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Author: Kerstin Bendfeldt (33)


Dec
1969

Several magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported reductions in hippocampal volume in patients with psychosis. It is unclear whether structural abnormalities predate illness onset. We conducted a detailed, systematic literature search for studies reporting hippocampal volume in subjects with clinical high-risk, compared to healthy controls.

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Dec
1969

Reduction in hippocampal volume is a hallmark of schizophrenia and already present in the clinical high-risk state. Nevertheless, other subcortical structures, such as the thalamus, amygdala and pallidum can differentiate schizophrenia patients from controls. We studied the role of hippocampal and subcortical structures in clinical high-risk individuals from two cohorts.

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Dec
1969

The psychosis high-risk state is accompanied by alterations in functional brain activity during working memory processing. We used binary automatic pattern-classification to discriminate between the at-risk mental state (ARMS), first episode psychosis (FEP) and healthy controls (HCs) based on n-back WM-induced brain activity. Linear support vector machines and leave-one-out-cross-validation were applied to fMRI data of matched ARMS, FEP and HC (19 subjects/group).

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Dec
1969

Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages.

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Aug
2015

Deficits in motivational salience processing have been related to psychotic symptoms and disturbances in dopaminergic neurotransmission. We aimed at exploring changes in salience processing and brain activity during different stages of psychosis and antipsychotic medication effect.
We used fMRI during the Salience Attribution Task to investigate hemodynamic differences between 19 healthy controls (HCs), 34 at-risk mental state (ARMS) individuals and 29 individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP), including a subgroup of 17 FEP without antipsychotic medication (FEP-UM) and 12 FEP with antipsychotic medication (FEP-M).

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Dec
1969

Brain atrophy has been identified as an important contributing factor to the development of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). In this respect, more and more interest is focussing on the role of deep grey matter (DGM) areas. Novel data analysis pipelines are available for the automatic segmentation of DGM using three-dimensional (3D) MRI data.

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Dec
1969

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential tool in the diagnosis and managing of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Currently, the assessment of MS is based on a combination of clinical scores and subjective rating of lesion images by clinicians. In this work we present an objective 5-way classification of MS disease subtype as well as a comparison between three different approaches.

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Dec
2014

Cognitive impairment (CI) can be demonstrated in 40-65% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, sometimes starting from the early stages of the disease. The objective of this study was a community-based investigation of FLAIR-hyperintense lesion volumes (LV) and their association with CI in patients with relapsing remitting (RR) MS. The neurocognitive assessment was conducted with the brief cognitive screening instrument, MUSIC.

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Dec
1969

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a vital role in the scientific investigation and clinical management of multiple sclerosis. Analyses of binary multiple sclerosis lesion maps are typically "mass univariate" and conducted with standard linear models that are ill suited to the binary nature of the data and ignore the spatial dependence between nearby voxels (volume elements). Smoothing the lesion maps does not entirely eliminate the non-Gaussian nature of the data and requires an arbitrary choice of the smoothing parameter.

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Sep
2014

Neuroimaging studies have reported reduced activity in a broad network of brain regions during response inhibition in heroin-dependent patients. However, how heroin in an acute dose modulates the neural correlates of response inhibition and the underlying brain connectivity has not yet been investigated. In this double-blind placebo-controlled study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether acute heroin administration changed whole brain activity during response inhibition in 26 heroin-dependent patients.

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Jul
2014

Recent evidence has revealed abnormal functional connectivity between the frontal and parietal brain regions during working memory processing in patients with schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis. However, it still remains unclear whether abnormal frontoparietal connectivity during working memory processing is already evident in the psychosis high-risk state and whether the connection strengths are related to psychopathological outcomes.
Healthy controls and antipsychotic-naive individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) performed an n-back working memory task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging.

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Nov
2013

Multiple sclerosis (MS) has traditionally been considered to be primarily an inflammatory demyelinating disorder. Nowadays it is recognised as both an inflammatory and a neurodegenerative condition. This recognition is reflected in the development of new disease-modifying therapies that may offer the potential to reduce axon damage, either by inhibiting neurodegeneration or by promoting endogenous repair mechanisms.

