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Author: Katie Witkiewitz (127)


Feb
2018

Mindfulness-based relapse prevention has shown promise as a treatment for substance use disorder but its efficacy according to racial/ethnic minority status and group composition is unknown.
This is a secondary analysis of existing data (Bowen et al., 2014) testing individual race/ethnicity and racial/ethnic group composition as moderators of mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP).

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Feb
2018

Previous research has found inconsistent relationships between trait mindfulness and state mindfulness. To extend previous research, we sought to examine the unique associations between self-report trait mindfulness and state mindfulness by levels of meditation experience (meditation-naïve vs. meditation-experienced) and by mindfulness induction (experimentally induced mindful state vs.

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Feb
2018

Alcohol-related consequences are linked directly to the diagnostic criteria for alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, alcohol consumption outcome variables (e.g.

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Jan
2018

The dramatic increase in opioid misuse, opioid use disorder (OUD), and opioid-related overdose deaths in the United States has led to public outcry, policy statements, and funding initiatives. Meanwhile, alcohol misuse and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are a highly prevalent public health problem associated with considerable individual and societal costs. This study provides a critical review of alcohol and opioid misuse, including issues of prevalence, morbidity, and societal costs.

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Mar
2018

Randomized trials of medications for alcohol dependence (AD) often report no differences between active medications. Few studies in AD have tested hypotheses regarding which medication will work best for which patients (ie, precision medicine). The PREDICT study tested acamprosate and naltrexone vs placebo in 426 randomly assigned AD patients in a 3-month treatment.

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Nov
2017

Few studies have evaluated moderators of mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) for substance use disorders (SUDs). We tested whether baseline patterns of scores for SUD symptom severity and depression and anxiety symptoms moderated the efficacy of MBRP.
We used a latent class moderation approach with data from a randomized trial of MBRP compared to cognitive-behavioral relapse prevention and treatment as usual (TAU; Bowen et al.

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Dec
2017

Over the past 35 years, mindfulness meditation practices have increasingly been integrated into Western medical settings. Research into the benefits of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) continues to expand, such that there are currently more than a dozen different protocolled MBIs for patients suffering from a variety of physical and psychological disorders. In the last decade, a number of MBIs specifically designed to treat addictive behaviors have been developed and tested.

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Oct
2017

Positive emotional perceptions and healthy emotional intelligence (EI) are important for social functioning. In this study, we investigated whether loving kindness meditation (LKM) combined with anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) would facilitate improvements in EI and changes in affective experience of visual stimuli. LKM has been shown to increase positive emotional experiences and we hypothesized that tDCS could enhance these effects.

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Feb
2018

Family relationships, social connectedness and a greater network of supportive others each predict better drinking outcomes among individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD). The association between social factors and drinking may be related to the ability of individuals to take the perspectives of others' mental and emotional states, defined as empathic processing (EP). As such, it may be the case that EP is associated with social support (SS) and drinking behavior among individuals with AUD, yet few prior studies have attempted to define EP in an AUD sample.

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Dec
1969

Abstinence from alcohol has been the prevailing treatment goal for individuals with alcohol dependence (AD) within the context of specialty alcohol treatment. Yet, alcohol use has been conceptualized as existing on a continuum. Importantly, most people who meet criteria for AD and could benefit from treatment never receive treatment.

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Nov
2017

Adolescent drinking influences, and is influenced by, peer alcohol use. Several efficacious adolescent alcohol interventions include elements aimed at reducing susceptibility to peer influence. Modeling these interventions within dynamically changing social networks may improve our understanding of how such interventions work and for whom they work best.

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Nov
2017

Numerous behavioral treatments for addictive disorders include components explicitly aimed at targeting self-regulation (e.g., coping and emotion regulation).

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Sep
2017

Identity change is related to reductions in alcohol use among treatment seekers, but it is unclear the extent to which identity change is associated with reductions in alcohol use among nontreatment seeking hazardous drinkers. The goal of the current study was to examine whether change in problem drinker identity (i.e.

