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Author: Kenzo Takada (90)


May
2015

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is one of the major oncogenic viruses and is found in nearly 10% of gastric carcinomas. EBV is known to encode its own microRNAs (miRNAs); however, their roles have not been fully investigated. The present report is the largest series to comprehensively profile the expression of 44 known EBV miRNAs in tissue samples from patients with EBV-associated gastric carcinoma.

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May
2014

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic replication involves complex processes, including DNA synthesis, DNA cleavage and packaging, and virion egress. These processes require many different lytic gene products, but the mechanisms of their actions remain unclear, especially for DNA cleavage and packaging. According to sequence homology analysis, EBV BALF3, encoded by the third leftward open reading frame of the BamHI-A fragment in the viral genome, is a homologue of herpes simplex virus type 1 UL28.

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Dec
1969

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is etiologically associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. However, the exact role of EBV in NPC pathogenesis remains elusive. Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is common in human cancers including NPC and plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of human cancers.

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Dec
1969

Zta is a lytic transactivator of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and has been shown to promote migration and invasion of epithelial cells. Although previous studies indicate that Zta induces expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP1, direct evidence linking the MMPs to Zta-induced cell migration and invasion is still lacking. Here we performed a series of in vitro studies to re-examine the expression profile and biologic functions of Zta-induced MMPs in epithelial cells derived from nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

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Mar
2013

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a unique tumour of epithelial origin with a distinct geographical distribution, closely associated with the Epstein‑Barr virus (EBV). EBV‑encoded RNAs (EBERs) are small non‑polyadenylated RNAs that are abundantly expressed in latent EBV‑infected NPC cells. To study the role of EBERs in NPC, we established stable expression of EBERs in HK1, an EBV‑negative NPC cell line.

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Dec
1969

The current method of antibody production is mainly the hybridoma method, in which mice are immunized with an excess amount of antigen for a short period to promote activation and proliferation of B-lymphocytes producing the antibodies of interest. Because of the excess antigen, those producing low-affinity antibodies are activated. In contrast, human blood B-lymphocytes are activated through natural immune reactions, such as the reaction to infection.

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Dec
2012

Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs) are commonly present with latent EBV infection. However, events regulating EBV infection at early stages of the disease and the role of EBV in disease pathogenesis are largely undefined. Genetic alterations leading to activation of cyclin D1 signaling in premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial (NPE) cells have been postulated to predispose cells to EBV infection.

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Dec
1969

Seroepidemiological studies imply a correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). N-nitroso compounds, phorbols, and butyrates are chemicals found in food and herb samples collected from NPC high-risk areas. These chemicals have been reported to be risk factors contributing to the development of NPC, however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood.

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Dec
1969

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) induces an uncoordinated S-phase-like cellular environment coupled with multiple prophase-like events in cells replicating the virus. The EBV encoded Ser/Thr kinase BGLF4 has been shown to induce premature chromosome condensation through activation of condensin and topoisomerase II and reorganization of the nuclear lamina to facilitate the nuclear egress of nucleocapsids in a pathway mimicking Cdk1. However, the observation that RB is hyperphosphorylated in the presence of BGLF4 raised the possibility that BGLF4 may have a Cdk2-like activity to promote S-phase progression.

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Sep
2012

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human gamma herpesvirus, establishes a life-long latent infection in B lymphocytes and epithelial cells following primary infection. Several lines of evidence indicate that the efficiency of EBV infection in epithelial cells is accelerated up to 10(4)-fold by coculturing with EBV-infected Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells compared to infection with cell-free virions, indicating that EBV infection into epithelial cells is mainly mediated via cell-to-cell contact. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this pathway are poorly understood.

