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Author: Kate Hoy (74)


Feb
2018

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is increasingly used clinically in the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, rTMS treatment response can be slow. Early research suggests that accelerated forms of rTMS may be effective but no research has directly evaluated a schedule of accelerated rTMS compared to standard rTMS.

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Jan
2018

With an increasing interest in the use of theta burst stimulation (TBS) as a cognitive enhancer and a potential therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders, there is a need to identify optimal parameters of TBS in the prefrontal cortex.
This study examined the effect of two blocks of prefrontal intermittent TBS (iTBS) on cortical reactivity and working memory performance, compared to one block of iTBS and sham stimulation. We hypothesized that greater cortical effects would be obtained with two blocks of iTBS.

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Jan
2018

Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is a novel brain stimulation technique that uses a high-powered transcranial magnetic stimulation device to produce therapeutic seizures. Preliminary MST studies have found antidepressant effects in the absence of cognitive side effects but its efficacy compared to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy and cognitive profile of MST compared to standard right unilateral ECT treatment.

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Feb
2018

Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique capable of increasing cortical excitability beyond the stimulation period. Due to the rapid induction of modulatory effects, prefrontal application of iTBS is gaining popularity as a therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders such as depression. In an attempt to increase efficacy, higher than conventional intensities are currently being applied.

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Jul
2017

To examine the effects of intermittent TBS (iTBS) and continuous TBS (cTBS) on cortical reactivity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
10 healthy participants were stimulated with either iTBS, cTBS or sham at F3 electrode. Single- and paired-pulse TMS and concurrent electroencephalography (EEG) were used to assess change in cortical reactivity and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) via TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs) and TMS-evoked oscillations.

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May
2017

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a well-recognised neuromodulatory technology which has been shown to induce short-lasting changes in motor-cortical excitability. The recent and rapid expansion of tDCS into the cognitive domain, however, necessitates deeper mechanistic understanding of its neurophysiological effects over non-motor brain regions. The present study utilised transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) to probe the immediate and longer-term effects of both a bipolar (BP-tDCS) and more focal 4×1 High-Definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) montage applied over the left DLPFC on TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs) and oscillations in 19 healthy adult participants.

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Dec
1969

Alterations to functional connectivity following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) may lead to impaired cognitive performance and major depressive disorder (MDD). In particular, functional gamma band connectivity is thought to reflect information binding important for working memory. The objective of this study was to determine whether altered functional gamma connectivity may be a factor in MDD following TBI (TBI-MDD).

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Nov
2016

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a relatively recent addition to the neurostimulation armamentarium for treating individuals suffering from treatment refractory depression and has demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials. One of the proposed mechanisms of action underlying the therapeutic effects of rTMS for depression involves the modulation of depression-associated dysfunctional activity in distributed brain networks involving frontal cortical and subcortical limbic regions, via changes to aberrant functional and structural connectivity. Although there is currently a paucity of published data, we review changes to functional and structural connectivity following rTMS for depression.

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Oct
2016

Working memory impairment in schizophrenia has been strongly associated with abnormalities in gamma oscillations within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLFPC). We recently published the first ever study showing that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the left DLPFC was able to significantly improve working memory in schizophrenia and did so seemingly via restoring normal gamma oscillatory function. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a form of electrical brain stimulation that delivers stimulation at a specific frequency and has been shown to entrain endogenous cortical oscillations.

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Dec
1969

Considerable research has demonstrated the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment in patients with depression. However, limited research has described the pattern of response to rTMS treatment or explored possible predictors of the likelihood of treatment response.
Data from 11 clinical trials (n = 1,132) was pooled and we described the pattern of response to rTMS, rate of response, and remission as well as potential clinical and demographic predictors of response.

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Jul
2016

To explore the therapeutic benefit of sequential bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of bipolar depression.
A 2 arm randomized controlled parallel design trial comparing the use of active sequential bilateral rTMS to a sham form of stimulation in 49 patients with bipolar disorder and treatment resistant depression.
There was no significant difference in mean reduction in depression rating scale scores or response rates between active and sham stimulation.

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May
2016

Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) techniques are able to induce changes in cortical excitability and plasticity through the administration of weak currents to the brain and are currently being used to manipulate a vast array of cognitive processes. Despite the widespread use of tES technologies within both research and remedial settings, their precise neurophysiological mechanisms of action are not well established outside of the motor cortex. The expanding use of tES within non-motor brain regions highlights the growing need for a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of stimulation across a diversity of cortical locations.

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Apr
2016

Noninvasive brain stimulation has been demonstrated to modulate cortical activity in humans. In particular, theta burst stimulation (TBS) has gained notable attention due to its ability to induce lasting physiological changes after short stimulation durations. The present study aimed to provide a comprehensive meta-analytic review of the efficacy of two TBS paradigms; intermittent (iTBS) and continuous (cTBS), on corticospinal excitability in healthy individuals.

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Apr
2016

Several studies have trialled anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) for the enhancement of working memory (WM) in both healthy and neuropsychiatric populations. However, the efficacy of this technique remains to be clearly established.
This review provides a quantitative synthesis of the published literature investigating the effects of a-tDCS, compared to sham, on WM, as assessed using the n-back, Sternberg and digit-span tasks.

