical controversy concerning the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for psychiatric disorders stemming from a lack of information and knowledge about how such treatment might work, given its nonspecific and spatially unfocused nature. The mode of action of ECT has even been ascribed to a "barbaric" form of placebo effect. Here we show differential, highly specific, spatially distributed effects of ECT on regional brain structure in two populations: patients with unipolar or bipolar disorder.

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Dec
1969

The early diagnostic value of glucose hypometabolism and atrophy as potential neuroimaging biomarkers of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been extensively explored using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The vast majority of previous imaging studies neglected the effects of single factors, such as age, symptom severity or time to conversion in MCI thus limiting generalisability of results across studies. Here, we investigated the impact of these factors on metabolic and structural differences.

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Dec
1969

Valid screening devices are critical for an early diagnosis of dementia. The DemTect is such an internationally accepted tool. We aimed to characterize the neural networks associated with performance on the DemTect's subtests in two frequent dementia syndromes: early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD).

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Jan
2014

We investigated morphometric brain changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) that are associated with balance training. A total of 20 patients and 16 healthy matched controls learned a balance task over a period of 6 weeks. Balance testing and structural magnetic resonance imaging were performed before and after 2, 4, and 6 training weeks.

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Dec
2013

Computational anatomy with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is well established as a noninvasive biomarker of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, there is less certainty about its dependency on the staging of AD. We use classical group analyses and automated machine learning classification of standard structural MRI scans to investigate AD diagnostic accuracy from the preclinical phase to clinical dementia. Longitudinal data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative were stratified into 4 groups according to the clinical status-(1) AD patients; (2) mild cognitive impairment (MCI) converters; (3) MCI nonconverters; and (4) healthy controls-and submitted to a support vector machine.

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Apr
2013

The failure of current strategies to provide an explanation for controversial findings on the pattern of pathophysiological changes in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) motivates the necessity to develop new integrative approaches based on multi-modal neuroimaging data that captures various aspects of disease pathology. Previous studies using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) report controversial results about time-line, spatial extent and magnitude of glucose hypometabolism and atrophy in AD that depend on clinical and demographic characteristics of the studied populations. Here, we provide and validate at a group level a generative anatomical model of glucose hypo-metabolism and atrophy progression in AD based on FDG-PET and sMRI data of 80 patients and 79 healthy controls to describe expected age and symptom severity related changes in AD relative to a baseline provided by healthy aging.

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Dec
1969

We aimed at dissociating the neural correlates of memory disorders in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD).
We included patients with AD (n = 19, 11 female, mean age 61 years) and FTLD (n = 11, 5 female, mean age 61 years) in early stages of their diseases. Memory performance was assessed by means of verbal and visual memory subtests from the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-R), including forgetting rates.

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Dec
1969

Positron emission tomography with [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) plays a well-established role in assisting early detection of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Here, we examined the impact of intensity normalization to different reference areas on accuracy of FDG-PET to discriminate between patients with mild FTLD and healthy elderly subjects. FDG-PET was conducted at two centers using different acquisition protocols: 41 FTLD patients and 42 controls were studied at center 1, 11 FTLD patients and 13 controls were studied at center 2.

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Jun
2013

The application of support vector machine classification (SVM) to combined information from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and [F18]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been shown to improve detection and differentiation of Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. To validate this approach for the most frequent dementia syndrome AD, and to test its applicability to multicenter data, we randomly extracted FDG-PET and MRI data of 28 AD patients and 28 healthy control subjects from the database provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and compared them to data of 21 patients with AD and 13 control subjects from our own Leipzig cohort. SVM classification using combined volume-of-interest information from FDG-PET and MRI based on comprehensive quantitative meta-analyses investigating dementia syndromes revealed a higher discrimination accuracy in comparison to single modality classification.

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Jul
2013

Neuroimaging studies show cerebellar activations in a wide range of cognitive tasks and patients with cerebellar lesions often present cognitive deficits suggesting a cerebellar role in higher-order cognition.
We used cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), known to inhibit neuronal excitability, over the cerebellum to investigate if cathodal tDCS impairs verbal working memory, an important higher-order cognitive faculty.
We tested verbal working memory as measured by forward and backward digit spans in 40 healthy young participants before and after applying cathodal tDCS (2 mA, stimulation duration 25 min) to the right cerebellum using a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind, cross-over design.

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Oct
2012

Cerebral microangiopathy (CMA) has been associated with executive dysfunction and fronto-parietal neural network disruption. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging allow more detailed analyses of gray (e.g.

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Dec
1969

Long-term motor skill learning has been consistently shown to result in functional as well as structural changes in the adult human brain. However, the effect of short learning periods on brain structure is not well understood. In the present study, subjects performed a sequential pinch force task (SPFT) for 20 min on 5 consecutive days.

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Dec
1969

In recent research, many univariate and multivariate approaches have been proposed to improve automatic classification of various dementia syndromes using imaging data. Some of these methods do not provide the possibility to integrate possible confounding variables like age into the statistical evaluation. A similar problem sometimes exists in clinical studies, as it is not always possible to match different clinical groups to each other in all confounding variables, like for example, early-onset (age<65 years) and late-onset (age≥65) patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD).

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Mar
2011

Various biomarkers have been reported in recent literature regarding imaging abnormalities in different types of dementia. These biomarkers have helped to significantly improve early detection and also differentiation of various dementia syndromes. In this study, we systematically applied whole-brain and region-of-interest (ROI) based support vector machine classification separately and on combined information from different imaging modalities to improve the detection and differentiation of different types of dementia.

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Jan
2010

FDG-PET ([18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography) is frequently used to improve the differential diagnosis of dementia. However, a fundamental methodological issue of the reference area for the intensity normalization procedure is still unsolved. Here, we systematically compared the two most commonly used normalization methods to the cerebral and to the cerebellar metabolic rate for glucose with regard to detection and differentiation of dementia syndromes.

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