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Author: Kevin Cain (141)


Dec
1969

Mortality from TB continues to be a global public health challenge. TB ranks alongside Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as the leading infectious causes of death globally. HIV is a major driver of TB related morbidity and mortality while TB is the leading cause of mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS.

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Nov
2017

There are currently no standardized methods for identifying trigger food(s) from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) food and symptom journals. The primary aim of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of providers' interpretations of IBS journals. A second aim was to describe whether these interpretations varied for each patient.

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Oct
2017

A psychosocial behavioral intervention delivered in-person by advanced practice nurses has been shown effective in substantially reducing post-stroke depression (PSD). This follow-up trial compared the effectiveness of a shortened intervention delivered by either telephone or in-person to usual care. To our knowledge, this is the first of current behavioral therapy trials to expand the protocol in a new clinical sample.

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May
2017

The purpose of this study was to compare sleep disturbances of children and their mothers, children's behavioral problems, and parenting self-efficacy between Korean American families who coslept and those who did not cosleep. Forty-eight mothers of children between 3 and 8 years of age completed the following surveys: Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, Pediatric Symptom Checklist, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Parenting Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, and Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans II. Overall, 48% (n = 23) of families coslept, and families with younger children coslept more than families with older children (x2=12.

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Jun
2017

In the past, the typical practice management curriculum in U.S. dental schools was found to place a heavy emphasis on customer service, whereas areas typically stressed in business entrepreneurship and management courses (e.

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Jul
2017

Brain iron has been previously found elevated in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), but not in other brain regions, of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, iron in circulation has been recently observed to be lower than normal in PD patients. The regional selectivity of iron deposition in brain as well as the relationship between SNpc brain iron and serum iron within PD patients has not been completely elucidated.

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Dec
1969

Antiplatelet medications are usually discontinued before elective neurosurgery, but this is not an option for emergent neurosurgery. We performed a retrospective cohort study to examine whether preoperative aspirin use was associated with worse outcomes after emergency neurosurgery in elderly patients.
We analyzed all cases of emergency neurosurgical procedures for traumatic intracranial hemorrhage from 2008 to 2012 at a level 1 trauma center.

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Dec
1969

Our nurse-delivered comprehensive self-management (CSM) program, a cognitive behavioral therapy intervention, is effective in reducing gastrointestinal and psychological distress symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Findings from non-IBS studies indicate that the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism may moderate the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy. It is unknown whether this COMT polymorphism is associated with symptom improvements in patients with IBS.

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Feb
2017

The colorful decoration of statues and buildings in antique times is commonly described by the term antique polychromy. It is well-known among scholars but less so to the general public, and its exact form is the subject of research. In this paper we discuss results obtained from the frieze of the Siphnian Treasury in the Sanctuary of Delphi (Greece).

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Dec
1969

To assess the performance of symptom-based screening for tuberculosis (TB), alone and with chest radiography among people living with HIV (PLHIV), including pregnant women, in Western Kenya.
Prospective cohort study.
PLHIV from 15 randomly-selected HIV clinics were screened with three clinical algorithms [World Health Organization (WHO), Ministry of Health (MOH), and "Improving Diagnosis of TB in HIV-infected persons" (ID-TB/HIV) study], underwent chest radiography (unless pregnant), and provided two or more sputum specimens for smear microscopy, liquid culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF.

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Nov
2016

Reply.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016 Nov 1;14(11):1667-1668. Epub 2016 Jul 1.
Robert J Shulman, Emily B Hollister, Kevin Cain, Margaret Heitkemper

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Aug
2016

The authors hypothesized that intravenous acetaminophen as an adjunct analgesic would significantly decrease 24-hour postoperative opioid consumption.
Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
A single academic medical center.

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May
2017

We sought to determine the efficacy of psyllium fiber treatment on abdominal pain and stool patterns in children with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We evaluated effects on breath hydrogen and methane production, gut permeability, and microbiome composition. We also investigated whether psychological characteristics of children or parents affected the response to treatment.

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Dec
1969

Diagnosis followed by effective treatment of tuberculosis (TB) reduces transmission and saves lives in persons living with HIV (PLHIV). Sputum smear microscopy is widely used for diagnosis, despite limited sensitivity in PLHIV. Evidence is needed to determine the optimal diagnostic approach for these patients.

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Dec
1969

Describe daily sleep patterns, sleep quality, and sleep hygiene in 2-5-year-old children newly diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and their parents in comparison with typically developing (TD) children and parents.
Participants (13 JIA, 16 TD parent-child dyads) wore actigraphs for 10 days. Parents completed sleep diaries and sleep hygiene survey.

