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Author: Kamlesh Khunti (277)


Jan
2018

The Hypoglycaemia Assessment Tool (HAT) study investigated the health economic impact of hypoglycaemic events in 24 countries, including countries without previously published data on hypoglycaemia.
Self-assessment questionnaires and patient diaries (4-week prospective period) were completed by adults with type 1 (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D) treated with insulin for more than 12 months (N=27,585).
Direct economic impacts of hypoglycaemia during the 4-week prospective period, included increased blood glucose monitoring (reported by 69.

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Jan
2018

We assessed global achievement of targets recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD), and National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) for type 2 diabetes. We searched Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library for observational studies reporting target attainment (2006 to 2017 inclusive) for HbA1c, blood pressure, or lipids (low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], or triglycerides). Rates were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis.

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Dec
1969

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) imposes a substantial disease burden, predominantly from cardiovascular disease (CVD), which accounts for >50% of deaths in this population and leads to a 12-year reduction in the life expectancy of a 60-year-old male patient with T2D and CVD compared with the general population. The results from mandatory cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) are therefore of great interest in the field. The Academy for Cardiovascular Risk, Outcomes and Safety Studies in Type 2 Diabetes meeting program aims to bring together experts from several associated disciplines to provide fair and balanced resources for those involved in the management of patients with T2D.

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Jan
2018

It is unclear whether modifying cholesterol, blood pressure, or both affect erectile dysfunction. Also, there are concerns that erectile dysfunction is worsened by common medications used to treat these risk factors. In this study, we evaluated the effect of: (1) cholesterol-lowering with a statin; (2) pharmacologic blood pressure reduction; and (3) their combination, on erectile function.

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Jan
2018

The aim of this study was to examine cross-sectional associations between objectively measured sedentary time and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-assessed adiposity in a population at high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and to determine whether associations are modified by the recommended levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA).
Sedentary time and MVPA were measured objectively by using accelerometers. Linear regression models examined the association of sedentary time with liver, visceral, subcutaneous, and total abdominal fat (quantified by using MRI).

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Dec
2017

To assess the evidence supporting the choice of third-line agents in adults with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes.
We searched randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between January 2000 and July 2017 that reported data on cardiometabolic outcomes and hypoglycaemia for glucose-lowering agents added to metformin-based dual treatments. Data were stratified by background therapy and RCT duration, and synthesized, when possible, with network meta-analyses.

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Dec
1969

Depression has been shown to be associated with elevated leptin levels, low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. These derangements are often measured in mixed gender cohorts despite the different body compositions and hormonal environments of men and women and gender-specific prevalence and responses to depression.
A cross-sectional analysis was carried out on a cohort of 639 participants from the ADDITION-Leicester dataset to assess differences in markers of diabetes risk, cardiovascular risk and inflammation in depressed and non-depressed individuals.

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Nov
2017

Although high levels of sitting time are adversely related to health, it is unclear whether moving from sitting to standing provides a sufficient stimulus to elicit benefits upon markers of chronic low-grade inflammation in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Three hundred and seventy two participants (age = 66.8 ± 7.

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Jan
2018

To evaluate the effectiveness of a structured education programmes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Single-centre, randomised controlled trial, testing a single exposure to a group-based, face-to-face, structured education programme. Inclusion criteria were women with PCOS, aged 18-49 years inclusive and body mass index ≥23 kg/m2 for black and minority ethnicities or ≥25 kg/m2 for white Europeans.

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Nov
2017

Children engage in a high volume of sitting in school, particularly in the classroom. A number of strategies, such as physically active lessons (termed movement integration (MI)), have been developed to integrate physical activity into this learning environment; however, no single approach is likely to meet the needs of all pupils and teachers. This protocol outlines an implementation study of a primary school-based MI intervention: CLASS PAL (Physically Active Learning) programme.

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Mar
2017

The Global Partnership for Effective Diabetes Management has previously recommended the implementation of an interdisciplinary team (IDT) approach to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) management as one of 10 practical steps for health care professionals to help more people achieve their glycaemic goal. This article discusses some of the key contributors to success and also the challenges faced when applying IDT care, by examining case studies and examples from around the world. The real-world practices discussed show that implementing successful interdisciplinary care in diabetes is possible despite significant barriers such as established hierarchal structures and financial resource constraints.