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Mar
2012

SOX9 is a member of the SOX [Sry-related high-mobility group (HMG) box] family and is required for the development and differentiation of multiple cell lineages. To clarify the significance of SOX9 in gastric carcinoma (GC), immunohistochemical expression of SOX9 and the CpG island methylation status of SOX9 were evaluated and compared with clinicopathological factors including overall survival. SOX9 expression was immunohistochemically evaluated in 382 GC tumors and the methylation status was examined in 121 GC tumors.

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Mar
2012

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes lifelong latency in B-lymphocytes following infection. Although in immune-competent individuals EBV remains in a quiescent state, in immunodeficient individuals, such as those with AIDS or transplant recipients, B-lymphocytes infected with EBV proliferate to give rise to lymphoproliferative diseases. Similarly, in vitro, EBV transforms human B-lymphocytes into indefinitely growing lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) in the absence of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.

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Apr
2012

Role of EBER and BARF1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tumorigenesis.

Semin Cancer Biol 2012 Apr 24;22(2):162-5. Epub 2011 Dec 24.
Kenzo Takada
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNA (EBER) is the most abundant EBV viral transcript and is used as a target molecule to detect EBV-infected cells in tissues by in situ hybridization. EBER is expected to form double-stranded RNA-like structures. The results of the present study show that EBER contributes to oncogenesis by modulating innate immunity in patients with NPC and Burkett's lymphoma.

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Dec
1969

A group of repetitive sequences, known as the Family of Repeats (FR), is a critical cis-acting sequence required for EBV latent infection. The FR sequences are heterogeneous among EBV strains, and they are sometimes subject to partial deletion when subcloned in E. coli-based cloning vectors.

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Dec
1969

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may cause a variety of virus-associated diseases, but no antiviral agents have yet been developed against this virus. Animal models are thus indispensable for the pathological analysis of EBV-related infections and the elucidation of therapeutic methods. To establish a model system for the study of EBV infection, we tested the ability of B95-8 virus and recombinant EBV expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) to replicate in human lymphoid tissue.

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Dec
2011

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with Burkitt lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, opportunistic lymphomas in immunocompromised hosts, and a fraction of gastric cancers. Aberrant promoter methylation accompanies human gastric carcinogenesis, though the contribution of EBV to such somatic methylation changes has not been fully clarified. We analyzed promoter methylation in gastric cancer cases with Illumina's Infinium BeadArray and used hierarchical clustering analysis to classify gastric cancers into 3 subgroups: EBV(-)/low methylation, EBV(-)/high methylation, and EBV(+)/high methylation.

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Dec
2011

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-DNA was prospectively analyzed in plasma and mononuclear cells (MNCs) from peripheral blood in patients with extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, to evaluate the clinical significance for diagnosis, monitoring the tumor burden, and prognostication. Thirty-three patients were enrolled, and 32 were evaluable. Pretreatment plasma and MNC EBV-DNA was detectable in 14 (range, 50-71 000 copies/mL) and 6 patients (range, 20-780 copies/μg DNA), respectively, and both were well correlated (r = 0.

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Jul
2011

During lytic infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), several viral lytic proteins function to evade immune recognition or to actively suppress immune cells. An EBV lytic transactivator, Zta, induces an immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10) in B cells, but whether it regulates IL-10 in the context of epithelial cells is unclear. In this study, we tested nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines and found that Zta did not induce IL-10 in these epithelial cells.

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May
2011

EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH) is a rare yet devastating disorder caused by EBV infection in humans. However, the mechanism of this disease has yet to be elucidated because of a lack of appropriate animal models. Here, we used a human CD34(+) cell-transplanted humanized mouse model and reproduced pathologic conditions resembling EBV-HLH in humans.

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Apr
2011

The current study demonstrates that adenovirus virus-associated RNA (VA) is recognized by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor, and activates RIG-I downstream signaling, leading to the induction of type I interferons (IFNs), similarly to Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA. Further analysis revealed that adenovirus infection leads to biphasic type I IFN induction at 12 to 24 h and 48 to 60 h postinfection. The later induction coincided with VA expression and was reduced by virus UV inactivation or RIG-I silencing.

