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Author: Kevin C Cain (68)


Oct
2017

A psychosocial behavioral intervention delivered in-person by advanced practice nurses has been shown effective in substantially reducing post-stroke depression (PSD). This follow-up trial compared the effectiveness of a shortened intervention delivered by either telephone or in-person to usual care. To our knowledge, this is the first of current behavioral therapy trials to expand the protocol in a new clinical sample.

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May
2017

The purpose of this study was to compare sleep disturbances of children and their mothers, children's behavioral problems, and parenting self-efficacy between Korean American families who coslept and those who did not cosleep. Forty-eight mothers of children between 3 and 8 years of age completed the following surveys: Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, Pediatric Symptom Checklist, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Parenting Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, and Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans II. Overall, 48% (n = 23) of families coslept, and families with younger children coslept more than families with older children (x2=12.

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Jul
2017

Brain iron has been previously found elevated in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), but not in other brain regions, of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, iron in circulation has been recently observed to be lower than normal in PD patients. The regional selectivity of iron deposition in brain as well as the relationship between SNpc brain iron and serum iron within PD patients has not been completely elucidated.

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Jul
2017

Our nurse-delivered comprehensive self-management (CSM) program, a cognitive behavioral therapy intervention, is effective in reducing gastrointestinal and psychological distress symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Findings from non-IBS studies indicate that the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism may moderate the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy. It is unknown whether this COMT polymorphism is associated with symptom improvements in patients with IBS.

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Aug
2016

The authors hypothesized that intravenous acetaminophen as an adjunct analgesic would significantly decrease 24-hour postoperative opioid consumption.
Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
A single academic medical center.

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Dec
1969

Describe daily sleep patterns, sleep quality, and sleep hygiene in 2-5-year-old children newly diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and their parents in comparison with typically developing (TD) children and parents.
Participants (13 JIA, 16 TD parent-child dyads) wore actigraphs for 10 days. Parents completed sleep diaries and sleep hygiene survey.

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Dec
1969

Alterations in serotonin signaling are suspected in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). By modulating the extracellular reuptake of serotonin, the serotonin transporter (SERT) acts as a key regulator of the bioavailability of serotonin. This study is the first to investigate the impact of rare SERT variants (i.

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Jan
2016

To determine if potential biomarkers can be used to identify subgroups of people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who will benefit the most or the least from a comprehensive self-management (CSM) intervention.
In a two-armed randomized controlled trial a CSM (n = 46) was compared to a usual care (n = 46) group with follow-up at 3 and 6 months post randomization. Biomarkers obtained at baseline included heart rate variability, salivary cortisol, interleukin-10 produced by unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and lactulose/mannitol ratio.

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Feb
2016

We developed a comprehensive self-management (CSM) program that combines cognitive behavioral therapy with relaxation and dietary strategies; 9 sessions (1 hour each) over 13 weeks were shown to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms and increase quality of life in a randomized trial of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), compared with usual care. The aims of this study were to describe strategies patients with IBS selected and continued to use, 12 months after the CSM program began.
We performed a cohort study to continue to follow 81 adults with IBS (87% female; mean age, 45 ± 15 years old) who received the CSM program in the previous clinical trial.

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Oct
2015

Qualitative monitoring of neuromuscular blockade using the train-of-four (TOF) count is widely used to determine the timing and dose of reversal agents for neuromuscular blockade. We compared TOF count measured manually by anesthesia providers with that determined by TOF-Watch® SX.
This prospective observational cohort study included patients who were American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status III or less and undergoing elective surgery.

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Mar
2016

Poor sleep and stress are more frequently reported by women with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) than by healthy control (HC) women. The pathophysiology linking poor sleep and stress to gastrointestinal symptoms remains poorly understood. We used a metabolomic approach to determine whether tryptophan (TRP) metabolites differ between women with and without IBS and whether the levels are associated with sleep indices and serum cortisol levels.

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Jan
2015

α-Synuclein (α-syn) is a key protein in Parkinson's disease (PD), and one of its phosphorylated forms, pS129, is higher in PD patients than healthy controls. However, few studies have examined its levels in longitudinally collected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or in preclinical cases. In this study, CSF and clinical data were contributed by >300 subjects from three cohorts (the longitudinal DATATOP cohort, a large cross-sectional cohort, and a cohort of LRRK2 mutation carriers).

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Mar
2015

A substantial proportion of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have concomitant cognitive dysfunction. Identification of biomarker profiles that predict which PD patients have a greater likelihood for progression of cognitive symptoms is pressingly needed for future treatment and prevention approaches.
Subjects were drawn from the Deprenyl and Tocopherol Antioxidative Therapy of Parkinsonism (DATATOP) study, a large clinical trial that enrolled initially untreated PD patients.