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Aug
2017

Individual differences across a variety of cognitive processes are functionally associated with individual differences in intrinsic networks such as the default mode network (DMN). The extent to which these networks correlate or anticorrelate has been associated with performance in a variety of circumstances. Despite the established role of the DMN in mind wandering processes, little research has investigated how large-scale brain networks at rest relate to mind wandering tendencies outside the laboratory.

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Nov
2017

Quality of life is an outcome often examined in treatment research contexts such as biomedical trials, but has been studied less often in alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatment. The importance of considering QoL in substance use treatment research has recently been voiced, and measures of QoL have been administered in large AUD treatment trials. Yet, the viability of popular QoL measures has never been evaluated in AUD treatment samples.

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Oct
2017

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a costly public health concern; yet, many individuals with AUD never receive formal treatment. Prior studies have identified that "hitting bottom" may be an important factor in seeking treatment for AUD) and the notion that "hitting bottom" is necessary for recovery is commonly portrayed in the popular media. Yet, "hitting bottom" has never been formally operationalized.

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Oct
2017

Self-efficacy has been associated with smoking cessation outcomes in many correlational research studies, but strong causal inferences are lacking. This study tested whether self-efficacy affects initial smoking cessation in a laboratory experiment, which will allow for stronger causal inferences in this domain of inquiry. Participants (n=103 motivated adult smokers) were provided with brief cessation treatment over three days in preparation for quitting on a target quit day (TQD).

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Dec
2017

There is evidence that low-risk drinking is possible during the course of alcohol treatment and can be maintained following treatment. Our aim was to identify characteristics associated with low-risk drinking during treatment in a large sample of individuals as they received treatment for alcohol dependence.
Integrated analysis of data from the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Intervention (COMBINE) study, Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity) and the United Kingdom Alcohol Treatment Trial (UKATT) using repeated-measures latent class analysis to identify patterns of drinking and predictors of low-risk drinking patterns during treatment.

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Oct
2017

Positive alcohol expectancies and alcohol use tend to increase from adolescence to young adulthood, yet little is known about the associations between these constructs across cultures. The current study adds to the extant literature by examining the growth trajectories of positive alcohol expectancies and drinking behavior among United States (US) and Swedish participants during a critical period where significant change in these outcomes may be expected to occur. A total of 870 (US, N=362; Sweden, N=508) high school seniors completed baseline, 6-month, and 12-month assessments of alcohol expectancies and drinking (i.

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Jun
2017

Alcohol dependence is often untreated. Although abstinence is often the aim of treatment, many drinkers prefer drinking reduction goals. Therefore, if supported by evidence of benefit, drinking reduction goals could broaden the appeal of treatment.

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Sep
2017

There is inconsistent evidence that alcohol-specific coping is a mechanism of change in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Our primary aim was to test whether baseline dependence severity moderates the mediational effect of CBT on drinking outcomes via coping.
Secondary data analysis of Project MATCH , a multi-site alcohol treatment trial in which participants, recruited in out-patient and aftercare arms, were randomized to three treatments: CBT, motivational enhancement therapy (MET) and Twelve-Step facilitation (TSF).

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May
2017

Recently, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed to expand the options for primary end points in the development of medications for alcohol use disorder to include either abstinence from alcohol or a nonabstinent outcome: no heavy drinking days (with a heavy drinking day defined as more than 3 drinks per day for women and more than 4 drinks per day for men [>3/>4 cutoff]). The FDA also suggested that 6 months would be the most appropriate length for a clinical trial to demonstrate the stability of this nonabstinent drinking outcome. However, few alcohol clinical trials have examined the stability of nonheavy drinking during and after treatment.

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Dec
1969

To examine whether a clinically meaningful alcohol consumption cutoff can be created for clinical samples, we used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves to derive gender-specific consumption cutoffs that maximized sensitivity and specificity in the prediction of a wide range of negative consequences from drinking.
We conducted secondary data analyses using data from two large clinical trials targeting alcohol use disorders: Project MATCH (n=1726) and COMBINE (n=1383).
In both studies, we found that the ideal cutoff for men and women that maximized sensitivity/specificity varied substantially both across different alcohol consumption variables and alcohol consequence outcomes.

