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Author: Kerstin Danker (22)


Apr
2016

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) provides a dynamic and complex interface consisting of endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes, which are embedded in a collagen and fibronectin-rich basement membrane. This complex structure restricts the diffusion of small hydrophilic solutes and macromolecules as well as the transmigration of leukocytes into the brain. It has been shown that carbonyl stress followed by the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE=glycation) interfere with the BBB integrity and function.

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May
2014

Intact HEK293 cells and B103 neuroblastoma cells possess high basal concentrations of the established second messengers cAMP and cGMP and of the emerging second messengers cCMP and cUMP. We asked the question which nucleotidyl cyclase accounts for the high basal cNMP concentrations. Activators and inhibitors of soluble guanylyl cyclase had no major effects on cNMPs, and the activator of membranous adenylyl cyclase forskolin increased only cAMP.

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Oct
2014

Psoriasis, a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-governed inflammatory disorder with prominent dysregulation of cutaneous vascular functions, has evolved into a model disorder for studying anti-inflammatory therapies. We present experimental in vitro and in vivo data on 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-(2-(myo-inositolyl)-ethyl)-sn-glycero-3-(R/S)-phosphatidyl-choline (Ino-C2-PAF), the lead compound of a class of synthetic glycosylated phospholipids, in anti-inflammatory therapy. Ino-C2-PAF strongly induced apoptosis only in TNFα-stimulated, but not in untreated human vascular endothelial cells.

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May
2014

The blood-brain barrier is necessary to provide an optimal environment for cerebral function. It consists of endothelial cells that interact through interendothelial tight junctions and form a barrier with low permeability. Therefore, the infiltration of lymphocytes into the central nervous system is limited.

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May
2014

Synthetic alkylphospholipids (APLs), exhibit similarity to the platelet-activating factor (PAF). These compounds have antiproliferative effects on tumour cells and can therefore be regarded as a new class of drugs. Unlike classic cytostatic agents, synthetic alkylphospholipids do not interfere with the DNA or the mitotic spindle apparatus.

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Apr
2014

Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) plays an important role in cardiovascular function and catalyzes formation of cGMP. sGC is activated by nitric oxide and allosteric stimulators and activators. However, despite its therapeutic relevance, the regulatory mechanisms of sGC are still incompletely understood.

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Jan
2014

Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is activated by nitric oxide (NO) and generates the second messenger cyclic GMP (cGMP). Recently, purified sGC α1β1 has been shown to additionally generate the cyclic pyrimidine nucleotides cCMP and cUMP. However, since cyclic pyrimidine nucleotide formation occurred only the presence of Mn(2+) but not Mg(2+), the physiological relevance of these in vitro findings remained unclear.

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Feb
2014

In cutaneous inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis, skin-infiltrating T lymphocytes and dendritic cells modulate keratinocyte function via the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Keratinocytes then produce mediators that recruit and activate immune cells and amplify the inflammatory response. These pathophysiological tissue changes are caused by altered gene expression and the proliferation and maturation of dermal and epidermal cells.

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Jul
2011

New alkylphospholipids (APLs) that are structurally derived from the platelet-activating factor (PAF) are promising candidates for anticancer treatment. After incorporation into cell membranes, APLs are able to interfere with a wide variety of key enzymes implicated in cell growth, motility, invasion, and apoptosis. In addition to the prototype 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (edelfosine), we presented a novel group of APLs, the glycosidated phospholipids that efficiently inhibit cell proliferation.

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Jun
2011

Apoptosis is modulated by extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathways through the formation of the death receptor-mediated death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) and the mitochondrial-derived apoptosome, respectively. Ino-C2-PAF, a novel synthetic phospholipid shows impressive antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity. Little is known about the signaling pathway through which it stimulates apoptosis.

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Apr
2011

New alkyl-phospholipids that are structurally derived from platelet-activating factor are promising candidates for anticancer treatment. The mechanism of action of derivatives of the platelet-activating factor is distinctly different from that of known DNA- or tubulin-targeting anticancer agents because they are incorporated into cell membranes, where they accumulate and interfere with a wide variety of key enzymes. We recently presented evidence of a novel group of alkyl-phospholipids, glycosidated phospholipids that efficiently inhibit cell proliferation.