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May
2014

Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is important in neuroinflammation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR4, including 1063 A/G [Asp299Gly] and 1363 C/T [Thr399Ile], are associated with altered immune responses but their effect on acute ischemic stroke (AIS) outcome is unknown. We collected demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiologic, and genotype data on 113 AIS patients and performed multivariate analyses to assess associations between TLR4 SNP haplotype and either neurological outcome, infection, or inflammatory markers.

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Apr
2014

Most patients with Parkinson disease (PD) develop both cognitive and motor impairment, and biomarkers for progression are urgently needed. Although α-synuclein is altered in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with PD, it is not known whether it predicts motor or cognitive deterioration. We examined clinical data and α-synuclein in >300 unmedicated patients with PD who participated in the deprenyl and tocopherol antioxidative therapy of parkinsonism (DATATOP) study, with up to 8 years of follow-up.

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Apr
2014

Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often report higher levels of psychological distress, specifically anxiety, and depression than non-IBS patients. The management of gastrointestinal symptoms and psychological distress is demonstrably amenable to cognitive-behavioral therapies in a significant number of patients with IBS. The present secondary analysis evaluates the impact of nurse-delivered self-management interventions on anxiety, depression, and urine catecholamine levels in adult IBS patients.

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Oct
2014

Evidence suggests that patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are more vigilant to pain-associated stimuli. The aims of this study were to compare women with IBS (n = 20) to healthy control (HC, n = 20) women on pain sensitivity, conditioned pain modulation (CPM) efficiency, and salivary cortisol levels before and after the CPM test and to examine the relationship of CPM efficiency with gastrointestinal pain, somatic pain, psychological distress symptoms, and salivary cortisol levels in each group. Women, aged 20-42 years, gave consent, completed questionnaires, and kept a symptom diary for 2 weeks.

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Nov
2014

Alterations in gastrointestinal (GI) permeability and immune measures are present in some patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but the relationship to symptoms is poorly defined. In adults with IBS, we compared permeability, unstimulated peripheral blood monocyte (PBMC) interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels, IBS life interference, and GI and psychological distress symptoms.
In 88 women and 18 men with IBS, GI permeability was quantitated as percent recovery of urinary sucrose and the lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio.

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Nov
2013

Tau gene has been consistently associated with the risk of Parkinson disease in recent genome wide association studies. In addition, alterations of the levels of total tau, phosphorylated tau [181P], and amyloid beta 1-42 in cerebrospinal fluid have been reported in patients with sporadic Parkinson disease and asymptomatic carriers of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutations, in patterns that clearly differ from those typically described for patients with Alzheimer disease. To further determine the potential roles of these molecules in Parkinson disease pathogenesis and/or in tracking the disease progression, especially at early stages, the current study assessed all three proteins in 403 Parkinson disease patients enrolled in the DATATOP (Deprenyl and tocopherol antioxidative therapy of parkinsonism) placebo-controlled clinical trial, the largest cohort to date with cerebrospinal fluid samples collected longitudinally.

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Feb
2013

Heavy alcohol intake may exacerbate gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, the role of alcohol in IBS is unclear. We investigated prospective associations between daily patterns of alcohol intake and next day's GI symptoms using daily diaries.
In an observational study of women aged 18-48 years with IBS and healthy controls, participants recorded daily GI symptoms, alcohol intake, caffeine intake, and cigarette smoking for ≈ 1 month.

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Dec
1969

DJ-1 is a multifunctional protein that plays an important role in oxidative stress, cell death, and synucleinopathies, including Parkinson disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that total DJ-1 levels decrease in the cerebrospinal fluid, but do not change significantly in human plasma from patients with Parkinson disease when compared with controls. In this study, we measured total DJ-1 and its isoforms in whole blood of patients with Parkinson disease at various stages, Alzheimer disease, and healthy controls to identify potential peripheral biomarkers of PD.

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Jan
2014

The aims of this exploratory study were to examine whether tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) gene polymorphisms are associated with psychosocial factors in women with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). TPH is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin and has two isoforms, TPH1 and TPH2. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TPH1 gene and one SNP in the TPH2 gene were selected based on previous studies investigating associations between these SNPs and psychiatric or behavioral disorders.

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Feb
2012

Phosphorylated α-synuclein (PS-129), a protein implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), was identified by mass spectrometry in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A highly sensitive and specific assay was established and used to measure PS-129 together with total α-synuclein in the CSF of patients with PD, other parkinsonian disorders such as multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and healthy individuals (a total of ~600 samples). PS-129 CSF concentrations correlated weakly with PD severity and, when combined with total α-synuclein concentrations in CSF, contributed to distinguishing PD from MSA and PSP.