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Dec
1969

Alterations in serotonin signaling are suspected in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). By modulating the extracellular reuptake of serotonin, the serotonin transporter (SERT) acts as a key regulator of the bioavailability of serotonin. This study is the first to investigate the impact of rare SERT variants (i.

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Dec
1969

While the number of reported tuberculosis (TB) cases in the United States has declined over the past two decades, TB morbidity among foreign-born persons has remained persistently elevated. A recent unexpected decline in reported TB cases among foreign-born persons beginning in 2007 provided an opportunity to examine contributing factors and inform future TB control strategies. We investigated the relative influence of three factors on the decline: 1) changes in the size of the foreign-born population through immigration and emigration, 2) changes in distribution of country of origin among foreign-born persons, and 3) changes in the TB case rates among foreign-born subpopulations.

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Nov
2015

(Not) measuring in the dark.

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2015 Nov;19(11):1270
Kevin P Cain, N Sarita Shah

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Jan
2016

To determine if potential biomarkers can be used to identify subgroups of people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who will benefit the most or the least from a comprehensive self-management (CSM) intervention.
In a two-armed randomized controlled trial a CSM (n = 46) was compared to a usual care (n = 46) group with follow-up at 3 and 6 months post randomization. Biomarkers obtained at baseline included heart rate variability, salivary cortisol, interleukin-10 produced by unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and lactulose/mannitol ratio.

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Feb
2016

We developed a comprehensive self-management (CSM) program that combines cognitive behavioral therapy with relaxation and dietary strategies; 9 sessions (1 hour each) over 13 weeks were shown to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms and increase quality of life in a randomized trial of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), compared with usual care. The aims of this study were to describe strategies patients with IBS selected and continued to use, 12 months after the CSM program began.
We performed a cohort study to continue to follow 81 adults with IBS (87% female; mean age, 45 ± 15 years old) who received the CSM program in the previous clinical trial.

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Dec
2015

To assess prevalence and occupational risk factors of latent TB infection and history of TB disease ascribed to work in a healthcare setting in western Kenya.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey among healthcare workers in western Kenya in 2013. They were recruited from dispensaries, health centres and hospitals that offer both TB and HIV services.

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Oct
2015

Qualitative monitoring of neuromuscular blockade using the train-of-four (TOF) count is widely used to determine the timing and dose of reversal agents for neuromuscular blockade. We compared TOF count measured manually by anesthesia providers with that determined by TOF-Watch® SX.
This prospective observational cohort study included patients who were American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status III or less and undergoing elective surgery.

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Mar
2016

Poor sleep and stress are more frequently reported by women with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) than by healthy control (HC) women. The pathophysiology linking poor sleep and stress to gastrointestinal symptoms remains poorly understood. We used a metabolomic approach to determine whether tryptophan (TRP) metabolites differ between women with and without IBS and whether the levels are associated with sleep indices and serum cortisol levels.

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Dec
2015

Kenya recently transitioned from a paper to an electronic system for recording and reporting of tuberculosis (TB) data.
During September-October 2013, the data quality of the new system was evaluated through an audit of data in paper source documents and in the national electronic system, and an analysis of all 99 281 cases reported in 2012.
While the new electronic system overall is robust, this assessment demonstrated limitations in the concordance and completeness of data reaching the national level.

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Feb
2015

Kevin Cain and colleagues reflect on the cross border movement of people from Somalia with MDR-TB and the implications for MDR-TB programs in East Africa.

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Jan
2015

α-Synuclein (α-syn) is a key protein in Parkinson's disease (PD), and one of its phosphorylated forms, pS129, is higher in PD patients than healthy controls. However, few studies have examined its levels in longitudinally collected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or in preclinical cases. In this study, CSF and clinical data were contributed by >300 subjects from three cohorts (the longitudinal DATATOP cohort, a large cross-sectional cohort, and a cohort of LRRK2 mutation carriers).

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Dec
1969

Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) recently established electrochemiluminescence-based assays to measure cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of total tau (t-tau) and amyloid-β 1-42 peptide (Aβ42) that can aid in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The goal of this investigation is to independently evaluate this platform and establish cut-off values of these biomarkers for AD diagnosis.
To validate the analytical and clinical performance of the MSD t-tau and Aβ42 kits and propose diagnostic cut-off values for the field.

