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Author: Jun Arii (43)


Feb
2018

The AIM2 inflammasome is activated by DNA, leading to caspase-1 activation and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18, which are critical mediators in host innate immune responses against various pathogens. Some viruses employ strategies to counteract inflammasome-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but their in vivo relevance is less well understood. Here we show that the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) tegument protein VP22 inhibits AIM2-dependent inflammasome activation.

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Oct
2017

Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is the most common cause of sporadic viral encephalitis, which can be lethal or result in severe neurological defects even with antiviral therapy. While HSV-1 causes encephalitis in spite of HSV-1-specific humoral and cellular immunity, the mechanism by which HSV-1 evades the immune system in the central nervous system (CNS) remains unknown. Here we describe a strategy by which HSV-1 avoids immune targeting in the CNS.

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Sep
2017

VP26 is a herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) small capsomere-interacting protein. In this study, we investigated the function of VP26 in HSV-1-infected cells with the following results. (i) The VP26 null mutation significantly impaired incorporation of minor capsid protein UL25 into nucleocapsids (type C capsids) in the nucleus.

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Jun
2017

Upon herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection, the CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) is redistributed around the nuclear membrane (NM), where it promotes viral de-envelopment during the nuclear egress of nucleocapsids. In this study, we attempted to identify the factor(s) involved in CD98hc accumulation and demonstrated the following: (i) the null mutation of HSV-1 UL34 caused specific dispersion throughout the cytoplasm of CD98hc and the HSV-1 de-envelopment regulators, glycoproteins B and H (gB and gH); (ii) as observed with CD98hc, gB, and gH, wild-type HSV-1 infection caused redistribution of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) markers calnexin and ERp57 around the NM, whereas the UL34-null mutation caused cytoplasmic dispersion of these markers; (iii) the ER markers colocalized efficiently with CD98hc, gB, and gH in the presence and absence of UL34 in HSV-1-infected cells; (iv) at the ultrastructural level, wild-type HSV-1 infection caused ER compression around the NM, whereas the UL34-null mutation caused cytoplasmic dispersion of the ER; and (v) the UL34-null mutation significantly decreased the colocalization efficiency of lamin protein markers of the NM with CD98hc and gB. Collectively, these results indicate that HSV-1 infection causes redistribution of the ER around the NM, with resulting accumulation of ER-associated CD98hc, gB, and gH around the NM and that UL34 is required for ER redistribution, as well as for efficient recruitment to the NM of the ER-associated de-envelopment factors.

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Dec
1969

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a causative agent for a variety of diseases. Although antiherpetic drugs such as acyclovir have been developed to inhibit virus replication through interaction with DNA kinases, their continuous administration leads to an increase in the frequency of drug-resistant HSV-1, which is an important clinical issue that requires urgent solution. Recently, we reported that the sialylated O-linked sugar T antigen (sTn) and its attached peptide region (O-glycosylated sTn peptide) derived from the HSV-1 glycoprotein B (gB) protein inhibited HSV-1 infection by specifically targeting paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILRα) in vitro.

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Nov
2016

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) envelope glycoprotein D (gD) plays an essential role in viral entry. The functional regions of gD responsible for viral entry have been mapped to its extracellular domain, whereas the gD cytoplasmic domain plays no obvious role in viral entry. Thus far, the role(s) of the gD cytoplasmic domain in HSV-1 replication has remained to be elucidated.

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Dec
1969

To investigate the molecular mechanism(s) by which herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) tegument protein UL51 promotes viral replication, we screened for viral proteins that interact with UL51 in infected cells. Affinity purification of tagged UL51 in HSV-1-infected Vero cells was coupled with immunoblotting of the purified UL51 complexes with various antibodies to HSV-1 virion proteins. Subsequent analyses revealed that UL51 interacted with another tegument protein, UL14, in infected cells.

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Dec
1969

p53 is a critical host cell factor in the cellular response to a broad range of stress factors. We recently reported that p53 is required for efficient herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) replication in cell culture. However, a defined role for p53 in HSV-1 replication and pathogenesis in vivo remains elusive.