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Dec
2015

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has been widely investigated for its potential to enhance cognition, and in particular working memory, however to date standard approaches to stimulation have shown only modest effects. Alternative, more specialised, forms of current delivery may be better suited to cognitive enhancement. One such method is transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS) which delivers stimulation at a specific frequency and has been shown to entrain endogenous cortical oscillations which underlie cognitive functioning.

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Oct
2015


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Dec
2016

Noninvasive brain stimulation is increasingly being investigated for the enhancement of cognition, yet current approaches appear to be limited in their degree and duration of effects. The majority of studies to date have delivered stimulation in "standard" ways (i.e.

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Dec
2016

Neuromodulatory brain stimulation can induce plastic reorganization of cortical circuits that persist beyond the period of stimulation. Most of our current knowledge about the physiological properties has been derived from the motor cortex. The integration of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) is a valuable method for directly probing excitability, connectivity and oscillatory dynamics of regions throughout the brain.

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Aug
2015

Dysfunctional mirror neuron systems have been proposed to contribute to the social cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia. A few studies have explored mirror systems in schizophrenia using various techniques such as TMS (levels of motor resonance) or EEG (levels of mu suppression), with mixed results. This study aimed to use a novel multimodal approach (i.

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Aug
2015

Working memory impairments in schizophrenia have been strongly associated with abnormalities in gamma oscillations within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLFPC). We recently published the first ever study showing that anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) to the left DLPFC was able to significantly improve working memory performance in schizophrenia. In the current paper we present a secondary analysis from this study, specifically looking at the effect of tDCS on gamma activity and its relationship to working memory.

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Dec
1969

Social cognitive difficulties are common in the acute phase of bipolar disorder and, to a lesser extent, during the euthymic stage, and imaging studies of social cognition in euthymic bipolar disorder have implicated mirror system brain regions. This study aimed to use a novel multimodal approach (i.e.

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Dec
1969

Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) paradigms are used to investigate successful forgetting of irrelevant information. Responses to the RIF paradigm can vary substantially, but to date there has been limited investigation of the individual difference factors that contribute to RIF performances. This study investigated whether individual differences in baseline RIF ability impacted on RIF performance after temporarily induced frontal dysfunction.

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Dec
2014

Rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) are estimated to be between 20% and 45%, a higher prevalence than that seen in the general population. These increased rates may be due to specific changes in brain function following TBI. Event related potentials (ERPs) are well suited for measuring the electrophysiological differences between groups in areas of cognitive processing impaired in both MDD and TBI, such as response inhibition.

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Mar
2015

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common debilitating condition where only one third of patients achieve remission after the first antidepressant treatment. Inadequate efficacy and adverse effects of current treatment strategies call for more effective and tolerable treatment options. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive approach to manipulate brain activity and alter cortical excitability.

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Mar
2015

A small number of studies conducted to date have suggested that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the temporoparietal cortex may reduce auditory hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. Prefrontal brain stimulation with other methods, has also been shown to potentially improve the negative symptoms of this disorder.
To investigate the therapeutic potential of daily bimodal tDCS: anodal stimulation to the prefrontal cortex and cathodal stimulation to the temporoparietal junction in patients with persistent hallucinations and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

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Sep
2015

This multimodal study investigated the motor, neurocognitive and neurophysiological responses following a sports related concussion injury in the acute-phase (up to 10 days) in sub-elite Australian football players.
Between-group, repeated measures.
Over the course of one season (six months), 43 male players from one football club (25.

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May
2014

Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia underlie more functional disability than any other symptom of the illness and existing treatments are largely inadequate. Non-invasive brain stimulation has been shown to enhance aspects of cognition in both healthy controls and patient populations; however there has been very little research into the use of tDCS for enhancing cognitive performance in schizophrenia. We conducted an initial investigation into the post stimulation effects of tDCS on cognitive performance in a repeated measures design in 18 patients with schizophrenia; in particular looking at dose of stimulation.

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May
2014

Rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) are higher than in the general population. Individuals with depression following traumatic brain injury (TBI-MDD) exhibit working memory (WM) impairments. Electrophysiological evidence has suggested that parieto-occipital upper alpha synchronisation may enhance WM retention by inhibiting irrelevant processes.

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Jul
2014

This study investigated corticomotor excitability and inhibition, cognitive functioning, and fine motor dexterity in retired elite and amateur Australian football (AF) players who had sustained concussions during their playing careers. Forty male AF players who played at the elite level (n=20; mean age 49.7±5.

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Aug
2013

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation which has been shown to induce changes in brain activity and subsequent functioning. In particular, there is a rapidly growing evidence base showing that anodal tDCS applied to the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) is able to enhance aspects of cognitive functioning, in particular working memory (WM). This has led to both excitement and concerns regarding the possibility of 'electrodoping' in order to greatly improve one's cognitive performance.

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Nov
2013

Treatment for depression is not effective in all patients and it is therefore important to identify factors that can be used to tailor treatments. One potential factor is insomnia. Several repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) studies have reported on this symptom, however, they did not take into account the presence of hypersomnia or that insomnia was related to their outcome measure.