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Mar
2015

A substantial proportion of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have concomitant cognitive dysfunction. Identification of biomarker profiles that predict which PD patients have a greater likelihood for progression of cognitive symptoms is pressingly needed for future treatment and prevention approaches.
Subjects were drawn from the Deprenyl and Tocopherol Antioxidative Therapy of Parkinsonism (DATATOP) study, a large clinical trial that enrolled initially untreated PD patients.

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Mar
2015

Poststroke fatigue (PSF) is common, but the biological basis of this fatigue is unknown. We explored the possibility that PSF is related to systemic inflammation by investigating polymorphisms in 2 genes that affect the immune response.
In a substudy of a larger trial that evaluated the role of the immune response on stroke outcome, fatigue was assessed at 30, 90, 180, and 365 days after ischemic stroke using the Fatigue Assessment Scale.

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Sep
2014

Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often report sleep disturbances. Previously, we have shown that self-reported sleep difficulties predicted exacerbations of next-day IBS symptoms, mood disturbance, and fatigue. The purpose of this study was to explore whether objectively measured sleep using actigraphy, as well as self-report, predicts next-day symptoms in women with IBS and to explore whether or not symptoms also predict self-report and objective sleep.

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Dec
1969

In Kenya, the comparative incidences of tuberculosis among persons with and without HIV have not been described, and the differential impact of public health interventions on tuberculosis incidence in the two groups is unknown.
We estimated annual tuberculosis incidence stratified by HIV status during 2006-2012 based on the numbers of reported tuberculosis patients with and without HIV infection, the prevalence of HIV infection in the general population, and the total population. We also made crude estimates of annual tuberculosis incidence stratified by HIV status during 1998-2012 by assuming a constant ratio of HIV prevalence among tuberculosis patients compared to the general population.

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May
2014

Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is important in neuroinflammation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR4, including 1063 A/G [Asp299Gly] and 1363 C/T [Thr399Ile], are associated with altered immune responses but their effect on acute ischemic stroke (AIS) outcome is unknown. We collected demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiologic, and genotype data on 113 AIS patients and performed multivariate analyses to assess associations between TLR4 SNP haplotype and either neurological outcome, infection, or inflammatory markers.

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Aug
2014

Korean American (KA) parents need a culturally tailored parent training that helps them bridge the Korean and American cultures and divergent parenting practices.
The Korean Parent Training Program (KPTP) was pilot tested with 48 KA mothers of children between 3 and 8 years old using a partial group-randomized controlled experimental study design. Researchers gathered self-report survey and observation data.

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Apr
2014

Most patients with Parkinson disease (PD) develop both cognitive and motor impairment, and biomarkers for progression are urgently needed. Although α-synuclein is altered in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with PD, it is not known whether it predicts motor or cognitive deterioration. We examined clinical data and α-synuclein in >300 unmedicated patients with PD who participated in the deprenyl and tocopherol antioxidative therapy of parkinsonism (DATATOP) study, with up to 8 years of follow-up.

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Apr
2014

Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often report higher levels of psychological distress, specifically anxiety, and depression than non-IBS patients. The management of gastrointestinal symptoms and psychological distress is demonstrably amenable to cognitive-behavioral therapies in a significant number of patients with IBS. The present secondary analysis evaluates the impact of nurse-delivered self-management interventions on anxiety, depression, and urine catecholamine levels in adult IBS patients.

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Oct
2014

Evidence suggests that patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are more vigilant to pain-associated stimuli. The aims of this study were to compare women with IBS (n = 20) to healthy control (HC, n = 20) women on pain sensitivity, conditioned pain modulation (CPM) efficiency, and salivary cortisol levels before and after the CPM test and to examine the relationship of CPM efficiency with gastrointestinal pain, somatic pain, psychological distress symptoms, and salivary cortisol levels in each group. Women, aged 20-42 years, gave consent, completed questionnaires, and kept a symptom diary for 2 weeks.

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Nov
2014

Alterations in gastrointestinal (GI) permeability and immune measures are present in some patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but the relationship to symptoms is poorly defined. In adults with IBS, we compared permeability, unstimulated peripheral blood monocyte (PBMC) interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels, IBS life interference, and GI and psychological distress symptoms.
In 88 women and 18 men with IBS, GI permeability was quantitated as percent recovery of urinary sucrose and the lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio.

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Feb
2014

Peroxiredoxins are endogenous antioxidants that function as peroxide and peroxynitrite scavengers. Extracellular peroxiredoxins, however, are shown to initiate inflammation within the ischemic brain through activation of Toll-like receptors. Based on this observation, we hypothesized that plasma peroxiredoxin concentrations in ischemic stroke would correlate biomarkers of inflammation and predict poor outcome.