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Dec
1969

The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) Us8A gene overlaps the gene that encodes glycoprotein E (gE). Previous studies have investigated the roles of Us8A in HSV-1 infection using null mutations in Us8A and gE; therefore, the role of Us8A remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the function of Us8A and its phosphorylation at serine 61 (Ser-61), which we recently identified as a phosphorylation site by mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic analysis of HSV-1-infected cells, in HSV-1 pathogenesis.

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Jan
2016

To investigate the molecular mechanism(s) by which herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) regulatory protein ICP0 promotes viral gene expression and replication, we screened cells overexpressing ICP0 for ICP0-binding host cell proteins. Tandem affinity purification of transiently expressed ICP0 coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics technology and subsequent analyses showed that ICP0 interacted with cell protein RanBP10, a known transcriptional coactivator, in HSV-1-infected cells. Knockdown of RanBP10 in infected HEp-2 cells resulted in a phenotype similar to that observed with the ICP0-null mutation, including reduction in viral replication and in the accumulation of viral immediate early (ICP27), early (ICP8), and late (VP16) mRNAs and proteins.

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Mar
2016

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) expresses infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), a multi-functional protein with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and a critical regulator of the viral life cycle. To obtain novel insights into the molecular mechanism by which ICP0 regulates HSV-1 replication, we analyzed HEp-2 cells infected with HSV-1 by tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry-based proteomics. This screen identified 50 host-cell proteins that potentially interact with ICP0, including ubiquitin-specific protease 9X (USP9X).

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Oct
2015

Us3 protein kinases encoded by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) play important roles in viral replication and pathogenicity. To investigate type-specific differences between HSV-1 Us3 and HSV-2 Us3 in cells infected by viruses with all the same viral gene products except for their Us3 kinases, we constructed and characterized a recombinant HSV-1 in which its Us3 gene was replaced with the HSV-2 Us3 gene. Replacement of HSV-1 Us3 with HSV-2 Us3 had no apparent effect on viral growth in cell cultures or on the range of proteins phosphorylated by Us3.

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Sep
2015

To clarify the function(s) of the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) major virion structural protein UL47 (also designated VP13/14), we screened cells overexpressing UL47 for UL47-binding cellular proteins. Tandem affinity purification of transiently expressed UL47 coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics technology and subsequent analyses showed that UL47 interacted with cell protein p32 in HSV-1-infected cells. Unlike in mock-infected cells, p32 accumulated at the nuclear rim in HSV-1-infected cells, and this p32 recruitment to the nuclear rim required UL47.

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Aug
2015

Herpesviruses have evolved a unique mechanism for nucleocytoplasmic transport of nascent nucleocapsids: the nucleocapsids bud through the inner nuclear membrane (INM; primary envelopment), and the enveloped nucleocapsids then fuse with the outer nuclear membrane (de-envelopment). Little is known about the molecular mechanism of herpesviral de-envelopment. We show here that the knockdown of both CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) and its binding partner β1 integrin induced membranous structures containing enveloped herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) virions that are invaginations of the INM into the nucleoplasm and induced aberrant accumulation of enveloped virions in the perinuclear space and in the invagination structures.

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Jun
2015

Replacement of the herpes simplex virus 1 small capsid protein VP26 phosphorylation site Thr-111 with alanine reduced viral replication and neurovirulence to levels observed with the VP26 null mutation. This mutation reduced VP26 expression and mislocalized VP26 and its binding partner, the major capsid protein VP5, in the nucleus. VP5 mislocalization was also observed with the VP26 null mutation.

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Jun
2015

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) envelope glycoprotein H (gH) is important for viral entry into cells and nuclear egress of nucleocapsids. To clarify additional novel roles of gH during HSV-1 replication, host cell proteins that interact with gH were screened for by tandem affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics in 293T cells transiently expressing gH. This screen identified 123 host cell proteins as potential gH interactors.