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Feb
2011

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) and EBNA3A are each essential for EBV conversion of primary human B lymphocytes into continuously proliferating lymphoblast cell lines (LCLs) and for maintaining LCL growth. We now find that EBNA3C and EBNA3A's essential roles are to repress p16(INK4A) and p14(ARF). In the absence of EBNA3C or EBNA3A, p16(INK4A) and p14(ARF) expression increased and cell growth ceased.

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Jan
2011

EBV nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is an essential transcription factor for EBV transformed lymphoblast cell line (LCL) growth. To identify EBNA3C-regulated genes in LCLs, microarrays were used to measure RNA abundances in each of three different LCLs that conditionally express EBNA3C fused to a 4-OH-Tamoxifen-dependent estrogen receptor hormone binding domain (EBNA3CHT). At least three RNAs were assayed for each EBNA3CHT LCL under nonpermissive conditions, permissive conditions, and nonpermissive conditions with wild-type EBNA3C transcomplementation.

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Nov
2010

Rabies is a fatal viral encephalitis which is transmitted by exposure to the bite of rabid animals. Human and equine rabies immunoglobulins are indispensable pharmacological agents for severe bite exposure, as is vaccine. However, several disadvantages, including limited supply, adverse reactions, and high cost, hamper their wide application in developing countries.

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Dec
2010

Seroepidemiological studies implicate a correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Moreover, N-nitroso compounds are known chemical carcinogens in preserved foodstuffs and cigarettes and have been implicated as risk factors contributing to the development of NPC. Here, NPC cell lines latently infected with EBV, NA and HA, and the corresponding EBV-negative NPC cell lines, NPC-TW01 and HONE-1, were used as the model system in this study.

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Oct
2010

Certain primary transcripts of miRNA (pri-microRNAs) undergo RNA editing that converts adenosine to inosine. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome encodes multiple microRNA genes of its own. Here we report that primary transcripts of ebv-miR-BART6 (pri-miR-BART6) are edited in latently EBV-infected cells.

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Sep
2010

TLR9 plays an important role in innate defense against viruses by the detection of CpG motifs of foreign DNA within intracellular compartments. In this study, we evaluated the ability of EBV to promote monocyte and plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) activation and cytokine release through TLR9 activation. We demonstrated that treatment of primary monocytes with EBV and with purified EBV DNA induced the release of IL-8 through TLR9.

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Sep
2010

Tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes are considered to facilitate development of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but how EBV in NPC tumor cells directs T cell infiltration remains unclear. Here we compare EBV-infected NPC cells with and without spontaneous expression of viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) and find that culture supernatants of LMP1-positive NPC cells exert enhanced chemoattraction to primary T cells. Knockdown of endogenous LMP1 in the cells suppresses the chemotactic activity.

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Jun
2010

EBV-associated gastric carcinoma is a distinct gastric carcinoma subtype with characteristic morphologic features similar to those of cells that undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The effect of microRNA abnormalities in carcinogenesis was investigated by measuring the expression of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-related microRNAs, miR-200a and miR-200b, in 36 surgically resected gastric carcinomas using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis. MiR-200 family expression was decreased in EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, as compared with that in EBV-negative carcinoma.

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Dec
1969

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) are noncoding RNAs that are expressed abundantly in latently EBV-infected cells. Previous studies demonstrated that EBERs (EBER1 and EBER2) play significant roles in various EBV-infected cancer cells. EBERs are responsible for malignant phenotypes of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells including resistance to apoptosis.

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Oct
2010

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been postulated to be an early event involved in the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC). The lack of representative premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial cell system for EBV infection has hampered research investigation into the regulation and involvement of EBV infection in NPC pathogenesis. We have compared the efficiency of EBV infection in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells with different biological properties including immortalized, primary and cancerous nasopharyngeal epithelial cells.