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Oct
2017

Poor glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global problem despite the availability of numerous glucose-lowering therapies and clear guidelines for T2D management. Tackling clinical or therapeutic inertia, where the person with diabetes and/or their healthcare providers do not intensify treatment regimens despite this being appropriate, is key to improving patients' long-term outcomes. This gap between best practice and current level of care is most pronounced when considering insulin regimens, with studies showing that insulin initiation/intensification is frequently and inappropriately delayed for several years.

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Dec
2017

Diabetes: Predicting severe hypoglycaemia - a step forward.

Nat Rev Endocrinol 2017 Dec 23;13(12):692-693. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
Francesco Zaccardi, Kamlesh Khunti

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Oct
2017

Assess the longitudinal association between polypharmacy and falls and examine the differences in this association by different thresholds for polypharmacy definitions in a nationally representative sample of adults aged over 60 years from England.
Longitudinal cohort study.
The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing waves 6 and 7.

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Oct
2017


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Jan
2018

This study sought to investigate in the general heart failure (HF) population, whether the associations between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and risk of hospitalization and death, are modified by changing glycemic or drug treatment intensity.
In the general HF population, T2D confers a higher risk of poor outcomes, but whether this risk is modified by the diabetes status is unknown.
A nested case-control study in an incident HF database cohort (2002 to 2014) compared patients with T2D with those without for risk of all-cause first hospitalization and death.

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Nov
2017

To quantify the association of self-reported walking pace and handgrip strength with all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality.
A total of 230 670 women and 190 057 men free from prevalent cancer and cardiovascular disease were included from UK Biobank. Usual walking pace was self-defined as slow, steady/average or brisk.

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Dec
1969

As the therapeutic options in the management of type 2 diabetes increase, there is an increase confusion among health care professionals, thus leading to the phenomenon of therapeutic inertia. This is the failure to escalate or de-escalate treatment when the clinical need for this is required. It has been studied extensively in various settings, however, it has never been reported in any studies focusing solely on primary care physicians with an interest in diabetes.

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Jul
2017

We investigate the cross-sectional and prospective associations between different sedentary behaviours and cognitive function in a large sample of UK Biobank adults. Baseline data were available on 502,643 participants (years 2006-2010). Cognitive tests included prospective memory [n = 171,585 (baseline only)], visual-spatial memory [round 1 (n = 483,832); round 2 (n = 482,762)], fluid intelligence [n = 165,492], and short-term numeric memory [n = 50,370].

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Feb
2018

Accelerometers are increasingly being used to assess physical activity in large-scale surveys. Establishing whether key physical activity outcomes can be considered equivalent between three widely used accelerometer brands would be a significant step toward capitalizing on the increasing availability of accelerometry data for epidemiological research.
Twenty participants wore a GENEActiv, an Axivity AX3, and an ActiGraph GT9X on their nondominant wrist and were observed for 2 h in a simulated living space.

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Sep
2017

Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with long-term complications that can be prevented or delayed by intensive glycaemic management. People who are empowered and skilled to self-manage their diabetes have improved health outcomes. Over the past 20 years, diabetes self-management education programmes have been shown to be efficacious and cost-effective in promotion and facilitation of self-management, with improvements in patients' knowledge, skills, and motivation leading to improved biomedical, behavioural, and psychosocial outcomes.

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Oct
2017

Aims Recent trials (EMPA-REG OUTCOME and Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results [LEADER]) have shown improved cardiovascular (CV) mortality with specific currently available glucose-lowering medications (empagliflozin and liraglutide, respectively), but were limited to selected patient populations. We sought to evaluate the current use and potential real-world impact of empagliflozin (and other sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors [SGLT2is]) and liraglutide (and other glucagonlike peptide-1 receptor agonist [GLP-1 RAs]) among patients in the Diabetes Collaborative Registry (DCR). Methods and results We evaluated 182,525 patients from the DCR - a large, US-based outpatient registry of individuals with type 2 diabetes from 313 sites that included cardiology, endocrinology and primary care practices.

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Aug
2017

Although guidelines and performance measures exist for patients with diabetes mellitus, achievement of these metrics is not well known. The Diabetes Collaborative Registry® (DCR) was formed to understand the quality of diabetes mellitus care across the primary and specialty care continuum in the United States.
We assessed the frequency of achievement of 7 diabetes mellitus-related quality metrics and variability across the Diabetes Collaborative Registry® sites.