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Dec
1969

Although the tuberculin skin test (TST) is frequently used to aid in the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) disease and to identify persons with latent TB infection, it is an imperfect test and approximately 10-25% of persons with microbiologically confirmed TB disease have a negative TST. Previous studies have suggested that persons with a negative TST are more likely to present with severe TB disease and have an increased rate of TB-related death.
We analyzed culture-confirmed TB cases captured in US TB surveillance data from 1993 to 2008 and performed multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine the association between TST result and death.

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Aug
2014

Infection is a common phenomenon following stroke, and adversely affects outcome. Previous studies suggest that interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL1RN gene might influence the risk of post-stroke infection and outcome. In this study, we addressed the effects of the rs4251961 SNP in IL1RN on infection risk and outcome.

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Nov
2013

Responses to CES-D: European American versus Korean American adolescents.

J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs 2013 Nov 2;26(4):254-61. Epub 2013 Sep 2.
Eunjung Kim, Andrea M Landis, Kevin K Cain
No study has examined variations in the responses to CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) scoring among different ethnic group adolescents.
This study compared response differences to CES-D between 51 European American and 58 Korean American (KA) adolescents.
Thirty-nine percent of KA adolescents reported higher depressive symptoms compared to 33% European American adolescents.

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Oct
2013

The tuberculin skin test (TST) is used to test for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection and support the diagnosis of active TB. However, little is known about the relationship between the TST result and the clinical presentation of TB disease.
We analyzed US TB surveillance data, 1993-2010, and used multinomial logistic regression to calculate the association between TST result (0-4 mm [negative], 5-9 mm, 10-14 mm, and  ≥ 15 mm) and clinical presentation of disease (miliary, combined pulmonary and extrapulmonary, extrapulmonary only, non-cavitary pulmonary, and cavitary pulmonary).

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Jun
2013


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Nov
2013

Tau gene has been consistently associated with the risk of Parkinson disease in recent genome wide association studies. In addition, alterations of the levels of total tau, phosphorylated tau [181P], and amyloid beta 1-42 in cerebrospinal fluid have been reported in patients with sporadic Parkinson disease and asymptomatic carriers of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutations, in patterns that clearly differ from those typically described for patients with Alzheimer disease. To further determine the potential roles of these molecules in Parkinson disease pathogenesis and/or in tracking the disease progression, especially at early stages, the current study assessed all three proteins in 403 Parkinson disease patients enrolled in the DATATOP (Deprenyl and tocopherol antioxidative therapy of parkinsonism) placebo-controlled clinical trial, the largest cohort to date with cerebrospinal fluid samples collected longitudinally.

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Apr
2013

A challenge to effective protection against tuberculosis is to sustain expensive and complex treatment public programs. Potential consequences of program failure include acquired drug resistance, poor patient outcomes, and potentially much higher system costs, however. In contrast, effective efforts have value illustrated by impacts they prevent.

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Feb
2013

Heavy alcohol intake may exacerbate gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, the role of alcohol in IBS is unclear. We investigated prospective associations between daily patterns of alcohol intake and next day's GI symptoms using daily diaries.
In an observational study of women aged 18-48 years with IBS and healthy controls, participants recorded daily GI symptoms, alcohol intake, caffeine intake, and cigarette smoking for ≈ 1 month.

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Dec
1969

DJ-1 is a multifunctional protein that plays an important role in oxidative stress, cell death, and synucleinopathies, including Parkinson disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that total DJ-1 levels decrease in the cerebrospinal fluid, but do not change significantly in human plasma from patients with Parkinson disease when compared with controls. In this study, we measured total DJ-1 and its isoforms in whole blood of patients with Parkinson disease at various stages, Alzheimer disease, and healthy controls to identify potential peripheral biomarkers of PD.

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Jan
2013

The signals that initiate the poststroke inflammatory response are unknown. High-mobility group box (HMGB) 1 protein is a nuclear protein that is passively released from necrotic tissue and is able to activate leukocytes, which in turn secrete HMGB1. HMGB1 is also able to activate antigen-presenting cells and therefore stands at the crossroads of innate and adaptive immunity.

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Jan
2014

The aims of this exploratory study were to examine whether tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) gene polymorphisms are associated with psychosocial factors in women with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). TPH is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin and has two isoforms, TPH1 and TPH2. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TPH1 gene and one SNP in the TPH2 gene were selected based on previous studies investigating associations between these SNPs and psychiatric or behavioral disorders.

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