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Mar
2010

Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is etiologically associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV-positive BL tumors display two latent forms of infection. One is referred to as latency I infection, in which EBV expresses the virus genome maintenance protein EBNA1 as the only viral protein.

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Dec
2009

EBNA3C is an EBV-encoded nuclear protein, essential for proliferation of EBV infected B-lymphocytes. Using EBNA3C amino acids 365-545 in a yeast two hybrid screen, we found an interaction with the Growth Arrest and DNA-damage protein, Gadd34. When both proteins are overexpressed, Gadd34 can interact with EBNA3C in both nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments.

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Jan
2010

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) are polyA-, non-coding RNAs that are expressed abundantly in all forms of cells latently infected with EBV. EBERs (EBER1 and EBER2) contribute to the clonal proliferation of EBV-negative Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells in soft agar, tumorigenicity in SCID mice, up-regulation of the bcl-2 oncoprotein, resistance to apoptosis, and maintenance of malignant phenotypes in BL cells. EBERs induce the expression of interleukin (IL)-10 in BL cells, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) in gastric and nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, IL-9 in T cells, and IL-6 in lymphoblastoid cell lines.

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Dec
2009

B lymphocytes converted into lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) by an Epstein-Barr virus that expresses a conditional EBNA3C require complementation with EBNA3C for growth under nonpermissive conditions. Complementation with relatively large EBNA3C deletion mutants identified amino acids (aa) 1 to 506 (which includes the RBP-Jkappa/CSL [RBP-Jkappa] binding domain) and 733 to 909 to be essential for LCL growth, aa 728 to 732 and 910 to 992 to be important for full wild-type (wt) growth, and only aa 507 to 727 to be unimportant (S. Maruo, Y.

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Sep
2009

Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA (EBER) is nonpolyadenylated, noncoding RNA that forms stem-loop structure by intermolecular base-pairing, giving rise to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-like molecules, and exists abundantly in EBV-infected cells. Here, we report that EBER induces signaling from the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), which is a sensor of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and induces type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokines. A substantial amount of EBER, which was sufficient to induce signaling from TLR3, was released from EBV-infected cells, and the majority of the released EBER existed as a complex with a cellular EBER-binding protein La, suggesting that EBER was released from the cells by active secretion of La.

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Sep
2009

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human B-lymphotropic gamma herpesvirus, contains multiple repetitive sequences within its genome. A group of repetitive sequences, known as the family of repeats (FR), contains multiple binding sites for the viral trans-acting protein EBNA-1. The FR sequences are important for viral genome maintenance and for the regulation of the promoter involved in viral latent gene expression.

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Oct
2009

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immediate-early transactivator BZLF1 plays a key role in switching EBV infection from the latent to the lytic form by stimulating the expression cascade of lytic genes; it also regulates the expression of several cellular genes. Recently, we reported that BZLF1 is expressed in primary human B cells early after EBV infection. To investigate whether this BZLF1 expression early after infection plays a role in the EBV-induced growth transformation of primary B cells, we generated BZLF1-knockout EBV and quantitatively evaluated its transforming ability compared with that of wild-type EBV.

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May
2009

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-activated unfolded protein response (UPR) plays multiple roles in cancer development, but its specific roles for virus-associated cancers have not been fully understood. It is still unknown whether ER stress/UPR occurs in and contributes to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), an epithelial malignancy closely associated with EBV. Here, we report that UPR proteins are frequently detected in NPC biopsies.

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Apr
2009

CpG island promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes is one of the most characteristic abnormalities in EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (GC). Aberrant promoter methylation and expression loss of PTEN were evaluated in cancer tissues of GC by methylation-specific PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, showing that both abnormalities occurred concurrently in EBV-associated GC. PTEN abnormalities were reiterated in GC cell lines MKN-1 and MKN-7 infected with recombinant EBV, and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) was commonly overexpressed in both cell lines.