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Jan
2015

Many retroviral Gag proteins contain PPXY late assembly domain motifs that recruit proteins of the NEDD4 E3 ubiquitin ligase family to facilitate virus release. Overexpression of NEDD4L can also stimulate HIV-1 release but in this case the Gag protein lacks a PPXY motif, suggesting that NEDD4L may function through an adaptor protein. Here, we demonstrate that the cellular protein Angiomotin (AMOT) can bind both NEDD4L and HIV-1 Gag.

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Feb
2015

Nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC-IIA) has been reported to function as a herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) entry coreceptor by interacting with viral envelope glycoprotein B (gB). Vertebrates have three genetically distinct isoforms of the NMHC-II, designated NMHC-IIA, NMHC-IIB, and NMHC-IIC. COS cells, which are readily infected by HSV-1, do not express NMHC-IIA but do express NMHC-IIB.

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Jan
2015

A mutation in herpes simplex virus 1 dUTPase (vdUTPase), which precluded its phosphorylation at Ser-187, decreased viral neurovirulence and increased mutation frequency in progeny virus genomes in the brains of mice where endogenous cellular dUTPase activity was relatively low, and overexpression of cellular dUTPase restored viral neurovirulence and mutation frequency altered by the mutation. Thus, phosphorylation of vdUTPase appeared to regulate viral virulence and genome integrity by compensating for low cellular dUTPase activity in vivo.
Many DNA viruses encode a homolog of host cell dUTPases, which are known to function in accurate replication of cellular DNA genomes.

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Sep
2014

The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) UL12 protein (pUL12) is a nuclease that is critical for viral replication in vitro and neurovirulence in vivo. In this study, mass spectrometric analysis of pUL12 and phosphate-affinity SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis identified tyrosine at pUL12 residue 371 (Tyr-371) as a pUL12 phosphorylation site: Tyr-371 is conserved in pUL12 homologs in herpesviruses in all Herpesviridae subfamilies. Replacement of Tyr-371 with phenylalanine (Y371F) in pUL12 (i) abolished its exonuclease activity in HSV-1-infected Vero, HEL, and A549 cells, (ii) reduced viral replication, cell-cell spread, and pUL12 expression in infected cells in a cell type-dependent manner, (iii) led to aberrant subcellular localization of pUL12 in infected cells in a cell type-dependent manner, and (iv) reduced HSV-1 neurovirulence in mice.

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Jul
2014

We recently reported that herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) protein kinase Us3 phosphorylated viral dUTPase (vdUTPase) at serine 187 (Ser-187) to upregulate its enzymatic activity, which promoted HSV-1 replication in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells but not in human carcinoma HEp-2 cells. In the present study, we showed that endogenous cellular dUTPase activity in SK-N-SH cells was significantly lower than that in HEp-2 cells and that overexpression of cellular dUTPase in SK-N-SH cells increased the replication of an HSV-1 mutant with an alanine substitution for Ser-187 (S187A) in vdUTPase to the wild-type level. In addition, we showed that knockdown of cellular dUTPase in HEp-2 cells significantly reduced replication of the mutant vdUTPase (S187A) virus but not that of wild-type HSV-1.

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Jul
2014

In order to investigate the novel function(s) of the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate early protein ICP22, we screened for ICP22-binding proteins in HSV-1-infected cells. Our results were as follows. (i) Tandem affinity purification of ICP22 from infected cells, coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics and subsequent analyses, demonstrates that ICP22 forms a complex(es) with the HSV-1 proteins UL31, UL34, UL47 (or VP13/14), and/or Us3.

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May
2014

Herpesviruses have evolved a unique mechanism for nuclear egress of nascent progeny nucleocapsids: the nucleocapsids bud through the inner nuclear membrane into the perinuclear space between the inner and outer nuclear membranes (primary envelopment), and enveloped nucleocapsids then fuse with the outer nuclear membrane to release nucleocapsids into the cytoplasm (de-envelopment). We have shown that the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) major virion structural protein UL47 (or VP13/VP14) is a novel regulator for HSV-1 nuclear egress. In particular, we demonstrated the following: (i) UL47 formed a complex(es) with HSV-1 proteins UL34, UL31, and/or Us3, which have all been reported to be critical for viral nuclear egress, and these viral proteins colocalized at the nuclear membrane in HSV-1-infected cells; (ii) the UL47-null mutation considerably reduced primary enveloped virions in the perinuclear space although capsids accumulated in the nucleus; and (iii) UL47 was detected in primary enveloped virions in the perinuclear space by immunoelectron microscopy.

