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Author: Juergen Gallinat (27)


Apr
2017

To analyze the involvement of different brain regions in behavioral inhibition and impulsiveness, differences in activation were investigated in fMRI data from a response inhibition task, the stop-signal task, in 1709 participants. First, areas activated more in stop-success (SS) than stop-failure (SF) included the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) extending into the inferior frontal gyrus (ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, BA 47/12), and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Second, the anterior cingulate and anterior insula (AI) were activated more on failure trials, specifically in SF versus SS.

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Feb
2017

Novelty-seeking tendencies in adolescents may promote innovation as well as problematic impulsive behaviour, including drug abuse. Previous research has not clarified whether neural hyper- or hypo-responsiveness to anticipated rewards promotes vulnerability in these individuals. Here we use a longitudinal design to track 144 novelty-seeking adolescents at age 14 and 16 to determine whether neural activity in response to anticipated rewards predicts problematic drug use.

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Nov
2016

The traditional view that mental disorders are distinct, categorical disorders has been challenged by evidence that disorders are highly comorbid and exist on a continuum (e.g., Caspi et al.

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Nov
2016

Despite calls for integration of neurobiological methods into research on youth resilience (high competence despite high adversity), we know little about structural brain correlates of resilient functioning. The aim of the current study was to test for brain regions uniquely associated with positive functioning in the context of adversity, using detailed phenotypic classification.
1,870 European adolescents (M = 14.

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Dec
1969

Negative life events (NLE) contribute to anxiety and depression disorders, but their relationship with brain functioning in adolescence has rarely been studied. We hypothesized that neural response to social threat would relate to NLE in the frontal-limbic emotional regions. Participants (N = 685) were drawn from the Imagen database of 14-year-old community adolescents recruited in schools.

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Dec
1969

The incomplete-hippocampal-inversion (IHI), also known as malrotation, is an atypical anatomical pattern of the hippocampus, which has been reported in healthy subjects in different studies. However, extensive characterization of IHI in a large sample has not yet been performed. Furthermore, it is unclear whether IHI are restricted to the medial-temporal lobe or are associated with more extensive anatomical changes.

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Oct
2015

Neuroimaging findings have been reported in regions of the brain associated with emotion in both adults and adolescents with depression, but few studies have investigated whether such brain alterations can be detected in adolescents with subthreshold depression, a condition at risk for major depressive disorder. In this study, we searched for differences in brain structure at age 14 years in adolescents with subthreshold depression and their relation to depression at age 16 years.
High-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess adolescents with self-reported subthreshold depression (n = 119) and healthy control adolescents (n = 461), all recruited from a community-based sample.

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Dec
2015

The authors examined whether alterations in the brain's reward network operate as a mechanism across the spectrum of risk for depression. They then tested whether these alterations are specific to anhedonia as compared with low mood and whether they are predictive of depressive outcomes.
Functional MRI was used to collect blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses to anticipation of reward in the monetary incentive task in 1,576 adolescents in a community-based sample.

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Dec
2015

The main purpose of the present study was to analyse the internal structure and to test the measurement invariance of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), self-reported version, in five European countries. The sample consisted of 3012 adolescents aged between 12 and 17 years (M = 14.20; SD = 0.

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Aug
2014

Face expressions are a rich source of social signals. Here we estimated the proportion of phenotypic variance in the brain response to facial expressions explained by common genetic variance captured by ∼ 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Using genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML), we related this global genetic variance to that in the brain response to facial expressions, as assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a community-based sample of adolescents (n = 1,620).

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Dec
2014

Longitudinal and family-based research suggests that conduct disorder, substance misuse, and ADHD involve both unique forms of dysfunction as well as more specific dysfunctions unique to each condition. Using direct measures of brain function, this study also found evidence in both unique and disorder-specific perturbations.

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Aug
2014

A comprehensive account of the causes of alcohol misuse must accommodate individual differences in biology, psychology and environment, and must disentangle cause and effect. Animal models can demonstrate the effects of neurotoxic substances; however, they provide limited insight into the psycho-social and higher cognitive factors involved in the initiation of substance use and progression to misuse. One can search for pre-existing risk factors by testing for endophenotypic biomarkers in non-using relatives; however, these relatives may have personality or neural resilience factors that protect them from developing dependence.

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Dec
2014

It has been reported that mania may be associated with superior cognitive performance. In this study, we test the hypothesis that manic symptoms in youth separate along two correlated dimensions and that a symptom constellation of high energy and cheerfulness is associated with superior cognitive performance.
We studied 1755 participants of the IMAGEN study, of average age 14.