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Mar
2009

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is essential for efficient conversion of primary human B lymphocytes to lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and for continued LCL growth. We used a transcomplementation assay in the context of LCLs transformed by an EBV with a conditional EBNA3C to identify the EBNA3C amino acids (aa) necessary for maintaining LCL growth. Surprisingly, we found that most EBNA3C aa were essential for continued LCL growth.

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May
2009

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an endemic malignancy prevalent in South East Asia. Epidemiological studies have associated this disease closely with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Previous studies also showed that EBV reactivation is implicated in the progression of NPC.

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Dec
2008

DNA viruses adopt various strategies to modulate the cellular environment for efficient genome replication and virion production. Previously, we demonstrated that the BGLF4 kinase of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) induces premature chromosome condensation through the activation of condensin and topoisomerase IIalpha (C. P.

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Aug
2008

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignancy of the head and neck region that is associated with EBV latency. Curative treatments for NPC achieve modest survival rates, underscoring a need to develop novel therapies. We evaluated the therapeutic potential of a mutant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVDelta51) as single treatment modality or in combination with ionizing radiation (RT) in NPC.

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Aug
2008

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and exposure to environmental carcinogens. In this study, an inducible Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation NPC cell line, NA, was used to investigate the impact of recurrent 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-sodium n-butyrate (TPA/SB) treatment and EBV reactivation on chromosomal abnormalities utilizing array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). It was observed that most copy-number aberrations (CNA) were progressively nonrandomly clustered on chromosomes 3, 8, and 9, as the frequency of TPA/SB treatment and EBV reactivation increased.

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Aug
2008

Gastric cancer is the most common cancer in Japan and infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is responsible for about 10% of gastric cancers worldwide. Although EBV infection may be involved at an early stage of gastric carcinogenesis, the mechanisms underlying its involvement remain unknown. To investigate the role of EBV in gastric carcinogenesis, we performed proteomic analyses of an EBV-infected gastric carcinoma cell line NU-GC-3 (EBV(+)) and its uninfected control (EBV(-)).

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May
2008

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in the genesis of a variety of human cancers. We aimed to confirm the presence and define the role of EBV in bladder cancer.
A total of 39 bladder cancer specimens were analyzed.

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Mar
2008

EBV-associated gastric carcinoma is a distinct subset of gastric carcinoma infected with EBV, which shows latency I type expression of EBV latent genes (EBNA1, EBER, BARF0, and LMP2A). To clarify the role of EBV in this type of gastric carcinoma, the cell biological characteristics (growth, apoptosis, and migration) were evaluated in gastric carcinoma cell lines (MKN-1, TMK1, MKN-74 and MKN-7) with and without infection of recombinant EBV harboring the neomycin resistance gene. The infection reiterated the latency I type infection, and the only difference observed in EBV-infected gastric carcinoma cell lines was the resistance to serum deprivation-induced apoptosis.

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Feb
2008

Several reports have shown that the EBV-encoded BARF1 gene has oncogenic activity. We have recently reported that BARF1 is expressed as a latent gene in most nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC), suggesting that BARF1 may have an important role in NPC oncogenesis. However, we found that when the NPC-derived EBV-negative cell lines, HONE-1 and CNE-1, were infected with EBV in vitro, BARF1 was not expressed, although the expression of other latent genes was identical to that of NPC tumors.

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Apr
2008

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated, undifferentiated type of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is characterized by intensive leukocyte infiltration. Interaction between the infiltrating cells and the tumor cells has been considered crucial for NPC development. Recruitment of the infiltrates can be directed by certain chemokines present in the NPC tissues.

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Oct
2007

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA 1 (EBER1) and EBER2 are untranslated RNAs and the most abundant viral transcripts in latently EBV-infected cells. We previously reported that EBERs play a critical role in efficient EBV-induced growth transformation of primary B cells. To investigate whether EBER1 and EBER2 have distinct roles in B-cell growth transformation, recombinant EBVs carrying either EBER1 or EBER2 were generated.

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