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Jun
2012

Women with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) report sexual dysfunction. Comprehensive self-management (CSM) intervention has been shown to reduce gastrointestinal, psychological, and somatic symptoms in IBS women. Whether this intervention also reduces sexual dysfunction is not known.

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Jul
2011

The Living Well With Stroke study has demonstrated effectiveness of a brief psychosocial treatment in reducing depressive symptoms after stroke. The purpose of this analysis was to determine whether key variables associated with prevalence of poststroke depression also predicted treatment response.
Response to a brief psychosocial/behavioral intervention for poststroke depression was measured with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression.

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Oct
2011

Immune responses to brain antigens occur after stroke, and experimental studies show that the likelihood of developing a detrimental autoimmune response to these antigens is increased by systemic inflammation at the time of stroke. The aim of this study was to determine if patients who developed infection in the poststroke period would be similarly predisposed to develop autoimmune responses to central nervous system antigens.
We enrolled 114 patients within 72 hours of ischemic stroke.

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Jan
2013

Self-management programs that include cognitive behavioral strategies have been shown to improve gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, psychological distress, and quality of life (QoL) in persons with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, less is known about the physiological impact of such a change. As part of a randomized controlled trial using a comprehensive self-management (CSM) intervention (n = 126) compared to usual care (UC; n = 62), cortisol levels were measured in 4 weekly first morning urine samples at baseline and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up.

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Jan
2013

Making dietary changes such as increasing fiber intake is recommended for the management of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Few studies have explored the efficacy of education on compliance with recommendations such as increasing fiber, vegetable, and fruit intake in adults with irritable bowel syndrome. This study examined the effect of a multicomponent self-management intervention that included strategies to enhance fiber, vegetable, and fruit intake.

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May
2011

In longitudinal studies of developmental and disease processes, participants are followed prospectively with intermediate milestones identified as they occur. Frequently, studies enroll participants over a range of ages including ages at which some participants' milestones have already passed. Ages at milestones that occur prior to study entry are left censored if individuals are enrolled in the study or left truncated if they are not.

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Mar
2011

There is a clear need to develop biomarkers for Parkinson disease (PD) diagnosis, differential diagnosis of Parkinsonian disorders, and monitoring disease progression. We and others have demonstrated that a decrease in DJ-1 and/or α-synuclein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a potential index for Parkinson disease diagnosis, but not for PD severity.
Using highly sensitive and quantitative Luminex assays, we measured total tau, phosphorylated tau, amyloid beta peptide 1-42 (Aβ(1-42)), Flt3 ligand, and fractalkine levels in CSF in a large cohort of PD patients at different stages as well as healthy and diseased controls.

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Mar
2011

For over 2 decades, oncology nurses at a regional comprehensive cancer center offered sliced oranges to patients during the reinfusion of autologous hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) to relieve symptoms associated with the preservative dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).
This randomized pilot study examined feasibility and efficacy of sliced orange intervention (OI), orange aromatherapy intervention (OAI), or deep breathing (control) to address unpleasant adverse effects during HPC infusion.
Orange intervention sniffed or tasted a quartered orange, OAI sniffed orange aromatherapy, and control took deep breaths.

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Jul
2011

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has traditionally been classified by stooling pattern (e.g., diarrhea-predominant).

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Oct
2011

Early childhood traumatic experiences (e.g., abuse or neglect) may contribute to sleep disturbances as well as to other indicators of arousal in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

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Dec
2010

The goal of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between Korean immigrant discipline (e.g., positive, appropriate, and harsh discipline) and children's social competence and behavior problems.

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Sep
2010

This study examined a cultural response set to positive affect items and depressive symptom items in CES-D among 172 Korean immigrants. Bi-dimensional acculturation approach, which considers maintenance of Korean Orientation and adoption of American Orientation, was utilized. As Korean immigrants increased their American Orientation, they tended to score higher on positive affect items, with no changes occurring in depressive symptom items.

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Sep
2010

The ReSTAGE collaboration evaluated four menstrual markers of entry to late-stage menopausal transition. The aim of this study was to assess the additional usefulness of "persistence" in relation to a clinically accessible menstrual marker of late menopausal transition, taking age into account.
In this study, a secondary analysis of menstrual calendar data in two ReSTAGE-collaborating studies with comparatively low age at beginning of menstrual calendar observation was performed.