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Feb
2018

Therapeutic inertia, defined as the failure to initiate or intensify therapy in a timely manner according to evidence-based clinical guidelines, is a key reason for uncontrolled hyperglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aims of this systematic review were to identify how therapeutic inertia in the management of hyperglycaemia was measured and to assess its extent over the past decade.
Systematic searches for articles published from January 1, 2004 to August 1, 2016 were conducted in MEDLINE and Embase.

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Feb
2018

To investigate determinants of change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at 6 months after initiating uninterrupted second-line glucose-lowering therapies.
This cohort study utilized retrospective data from 10 256 patients with T2DM who initiated second-line glucose-lowering therapy (switch from or add-on to metformin) between 2011 and 2014 in Germany and the UK. Effects of pre-specified patient characteristics on 6-month HbA1c changes were assessed using analysis of covariance.

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Nov
2017

A previous study suggests an association between poor medication adherence and excess mortality in chronic disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between medication adherence and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), all-cause mortality, and hospitalization in type 2 diabetes.
We conducted an electronic search on many electronic databases from inception to 27 April 2016.

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Feb
2018

With the rising incidence and prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes globally, it is imperative that diabetes prevention strategies are implemented to stem the flow of new cases. Successful interventions include both lifestyle modification and pharmaceutical agents, and large, multicentre, randomised, controlled studies in different populations have identified the benefits of both. However, translating positive trial outcomes to the real world is particularly challenging, as lifestyle interventions require regular reinforcement from healthcare professionals to be maintained.

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Dec
2017

Objectively measured physical activity (PA) intensity has traditionally been categorized as light, moderate, and vigorous using laboratory calibrated cut points. The relative contribution of time spent across a spectrum of accelerometer-determined intensities on health outcomes is less clear.
This study aimed to assess the relationship between objectively measured PA intensity on a continuous scale and markers of insulin sensitivity (IS).

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Aug
2017

Evolving debate suggests that C-reactive protein (CRP) might be associated with the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE); however, the evidence is conflicting. We aimed to assess the prospective association of CRP with VTE risk. C-reactive protein was measured in serum samples at baseline from 2420 men aged 42-61 years, from the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease study.

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Jul
2017

The aim of this systematic review is to explore the association of South Asian (SA) ethnicity on comorbidities, microvascular and macrovascular complications and mortality compared with other ethnic groups in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
Systematic review.
A systematic literature search strategy was designed and carried out using Medline and Embase for full-text and abstract studies published in English from 1946 to February 2016.

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Jul
2017

Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) on insulin therapy are less satisfied with their diabetes treatment than those on oral hypoglycaemic therapies or lifestyle advice only. Determinants of satisfaction in patients with T2DM on insulin therapy are not clearly known. The aim of this study was to determine the association of treatment satisfaction with demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with T2DM.

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Oct
2017

The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of accurate self-knowledge of a patient's own HbA1c level (HbA1cSK), as a component of structural education (University Hospital's of Leicester (UHL), 2013) and its association with glycaemic control.
Data from the GUIDANCE study, a cross-sectional study involving 7597 participants from eight European countries was used. HbA1cSK was evaluated and compared with laboratory measured HbA1c levels (HbA1cLAB), which represented the measure of glycaemic control.

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Jan
2018

To determine the patterns and predictors of treatment intensification in patients with type 2 diabetes on ≥2 non-insulin antidiabetic drugs (NIADs) and inadequate glycaemic control in primary care in Catalonia, Spain.
This was a retrospective analysis using electronic medical records from patients with HbA1c ≥ 7% and a first prescription for a new NIAD or insulin recorded from January 2010 to December 2014. Therapeutic inertia was defined as no intensification if HbA1c was ≥8% at baseline or during follow-up.

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Jun
2017

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of premature mortality and a major contributor of health inequalities in England. Compared to more affluent and white counterparts, deprived people and ethnic minorities tend to die younger due to preventable CVD associated with lifestyle. In addition, deprived, ethnic minorities and younger people are less likely to be served by CVD prevention services.