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May
2010

Cell expansion and metastasis are considered hallmarks of tumour progression. Therefore, efforts have been made to develop novel anti-cancer drugs that inhibit both the proliferation and the motility of tumour cells. Synthetic alkylphospholipids, compounds with aliphatic side chains that are ether linked to a glycerol backbone, are structurally derived from platelet-activating factor and represent a new class of drugs with anti-proliferative properties in tumour cells.

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Dec
2009

Peroral infection with Toxoplasma gondii leads to the development of small intestinal inflammation dependent on Th1 cytokines. The role of Th17 cells in ileitis is unknown. We report interleukin (IL)-23-mediated gelatinase A (matrixmetalloproteinase [MMP]-2) up-regulation in the ileum of infected mice.

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Apr
2008

Resistance arteries are the site of the earliest manifestations of many cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Flow (shear stress) is the main physiological stimulus for the endothelium through the activation of vasodilatory pathways generating flow-mediated dilation (FMD). The role of FMD in local blood flow control and angiogenesis is well established, and alterations in FMD are early markers of cardiovascular disorders.

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Aug
2007

Integrins play a key role in cellular motility; an essential process for embryonic development and tissue morphogenesis, and also for pathological processes such as tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Recently, we showed that the cytoplasmic tail of integrin alpha(1) regulates the formation of focal complexes, F-actin cytoskeleton reorganization, and migration. We now report that the alpha(1) tail directly engages in collagen IV-mediated migration by regulation of the small GTPase Rac1.

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Dec
2006

Integrin alpha3beta1 is a receptor for the extracellular matrix component laminin 5. To elucidate possible signaling pathways induced by integrin alpha3beta1, we looked for proteins that interact with the cytoplasmic part of the alpha3A integrin subunit. We identified several multifunctional proteins by affinity chromatography and subsequent MALDI-TOF-MS and focused on the inhibitor 1 of serine/threonine phosphatase PP2A (I1PP2A, synonym: lanp) which also plays a role during the development of the mouse cerebellum.

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Mar
2006

The search for specific anticancer drugs that do not interfere with DNA synthesis or influence the cytoskeleton has led to the development of modified phospholipids with antiproliferative properties. These compounds cause remodeling of the structure and function of plasma membranes. Recently, we described novel compounds, the glycosidated phospholipids, that surprisingly inhibit cell proliferation.

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Dec
2005

Binding of integrins to proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM) provides structural and signaling information for biological processes such as cell proliferation, migration, neurite outgrowth, and differentiation. Integrins represent a family of heterodimeric transmembrane cell surface receptors. Besides connecting the ECM with the cytoskeleton, integrins also induce various signaling pathways in response to ligand binding.

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Oct
2005

Two new analogues derived from the platelet activating factor (PAF), containing glucosamine instead of the acetyl group, were synthesized, and their effect on the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT was evaluated with respect to cytotoxicity, proliferation, adhesion, and migration. Starting with (R)-1,2-isopropylideneglycerol (3), the glycosylation acceptor 1-O-octadecyl-3-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-sn-glycerol (6) was synthesized in three steps. Glycosylation of 6 with the already known O-(3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-2-dimethylmaleimido-beta-D-glycopyranosyl)trichloracetimidate gave 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-(3',4',6'-tri-O-acetyl-2'-deoxy-2'-dimethylmaleimido-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-3-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-sn-glycerol (7).

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Jul
2004

Sialylation of glycoconjugates is essential for mammalian cells. Sialic acid is synthesized in the cytosol from N-acetylmannosamine by several consecutive steps. Using N-propanoylmannosamine, a novel precursor of sialic acid, we are able to incorporate unnatural sialic acids with a prolonged N-acyl side chain (e.

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Oct
2002

Sialylation of glycoproteins and glycolipids plays an important role during development, regeneration and pathogenesis of several diseases. The physiological precursor of all sialic acids is N-acetyl- D-mannosamine. The N-acyl side chain of sialic acid can be modified by exposure of cells to synthetic N-acyl-modified D-mannosamines.

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Feb
2002

Integrin adhesion receptors have been implicated in bidirectional signal transduction. The dynamic regulation of integrin affinity and avidity as well as post-ligand effects involved in outside-in signaling depends on the interaction of integrins with cytoskeletal and signaling proteins. In this study, we attempted to identify cytoplasmic binding partners of alpha(1)beta(1) integrin.

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