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Dec
2013

To examine whether clinically benign multiple sclerosis patients (BMS) show similar losses of their global N-acetylaspartate (NAA) neuronal marker relative to more clinically disabled patients of similar disease duration.
The whole-brain NAA concentration (WBNAA) was acquired with whole-head non-localizing proton MR spectroscopy. Fractional brain parenchymal volume (fBPV), T2 and T1 lesion loads, were obtained from the MRI in: (i) 24 BMS patients: 23.

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Dec
1969

We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence for specific effects of cannabis on impulsivity, disinhibition and motor control. The review had a specific focus on neuroimaging findings associated with acute and chronic use of the drug and covers literature published up until May 2012. Seventeen studies were identified, of which 13 met the inclusion criteria; three studies investigated acute effects of cannabis (1 fMRI, 2 PET), while six studies investigated non-acute functional effects (4 fMRI, 2 PET), and four studies investigated structural alterations.

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Feb
2014

In multiple sclerosis (MS) regional grey matter (GM) atrophy has been associated with disability progression.
The aim of this study was to compare regional GM volume changes in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients with progressive and stable disability, using voxel-based morphometry (VBM).
We acquired baseline and 1-year follow-up 3-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of RRMS patients, using two 1.

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Nov
2013

To determine whether spinal cord atrophy differs among disease subtypes in multiple sclerosis (MS) and whether it offers diagnostic and clinical correlative information beyond that provided by other magnetic resonance (MR) imaging markers.
The institutional review board approved the study; all subjects gave written informed consent. Upper cervical cord cross-sectional area (UCCA), brain and spinal cord lesion loads, and brain atrophy were measured in 440 patients with MS (311 with relapsing-remitting [RR] MS, 92 with secondary-progressive [SP] MS, and 37 with primary-progressive [PP] MS) studied in two centers.

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Oct
2013

Impairments in inhibitory control and in stimulus-driven attention are hallmarks of drug addiction and are associated with decreased activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Although previous studies indicate that the response inhibition function is impaired in abstinent heroin dependents, and that this is mediated by reduced IFG activity, it remains completely unknown whether and how an acute dose of heroin modulates IFG activity during cognitive control in heroin-dependent patients. This study investigates the acute effects of heroin administration on IFG activity during response inhibition and stimulus-driven attention in heroin-dependent patients.

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Sep
2013

Cortical lesions (CLs) have been reported to be a better predictor for cognitive impairment than white matter (WM) lesions in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).
The objectives of this article are to investigate the contribution of CLs and WM lesions to cognitive impairment in 91 patients with MS and clinically isolated syndrome, and to test potential associations of CLs and WM lesions with fatigue and depression.
Lesions were scored and segmented on 3D double inversion recovery sequences, according to their location (cortical, WM).

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Dec
1969

We conducted a systematic review on resting state cerebral blood flow activities found in first-episode psychosis (FEP) and during acute effects of cannabinoids and opioids, mental states that can be profoundly different from normal functioning. The main goal was to identify connections of cerebral blood flow measure and regional brain activity patterns associated with subjective experiences and to find out whether there are similarities between the three mental states. The present study reviewed systematically the current state of research with respect to cannabinoids and opioids on resting state activity patterns as investigated by different neuroimaging techniques.

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Nov
2012

To investigate the entire spinal cord (SC) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with biplanar MRI and to relate these MRI findings to clinical functional scores.
Two hundred and two patients (140 women, 62 men 24-74 years, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores 0-7.5) were investigated clinically and with biplanar MRI.

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Nov
2012

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. MS lesions show a typical distribution pattern and primarily affect the white matter (WM) in the periventricular zone and in the centrum semiovale.
To track lesion development during disease progression, we compared the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of lesions in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and secondary progressive MS (SPMS).

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Mar
2012

Univariate analyses have identified gray matter (GM) alterations in different groups of MS patients. While these methods detect differences on the basis of the single voxel or cluster, multivariate methods like support vector machines (SVM) identify the complex neuroanatomical patterns of GM differences. Using multivariate linear SVM analysis and leave-one-out cross-validation, we aimed at identifying neuroanatomical GM patterns relevant for individual classification of MS patients.