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Feb
2014

Enzyme-dead mutations in the herpes simplex virus 1 UL12 gene that abolished its endo- and exonuclease activities only slightly reduced viral replication in cell cultures. However, the UL12 null mutation significantly reduced viral replication, suggesting that a UL12 function(s) unrelated to its nuclease activities played a major role in viral replication. In contrast, the enzyme-dead mutations significantly reduced viral neurovirulence in mice, suggesting that UL12 nuclease activities were critical for viral pathogenesis in vivo.

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Jan
2014

Us3 is a serine-threonine protein kinase that is encoded by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). In experimental animal models of HSV infection, peripheral and intracranial inoculations can be used to study viral pathogenicity in peripheral sites (e.g.

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Dec
1969

Detection and elimination of virus-infected cells by CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) depends on recognition of virus-derived peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules on the surface of infected cells. In the present study, we showed that inactivation of the activity of viral kinase Us3 encoded by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), the etiologic agent of several human diseases and a member of the alphaherpesvirinae, significantly increased cell surface expression of MHC-I, thereby augmenting CTL recognition of infected cells in vitro. Overexpression of Us3 by itself had no effect on cell surface expression of MHC-I and Us3 was not able to phosphorylate MHC-I in vitro, suggesting that Us3 indirectly downregulated cell surface expression of MHC-I in infected cells.

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Dec
2012

The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway remodels membranes during multivesicular body biogenesis, the abscission stage of cytokinesis, and enveloped virus budding. The ESCRT-III and VPS4 ATPase complexes catalyze the membrane fission events associated with these processes, and the LIP5 protein helps regulate their interactions by binding directly to a subset of ESCRT-III proteins and to VPS4. We have investigated the biochemical and structural basis for different LIP5-ligand interactions and show that the first microtubule-interacting and trafficking (MIT) module of the tandem LIP5 MIT domain binds CHMP1B (and other ESCRT-III proteins) through canonical type 1 MIT-interacting motif (MIM1) interactions.

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Aug
2012

Transient transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) provides a powerful approach for studying cellular protein functions, particularly when the target protein can be re-expressed from an exogenous siRNA-resistant construct in order to rescue the knockdown phenotype, confirm siRNA target specificity, and support mutational analyses. Rescue experiments often fail, however, when siRNA-resistant constructs are expressed at suboptimal levels. Here, we describe an ensemble of mammalian protein expression vectors with CMV promoters of differing strengths.

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Sep
2011

Us3 is a serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). We have identified UL47, a major virion protein, as a novel physiological substrate of Us3. In vitro kinase assays and systematic analysis of mutations at putative Us3 phosphorylation sites near the nuclear localization signal of UL47 showed that serine at residue 77 (Ser-77) was required for Us3 phosphorylation of UL47.

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May
2011

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) Us3 protein kinase phosphorylates threonine at position 887 (Thr-887) in the cytoplasmic tail of envelope glycoprotein B (gB) in infected cells. This phosphorylation downregulates cell surface expression of gB and plays a role in viral pathogenesis in the mouse herpes stromal keratitis model. In the present study, we demonstrated that Us3 phosphorylation of gB Thr-887 upregulated the accumulation of endocytosed gB from the surfaces of infected cells.

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Oct
2010

Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), the prototype of the α-herpesvirus family, causes life-long infections in humans. Although generally associated with various mucocutaneous diseases, HSV-1 is also involved in lethal encephalitis. HSV-1 entry into host cells requires cellular receptors for both envelope glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD).

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Oct
2010

Paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor α (PILRα) is a herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) entry receptor that associates with O-glycans on HSV-1 envelope glycoprotein B (gB). Two threonine residues (Thr-53 and Thr-480) in gB, which are required for the addition of the principal gB O-glycans, are essential for binding to soluble PILRα. However, the role of the two threonines in PILRα-dependent viral entry remains to be elucidated.