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Dec
2013

During adolescence social relationships become increasingly important. Establishing and maintaining these relationships requires understanding of emotional stimuli, such as facial emotions. A failure to adequately interpret emotional facial expressions has previously been associated with various mental disorders that emerge during adolescence.

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Oct
2013

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by deficits in reward sensitivity and response inhibition. The relative contribution of these frontostriatal mechanisms to ADHD symptoms and their genetic determinants is largely unexplored.
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and genetic analysis of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, we investigated how striatal and inferior frontal activation patterns contribute to ADHD symptoms depending on MAOA genotype in a sample of adolescent boys (n = 190).

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Mar
2011

Sense of agency (SoAg)--the experience of controlling one's own actions and their consequences--has been studied in schizophrenia but not in the earlier stages of the disease, i.e. in patients with a putative psychotic prodrome (PP).

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Apr
2011

The mechanisms underlying distortions in sense of agency, i.e. the experience of controlling one's own actions and their consequences, in schizophrenia are not fully understood and have barely been investigated in patients classified as being in a putative psychotic prodrome.

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Oct
2010

Patients suffering from schizophrenia may report unusual experiences of their own actions. They may either feel that external forces are controlling their actions or even their thoughts, or they may feel in control of events that in fact are not caused by their actions. Most theories link these disturbances in the sense of agency to deficits in motor prediction, resulting in a mismatch between predicted and actual sensory feedback at a central comparator mechanism.

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Apr
2010

Oxytocin (OT) is becoming increasingly established as a prosocial neuropeptide in humans with therapeutic potential in treatment of social, cognitive, and mood disorders. However, the potential of OT as a general facilitator of human learning and empathy is unclear. The current double-blind experiments on healthy adult male volunteers investigated first whether treatment with intranasal OT enhanced learning performance on a feedback-guided item-category association task where either social (smiling and angry faces) or nonsocial (green and red lights) reinforcers were used, and second whether it increased either cognitive or emotional empathy measured by the Multifaceted Empathy Test.

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Apr
2008

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is a brain stimulation technique widely used to treat depression. BDNF serum concentrations have been shown to be decreased in patients with major depressive disorder and can be upregulated by several antidepressive treatment strategies including repetitive TMS.
In this study we were interested whether acute TMS evolves effects on serum BDNF concentrations in 42 healthy volunteers.

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Sep
2007

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling at synapses improves synaptic strengthening associated with learning and memory. In the present study we hypothesized that serum BDNF concentration is associated with in vivo level of cerebral N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a well established marker of neuronal integrity.
In 36 healthy subjects BDNF serum concentration and absolute concentration of NAA together with other metabolites were measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in regions with high BDNF levels (anterior cingulate cortex [ACC], left hippocampus).

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Jul
2007

Visual hallucinations are a common and often distressing consequence of vision loss, particularly in age-related macular degeneration. Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS) is defined by the triad of complex visual hallucinations, ocular pathology causing visual deterioration and preserved cognitive status. So far, although this condition is frequent, no established treatment for CBS has been stated.

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Apr
2007

Recent data suggest that inhibitory pathways may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression and in the mode of action of some antidepressant interventions. The aim of the present study was to test whether vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can affect motor cortex excitability. Measures of motor cortical excitability were probed by using single-pulse and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation at baseline, after 10 weeks of left VNS, and additionally, in an on-off paradigm in 10 patients with treatment-resistant unipolar depression.

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Sep
2007

The gene encoding cathechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) contains a common functional missense polymorphism (Val158Met) that regulates dopamine in an allele-dependent manner. A pivotal role of dopamine neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex has been implicated in drug-seeking behavior and related personality traits, such as sensation seeking, with some evidence for a gender-specific association. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the COMT Val158Met polymorphism modulates the personality dimension, sensation seeking, in a gender-dependent manner.

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Oct
2006

Prefrontal dopamine (DA) is catabolized by the COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase) enzyme. Literature suggests that the Val/Met single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the COMT gene predicts executive cognition in humans with Val carriers showing poorer performance due to less available synaptic DA. Recent fMRI studies are thought to agree with these studies having demonstrated prefrontal hyperactivation during n-back and attention-requiring tasks.

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Jul
2006

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are brain stimulation techniques used as therapeutic interventions in major depression.
In this study, we report the impact of these stimulation techniques on serum concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in treatment-resistant patients with a diagnosis of major depression.
We found no changes of BDNF serum concentrations and no association of neurotrophin concentrations in serum with clinical parameters in our sample.

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Dec
1969

The interictal state between two electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) sessions is clinically characterised by possible cognitive adverse effects like mild amnestic syndrome. ECT-induced amnestic deficits can persist for several weeks after ECT. Electrophysiologically, slowing of brain electrical activity in the interictal state has often been reported.

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