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Oct
2012

Neurofunctional alterations are correlates of vulnerability to psychosis, as well as of the disorder itself. How these abnormalities relate to different probabilities for later transition to psychosis is unclear. We investigated vulnerability- versus disease-related versus resilience biomarkers of psychosis during working memory (WM) processing in individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS).

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Sep
2011

Although grey matter damage in multiple sclerosis is currently recognized, determinants of grey matter volume and its relationship with disability are not yet clear.
The objectives of the study were to measure grey and white matter volumes across different disease phenotypes; identify MRI parameters associated with grey matter volume; and study grey and white matter volume as explanatory variables for clinical impairment.
This is a cross-sectional study in which MRI data of 95 clinically isolated syndrome, 657 relapsing-remitting, 125 secondary-progressive and 50 primary-progressive multiple sclerosis patients from three centres were acquired.

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May
2012

Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) has been used repeatedly in single-center studies to investigate regional gray matter (GM) atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS). In multi-center trials, across-scanner variations might interfere with the detection of disease-specific structural abnormalities, thereby potentially limiting the use of VBM. Here we evaluated longitudinally inter-site differences and inter-site comparability of regional GM in MS using VBM.

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Apr
2010

Prevention of global gray matter (GM) volume changes in multiple sclerosis (MS) are an objective in clinical trials, but the effect of immunomodulatory medication on regional GM atrophy progression is unclear. MRIs from 86 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) followed up for 24 months were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry. An analysis of covariance model (cluster threshold, corrected p<0.

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Oct
2010

The association of white matter (WM) lesions and grey matter (GM) atrophy is a feature in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The spatiotemporal distribution pattern of WM lesions, their relations to regional GM changes and the underlying dynamics are unclear. Here we combined parametric and non-parametric voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to clarify these issues.

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Mar
2009

Previous studies have established regional gray matter (GM) volume loss in multiple sclerosis (MS) but the relationship between development of white matter (WM) lesions and changes of regional GM volumes is unclear. The present study addresses this issue by means of voxel-based morphometry (VBM). T1-weighted three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from MS patients followed up for 12 months were analyzed using VBM.

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Mar
2007

This study was performed to examine the maintenance of blood vessels in vitro in cortical organotypic slice cultures of mice with special emphasis on basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), which is known to promote angiogenesis and to preserve the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Slices of neonatal day 3 or 4 mouse brain were maintained for 3, 7, or 10 d in vitro (DIV) under standard culture conditions or in the presence of FGF-2. Immunohistochemistry for factor VIII-related antigen or laminin revealed a relative low number of blood vessels under standard conditions.

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Jul
2006

Modification by O-GlcNAc involves a growing number of eucaryotic nuclear and cytosolic proteins. Glycosylation of intracellular proteins is a dynamic process that in several cases competes with and acts as a reciprocal modification system to phosphorylation. O-Linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) levels are highest in the brain, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease have been shown to involve abnormally phosphorylated key proteins, probably as a result of hypoglycosylation.

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Dec
1969

Diarrhoea is a frequent adverse effect of HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) which may be due to intestinal barrier disruption. We investigated whether tight junction dysregulation, apoptosis or necrosis are responsible for this epithelial damage.
Saquinavir, nelfinavir, and ritonavir were added to the mucosal or serosal side of HT-29/B6 colon cell monolayers.

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Mar
2004

A neuroprotective role for Ca(2+)-binding proteins in neurodegenerative conditions ranging from ischemia to Alzheimer's disease has been suggested in several studies. A key phenomenon in neurodegeneration is the Ca(2+)-mediated excitotoxicity brought about by the neurotransmitter glutamate. To evaluate the relative ability to resist excitotoxicity of neurons containing the slow-onset Ca(2+)-binding protein parvalbumin (PV), we injected the glutamate agonist ibotenic acid (IBO) into the striatum of adult mice ectopically expressing PV in neurons.

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