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Feb
2010

Equine herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4) is an important equine pathogen that causes respiratory tract disease among horses worldwide. A thymidine kinase (TK)-deletion mutant has been generated by using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology to investigate the role of TK in pathogenesis. Deletion of TK had virtually no effect on the growth characteristics of WA79DeltaTK in cell culture when compared to the parent virus.

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Jan
2010

We recently reported that the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) Us3 protein kinase phosphorylates threonine at position 887 (Thr-887) in the cytoplasmic tail of envelope glycoprotein B (gB) (A. Kato, J. Arii, I.

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Dec
2009

Paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILRalpha) is an inhibitory receptor expressed on both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. Its binding to a cellular ligand, CD99, depends on the presence of sialylated O-linked glycans on CD99. Glycoprotein B (gB) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) binds to PILRalpha, and this association is involved in HSV-1 infection.

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Nov
2009

Us3 protein kinases encoded by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are serine/threonine protein kinases and play critical roles in viral replication and pathogenicity in vivo. In the present study, we investigated differences in the biological properties of HSV-1 and HSV-2 Us3 protein kinases and demonstrated that HSV-2 Us3 did not have some of the HSV-1 Us3 kinase functions, including control of nuclear egress of nucleocapsids, localization of UL31 and UL34, and cell surface expression of viral envelope glycoprotein B. In agreement with the observations that HSV-2 Us3 was less important for these functions, the effect of HSV-2 Us3 kinase activity on virulence in mice following intracerebral inoculation was much lower than that of HSV-1 Us3.

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Aug
2009

Almost all mammalian alphaherpesviruses can grow in cells derived from several types of animals in vitro. However, FHV-1 can only infect feline cell lines. For this reason, FHV-1 should be a good model to investigate species barriers to herpesviruses in vivo.

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Dec
1969

Equine herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4) is a major cause of respiratory tract disease in horses worldwide. The generation of recombinant viruses, which would lead to understanding of viral gene functions, has been hindered by the absence of suitable cell lines and small-animal models of the infection. In the present study, the genome of EHV-4 strain TH20p was cloned as a stable and infectious BAC without any deletions of the viral genes.

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Mar
2009

Information on sites in HSV genomes at which foreign gene(s) can be inserted without disrupting viral genes or affecting properties of the parental virus are important for basic research on HSV and development of HSV-based vectors for human therapy. The intergenic region between HSV-1 UL3 and UL4 genes has been reported to satisfy the requirements for such an insertion site. The UL3 and UL4 genes are oriented toward the intergenic region and, therefore, insertion of a foreign gene(s) into the region between the UL3 and UL4 polyadenylation signals should not disrupt any viral genes or transcriptional units.

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May
2009

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) enters cells either via fusion of the virion envelope and host cell plasma membrane or via endocytosis, depending on the cell type. In the study reported here, we investigated a viral entry pathway dependent on the paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILRalpha), a recently identified entry coreceptor for HSV-1 that associates with viral envelope glycoprotein B (gB). Experiments using inhibitors of endocytic pathways and ultrastructural analyses of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transduced with PILRalpha showed that HSV-1 entry into these cells was via virus-cell fusion at the cell surface.

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Jan
2009

Us3 is a serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). As reported here, we attempted to identify the previously unreported physiological substrate of Us3 in HSV-1-infected cells. Our results were as follows.

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Mar
2008

Glycoprotein B (gB) is one of the essential components for infection by herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). Although several cellular receptors that associate with glycoprotein D (gD), such as herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) and Nectin-1, have been identified, specific molecules that mediate HSV-1 infection by associating with gB have not been elucidated. Here, we found that paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor (PILR) alpha associates with gB, and cells transduced with PILRalpha become susceptible to HSV-1 infection.

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Apr
2006

Canine herpesvirus (CHV) is an attractive candidate not only for use as a recombinant vaccine to protect dogs from a variety of canine pathogens but also as a viral vector for gene therapy in domestic animals. However, developments in this area have been impeded by the complicated techniques used for eukaryotic homologous recombination. To overcome these problems, we used bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) to generate infectious BACs.

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