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Sep
2009

Two weeks of touch intervention, either Yakson or Gentle Human Touch (GHT) have been shown to reduce the levels of stress hormones. This study evaluated the acute impact of both interventions on state during and immediately after touch. Forty preterm infants with a gestational age of < or =34 weeks received either Yakson or GHT for 15 days.

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Dec
2009

Psychological and behavioral therapies are being increasingly used for symptom management in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aims of this study were to compare two delivery modes for a comprehensive self-management (CSM) intervention, primarily by telephone vs. entirely in person, and to compare each with usual care (UC).

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Sep
2009

Depression after stroke is prevalent, diminishing recovery and quality of life. Brief behavioral intervention, adjunctive to antidepressant therapy, has not been well evaluated for long-term efficacy in those with poststroke depression.
One hundred one clinically depressed patients with ischemic stroke within 4 months of index stroke were randomly assigned to an 8-week brief psychosocial-behavioral intervention plus antidepressant or usual care, including antidepressant.

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Sep
2009

Little is known about the burden of cross-cultural care for stroke patients. This article compares the perceived burden for caregivers of stroke survivors in Korea and the United States. A brief interview was conducted to determine specific problem areas for caregivers.

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Dec
2009

Irritable bowel syndrome is a frequent gastrointestinal disorder of unknown etiology. The serotonin transporter regulates the intensity and duration of serotonin signaling in the gut and is, therefore, an attractive candidate gene for irritable bowel syndrome. Previous studies investigating the 5-HTTLPR and Stin2 VNTR polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter have proved inconclusive.

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Nov
2008

Polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter gene (SERT) have been associated with mental illness. In people with long-term medical conditions, variants of the 5-HTTLPR and STin2 VNTR polymorphisms of SERT have been shown to confer a heightened vulnerability to comorbid depression.
To determine whether the 5-HTTLPR, STin2 VNTR, and rs25531 polymorphisms of SERT are associated with poststroke depression (PSD) in stroke survivors.

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Jul
2009

In the United States, more women than men seek health-care services for symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A number of explanations are given for this gender difference including the higher rates of somatic non-gastrointestinal symptoms and increased psychological distress reported by women with IBS. However, these gender differences are found in studies that rely on retrospective recall with little attention to age or reproductive status.

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Aug
2008

Nurses' ability to rapidly detect decreases in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), which may contribute to secondary brain injury, may be limited by poor visibility of CPP displays.
To evaluate the impact of a highly visible CPP display on the functional outcome in individuals with cerebral aneurysms.
Patients with cerebral aneurysms (n = 100) who underwent continuous CPP monitoring were enrolled and randomized to beds with or without the additional CPP display.

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Aug
2008

Depression is a sufficiently common sequela of a completed stroke to warrant intervention to improve mood, social, and functional outcome. Pharmacologic trials suggest short-term mood improvement from antidepressant treatment but no studies to date have determined whether these short-term gains can be enhanced and extended by a brief psychosocial/behavioral intervention delivered by advanced practice nurses. In addition, drug trials have not reported on functional outcomes such as limitations in ability, limitations in participation, and overall quality of survival.

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May
2008

Korean American adolescent depression and parenting.

J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs 2008 May;21(2):105-15
Eunjung Kim, Kevin C Cain
Korean American adolescents tend to experience more mental health problems than adolescents in other ethnic groups.
The goal of this study was to examine the association between Korean American parent-adolescent relationships and adolescents' depressive symptoms in 56 families.
Thirty-nine percent of adolescents reported elevated depressive symptoms.

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Mar
2008

To evaluate the effectiveness of an exercise adherence intervention to maintain daily activity, adherence to exercise, and exercise capacity over 1 year after completion of an outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program.
A 2-group, experimental design was used with randomization into intervention and usual care groups.
Outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program in a university-affiliated medical center.

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Aug
2008

Chronic pain is a common, disabling problem in older adults. Pain self-management training is a multimodal therapy that has been found to be effective in young to middle-aged adult samples; however, few studies have examined the effectiveness of this therapy in older adults. In this randomized, controlled trial, we evaluated a pain self-management training group (SMG) intervention as compared with an education-only (BOOK) control condition.

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Aug
2008

Stress has been implicated as contributing to the initiation and exacerbation of bowel and discomfort symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
To examine the relationships of daily self-reported stress to gastrointestinal (GI) and psychological distress symptoms both across women and within woman in a comparison group of women without IBS and among subgroups of women with IBS.
Women with IBS (n = 181; age = 18-49 years) who were divided into subgroups based on bowel pattern (constipation, n = 52; diarrhea, n = 67; alternating, n = 62) were compared to a group of women without IBS (n = 48).

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