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Oct
2013

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment (rTMS) is an effective treatment for depression but the optimal methods of administration have yet to be determined. Recent studies have produced conflicting results as to whether unilateral rTMS is more or less effective than sequentially applied bilateral rTMS. To address this we conducted a trial comparing sequential bilateral rTMS to right-sided unilateral rTMS using a priming protocol.

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Feb
2013

Currently electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the only available therapies for treatment resistant depression (TRD). While effective, ECT is complicated by side effects, including cognitive impairment. One promising potential alternative is magnetic seizure therapy (MST).

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Feb
2013

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a very commonly used treatment for patients with severe and treatment-resistant depression. Although effective, this treatment is complicated by a number of side effects including cognitive impairment motivating attempts to develop treatment alternatives. Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is a brain stimulation technique using a high-powered transcranial magnetic stimulation device to produce therapeutic seizures.

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Dec
1969

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has demonstrated some efficacy in treatment-resistant major depression (TRD). The majority of previous controlled studies have used anodal stimulation to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and a control location such as the supraorbital region for the cathode. Several open-label studies have suggested effectiveness from anodal stimulation to the left DLPFC combined with cathodal stimulation to the right DLPFC.

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May
2013

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often resistant to treatment with standard approaches. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a new treatment that has proven antidepressant efficacy in treatment resistant MDD (TRD). Preliminary evidence also raises the possibility of rTMS enhancing neuronal plasticity; with demonstrated increases in serum levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) found.

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May
2013

Whilst the antidepressant properties of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment (rTMS) have been repeatedly demonstrated, minimal research has investigated the use of rTMS to prevent relapse in patients who have responded to treatment. To address this issue, a large open label trial of a new form of clustered maintenance rTMS was conducted. Thirty-five patients with treatment resistant depression were included.

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Apr
2012

As the prevalence of treatment resistant depression (TRD) continues to rise, it remains a clinically important issue to identify neurobiological-, patient- and treatment-related factors that could potentially predict response to treatment. Medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures, in particular the hippocampus and amygdala have been implicated in inferior treatment response. The role of related structures such as the entorhinal cortex and the impact of MTL abnormalities on neurocognitive function, however, have not been systematically examined.

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Jun
2012

Interpersonal motor resonance (IMR) is presumed to result from activity within the human mirror neuron system, which itself is thought to comprise the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Twenty healthy adults underwent anodal, cathodal, and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to either IPL or IFG immediately before the assessment of IMR (using transcranial magnetic stimulation). IMR (i.

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Jul
2012

A substantive body of research has demonstrated the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment (rTMS) in patients with depression. However, the parameters needed to optimize therapeutic efficacy remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an advantage in efficacy of sequential bilateral rTMS compared to standard high-frequency left sided rTMS.

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Oct
2012

The use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for the treatment of depression has been studied extensively over the last 15 years. In this time the vast majority of trials included assessment of cognition to determine whether the technique is cognitively safe. However, recent evidence suggests that the assessment of cognition could also have an important role to play in the prediction of antidepressant response.

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Nov
2011

Approximately 30% of people with depression do not respond to standard treatments. Currently, the standard treatment for patients with treatment-resistant depression is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). ECT, while effective, has a number of common side effects that limit its use - in particular the occurrence of memory impairment.

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Dec
1969

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a brain stimulation technique that has the potential to improve working memory (WM) deficits in many clinical disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of current strength on the ability of anodal tDCS to improve WM, and secondly to investigate the time course of effects. Twelve healthy participants underwent three stimulation sessions consisting of 20 min of either 1 mA anodal tDCS, 2 mA anodal tDCS, or sham tDCS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) localized via F3, all whilst completing a WM task.

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Dec
2011

The aim of this study was to determine if working memory (WM) performance is significantly improved after the delivery of transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), compared to an active comparator or sham.
Ten participants undertook three experimental sessions in which they received 10 min of anodal tDCS (active comparator), tRNS or sham tDCS whilst performing the Sternberg WM task. Intra-stimulation engagement in a WM task was undertaken as this has been previously shown to enhance the effects of tDCS.

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Apr
2011

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been found to improve working memory (WM) performance in both healthy and clinical participants. However, whether this effect can be enhanced by cognitive activity undertaken during tDCS has not yet been explored.
This study aimed to explore whether tDCS applied to the left DLPFC during the persistent performance of one WM task would improve performance on a subsequent WM task, to a greater extent than either tDCS or cognitive activity alone.

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Oct
2010

One of the few novel treatments developed for major depression in recent years has been repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Despite mostly promising results, 50-60% of patients do not respond to rTMS. Therefore, it is important to investigate ways of enhancing the effectiveness of this treatment.

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Mar
2011

Depression after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) is very common, yet there is a lack of evidence-based treatment options for people who experience depression after a TBI. Traditionally, a history of TBI has been considered an exclusion criterion for transcranial magnetic stimulation trials because of the increased risk of seizure after a TBI. We present what we believe to be the first case of a patient with depression after a TBI treated with transcranial magnetic stimulation.

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