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Aug
2017

Data on the impact of hypoglycaemia on patients' daily lives and diabetes self-management, particularly in developing countries, are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess fear of, and responses to, hypoglycaemia experienced by patients globally.
This non-interventional, multicentre, 4-week prospective study using self-assessment questionnaires and patient diaries consisted of 27,585 patients, ≥18years, with type 1 diabetes (n=8022) or type 2 diabetes (n=19,563) treated with insulin for >12months, at 2004 sites in 24 countries worldwide.

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Nov
2017

This study aimed to experimentally determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) modifies postprandial glycemia during prolonged sitting and investigated the potentially blunting influence this may have on the benefits of interrupting postprandial sitting time with light activity breaks.
Thirty-four adults (18 women; 16 men; mean ± SD age, 40 ± 9 yr, body mass index, 24.5 ± 3 kg·m) undertook two 7.

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Jun
2017

To investigate the association of 4 anthropometric measurements with cardiometabolic risk factors in a UK biethnic sample of South Asians (SAs) and white Europeans (WEs).
Baseline data were collected from adults of WE and SA origin participating in the Leicester arm of the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION-Leicester) study between August 2004 and December 2007. Overall, 6268 WE and SA adults had measures of body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio assessed between June 18, 2004, and December 4, 2007.

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Dec
2017

To investigate the impact of performing short bouts of seated upper body activity on postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels during prolonged sitting.
Participants undertook two 7.5-hour experimental conditions in randomized order: (1) prolonged sitting only and (2) sitting, interspersed with 5 minutes of seated arm ergometry every 30 minutes.

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Jul
2017

Reduction in cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) was recently reported with the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT-2i) empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who have atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We compared HHF and death in patients newly initiated on any SGLT-2i versus other glucose-lowering drugs in 6 countries to determine if these benefits are seen in real-world practice and across SGLT-2i class.
Data were collected via medical claims, primary care/hospital records, and national registries from the United States, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Germany, and the United Kingdom.

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Jul
2017

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a lifelong condition. Its symptoms have been linked with psychological consequences, but less attention has been given to the daily implications of living with PCOS. We aimed to explore women's experiences living with PCOS, and the potential acceptability of group education sessions for this target group.

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Jul
2017

Contemporary global real-world data on the management of type 2 diabetes are scarce. The global DISCOVER study program aims to describe the disease management patterns and a broad range of associated outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes initiating a second-line glucose-lowering therapy in routine clinical practice.
The DISCOVER program comprises two longitudinal observational studies involving more than 15,000 patients in 38 countries across six continents.

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May
2017

To describe low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol management and lipid-lowering treatment patterns in patients with a cardiovascular (CV) event.
Retrospective cohort study using Clinical Practice Research Datalink records linked with Hospital Episode Statistics data.
Routine clinical practice in the UK from 2006 to 2012.

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Jul
2017

Observational evidence suggests there is an association between air pollution and type 2 diabetes; however, there is high risk of bias.
To investigate the association between air pollution and type 2 diabetes, while reducing bias due to exposure assessment, outcome assessment, and confounder assessment.
Data were collected from 10,443 participants in three diabetes screening studies in Leicestershire, UK.

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Apr
2017

To investigate the associations of objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body mass index (BMI) with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in a national sample of English adults.
The 2008 Health Survey for England data were used with 1109 participants aged ≥18 providing complete data. MVPA time was assessed using an accelerometer.

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May
2017

There have been suggestions that statins may have a potential role in secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) [which includes deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE)], but the evidence is inconsistent. We aimed to evaluate the association between statin use and risk of recurrent VTE.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational cohort studies.

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Dec
1969

The efficacy and safety of insulin degludec/liraglutide (IDegLira) has been evaluated in the Dual Action of Liraglutide and Insulin Degludec in Type 2 Diabetes (DUAL) phase 3 clinical trial program. In this post hoc analysis, we compared the efficacy and safety of IDegLira in the Indian subpopulation with the results from the global trial population of DUAL trials. The analysis includes participants uncontrolled on oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) in DUAL I and DUAL IV and participants uncontrolled on basal insulin and OADs in DUAL II.

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Jun
2017

Hospital admissions for hypoglycaemia represent a significant burden on individuals with diabetes and have a substantial economic impact on healthcare systems. To date, no prognostic models have been developed to predict outcomes following admission for hypoglycaemia. We aimed to develop and validate prediction models to estimate risk of inpatient death, 24 h discharge and one month readmission in people admitted to hospital for hypoglycaemia.

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