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Jan
2017

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a highly prevalent public health problem associated with considerable individual and societal costs. Abstinence from alcohol is the most widely accepted target of treatment for AUD, but it severely limits treatment options and could deter individuals who prefer to reduce their drinking from seeking treatment. Clinical validation of reduced alcohol consumption as the primary outcome of alcohol clinical trials is critical for expanding treatment options.

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Feb
2017

A key issue in chronic pain treatment concerns the changes necessary for improved physical and emotional functioning. Traditionally, reducing pain intensity and pain-related distress have been viewed as a prerequisite for these improvements. Alternatively, acceptance and commitment therapy, a behavior change approach, theorizes that pain and distress reduction are not necessary for improvement, rather responses must change, such that functioning improves in clearly specified areas (e.

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Jan
2017

This secondary data analysis examined patterns of drinking during alcohol treatment and associated drinking outcomes during the first year following treatment. The goal was to provide clinicians with guidance on which patients may be most at risk for negative long-term outcomes based on drinking patterns during treatment.
This study was an analysis of existing data (N = 3,851) from three randomized clinical trials for alcohol use disorder: the COMBINE Study (n = 1,383), Project MATCH (n = 1,726), and the United Kingdom Alcohol Treatment Trial (n = 742).

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Nov
2016

Statistical analyses in alcohol clinical trials often use longitudinal daily drinking data (e.g., percentage of drinking days) to test treatment efficacy.

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Nov
2016

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) relapse is a construct that has been of major clinical and research interest but has been inconsistently defined. The purpose of this study was to review the definitions of AUD relapse that have been used in clinical research as a basis for drawing conclusions about its heuristic value.
A systematic review of the literature was conducted on empirical studies that (a) were published in peer-reviewed journals, (b) were published between 2010 and 2015, (c) were written in English, and (d) provided a definition of alcohol relapse (or lapse) that was used in the study.

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Sep
2016

The just-in-time adaptive intervention (JITAI) is an intervention design aiming to provide the right type/amount of support, at the right time, by adapting to an individual's changing internal and contextual state. The availability of increasingly powerful mobile and sensing technologies underpins the use of JITAIs to support health behavior, as in such a setting an individual's state can change rapidly, unexpectedly, and in his/her natural environment.
Despite the increasing use and appeal of JITAIs, a major gap exists between the growing technological capabilities for delivering JITAIs and research on the development and evaluation of these interventions.

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Oct
2016

The terms 'binge drinking' and 'heavy drinking' are both operationalized typically as 4+/5+ standard drinks per occasion for women/men, and are used commonly as a proxy for non-problematic (<4/<5) versus problematic (4+/5+) drinking in multiple research contexts. The Food and Drug Administration in the United States recently proposed the 4+/5+ criterion as a primary efficacy end-point in their guidance for trials examining new medications for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Internationally, similar cut-offs have been proposed, with the European Medicines Agency having identified reductions in the number of heavy drinking days (defined as 40/60 g pure alcohol in women/men) as a primary end-point for efficacy trials with a harm reduction goal.

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Oct
2016

The construct of relapse is used widely in clinical research and practice of alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatment. The purpose of this study was to test the predictive validity of commonly appearing definitions of AUD relapse in the empirical literature.
Secondary analyses of data from Project MATCH and COMBINE were conducted using 7 definitions of "relapse" based on drinking quantity within a single drinking episode: any drinking; at least 4/5 drinks for women/men; at least 4.

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Sep
2016

Smoking is a serious public health problem, and accurate real-time assessment of risk factors associated with smoking is critical to understanding smoking relapse. Negative affect is often described as a critical risk factor related to smoking relapse, and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods have been widely used to study real-time relations between negative affect and smoking. However, the factor structure of momentary negative affect ratings is unknown.

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Nov
2017

Researchers have sought to distinguish between individuals whose alcohol use disorder (AUD) is maintained by drinking to relieve negative affect ('relief drinkers') and those whose AUD is maintained by the rewarding effects of alcohol ('reward drinkers'). As an opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone may be particularly effective for reward drinkers. Acamprosate, which has been shown to down-regulate the glutamatergic system, may be particularly effective for relief drinkers.

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Dec
2016

Adolescent alcohol use predicts a myriad of negative mental and physical health outcomes including fatality (Midanik, 2004). Research in parental influence on alcohol consumption finds parental monitoring (PM), or knowing where/whom your child is with, is associated with lower levels of alcohol use in adolescents (e.g.

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Dec
1969

Psychosocial treatments for chronic pain conditions, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, have highlighted minimizing pain avoidance behaviors and increasing engagement in valued activities as key treatment targets. In terms of salient processes within Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, committed action is considered essential to the pursuit of a meaningful life, as it entails a flexible persistence over time in living consistently with one's values. To date, however, only 1 study has examined the association between measures of committed action and important aspects of pain-related functioning.

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Jul
2016

The externalizing spectrum may explain covariation among externalizing disorders observed in childhood and adulthood. Few prospective studies have examined whether externalizing spectrum might manifest differently across time, reporters, and gender during childhood. We used a multitrait, multimethod model with parent and teacher report of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, and conduct disorder (CD)symptoms from kindergarten to Grade 5 in data from the Fast Track Project, a large multisite trial for children at risk for conduct problems (n = 754).

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Dec
2016

To estimate differences in post-treatment psychosocial functioning among treatment 'failures' (i.e. heavy drinkers, defined as 4+/5+ drinks for women/men) from two large multi-site clinical trials and to compare these levels of functioning to those of the purported treatment 'successes' (i.

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Dec
1969

While there are minimal sex differences in overall intelligence, males, on average, have larger total brain volume and corresponding regional brain volumes compared to females, measures that are consistently related to intelligence. Limited research has examined which other brain characteristics may differentially contribute to intelligence in females to facilitate equal performance on intelligence measures. Recent reports of sex differences in the neural characteristics of the brain further highlight the need to differentiate how the structural neural characteristics relate to intellectual ability in males and females.

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Dec
1969

Person-centered approaches to the study of behavior change, such as repeated measures latent class analysis (RMLCA), can be used to identify patterns of change and link these to later behavior change outcomes.
Daily smoking status data from three smoking cessation studies (N=287, N=334, and N=403) were submitted to RMLCA to identify latent classes of smokers based on patterns of abstinence across the first 27days of a quit attempt. Three-month biochemically verified abstinence rates were compared among latent classes with particular patterns of smoking across days.

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Dec
1969

Practitioners and researchers across disciplines have been interested in identifying variables that act as indicators of treatment success or failure and one straightforward approach to measuring treatment success is to assess client satisfaction with treatment. Existing measures of treatment satisfaction do not address the specific aspects relevant to alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatment. Researchers in the COMBINE Study developed a new measure of treatment satisfaction to assess satisfaction in AUD treatment: The Evaluation of Treatment (EOT) measure.

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Jul
2016

Missing data are common in alcohol clinical trials for both continuous and binary end points. Approaches to handle missing data have been explored for continuous outcomes, yet no studies have compared missing data approaches for binary outcomes (e.g.

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Jul
2016

Few studies have examined distinct patterns (i.e., repertoires) of coping skills among alcohol use disorder (AUD) populations.

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Jan
2016

The validity of the alcohol dependence syndrome has been supported. The question of whether different measures of the construct are comparable across studies and patient subgroups has not been examined. This study examined the alcohol dependence construct across four diverse large-scale treatment samples using integrative data analysis (IDA).

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Sep
2015

The primary goals in conducting clinical trials of treatments for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are to identify efficacious treatments and determine which treatments are most efficacious for which patients. Accurate reporting of study design features and results is imperative to enable readers of research reports to evaluate to what extent a study has achieved these goals. Guidance on quality of clinical trial reporting has evolved substantially over the past 2 decades, primarily through the publication and widespread adoption of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement.

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