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Author: Kylie Gray (46)


Jan
2018

Children with a developmental disability are three to four times more likely than their typically developing peers of developing significant emotional and behavioural problems. There is strong evidence to suggest that individual biological and psychological factors interact with family functioning to precipitate and perpetuate these problems.
This study examined the psychometric properties of a brief measure, the Parent and Family Adjustment Scales (PAFAS) for use with parents of children with a developmental disability.

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Jul
2017

This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates the efficacy of parent training group interventions to treat child externalizing and/or internalizing problems. A search identified 21 randomized controlled trials of parent group interventions aimed at ameliorating child externalizing and/or internalizing problems in children aged 4-12 years. Random effects meta-analyses yielded significant pooled treatment effect size (g) estimates for child externalizing (g = -0.

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Dec
1969

Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience significant difficulties in attention, learning, executive functions, and behavioral regulation. Emerging evidence suggests that computerized cognitive training may remediate these impairments. In a double blind controlled trial, 76 children with IDD (4-11 years) were randomized to either an attention training (n = 38) or control program (n = 38).

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Dec
1969

For women of refugee background, the increased risk of mental illness associated with pregnancy is compounded by pre- and post-settlement stressors. In Australia, antenatal screening for depression and anxiety symptoms using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale is recommended for all women. Despite this, screening is not routinely implemented and little is known about barriers and enablers to implementation for women of refugee background.

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Feb
2017

Although research has indicated that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) display normative attachment behaviours, to date there has been limited qualitative research exploring these relationships. This study aimed to describe qualitative features of the child-caregiver attachment relationship in children with ASD. Primary caregivers to 26 children with ASD (aged 7-14 years) and 23 typically developing children (aged 7-13 years) were administered the Disturbances of Attachment Interview (Smyke & Zeanah, 1999) to elicit descriptions of children's attachment behaviours.

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Nov
2017

Despite well-documented attention deficits in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), distinctions across types of attention problems and their association with academic attainment has not been fully explored. This study examines visual attention capacities and inattentive/hyperactive behaviours in 77 children aged 4 to 11 years with IDD and elevated behavioural attention difficulties. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 23), Down syndrome (DS; n = 22), and non-specific intellectual disability (NSID; n = 32) completed computerized visual search and vigilance paradigms.

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Dec
2016

Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience heightened attention difficulties which have been linked to poorer cognitive, academic and social outcomes. Although, increasing research has focused on the potential of computerised cognitive training in reducing attention problems, limited studies have assessed whether this intervention could be utilised for those with IDD. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a computerised attention training programme in children with IDD.

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Oct
2016

Whilst neuropsychological research has enhanced our understanding of inattentive and hyperactive behaviours among children with intellectual disability (ID), the absence of rating scales developed for this group continues to be a gap in knowledge. This study examined these behaviours in 176 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Down Syndrome (DS), or idiopathic ID using a newly developed teacher rating scale, the Scale of Attention in Intellectual Disability. Findings suggested that children with ASD had a significantly greater breadth of hyperactive/impulsive behaviours than those with DS or idiopathic ID.

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Mar
2017

Oxidative stress, inflammation and heavy metals have been implicated in the aetiology of autistic disorder. N-acetyl cysteine has been shown to modulate these pathways, providing a rationale to trial N-acetyl cysteine for autistic disorder. There are now two published pilot studies suggesting efficacy, particularly in symptoms of irritability.

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Dec
1969

There has been limited study of the relationship between child attachment and caregiver wellbeing amongst children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined self-reported child attachment quality alongside caregivers' report of their own psychological distress, parenting stress and attachment style, amongst 24 children with high-functioning autism or Asperger's disorder (ASD; aged 7-14 years) and 24 typically developing children (aged 7-12 years), and their primary caregiver. Children with ASD were no less secure, but their caregivers were more stressed and reported more attachment-related anxiety, compared to typically developing dyads.

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Dec
1969

Changes to the DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) criteria raised concerns among parents and practitioners that the criteria may exclude some children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). Few studies have examined DSM-5 sensitivity and specificity in children less than 5 years of age. This study evaluated 185 children aged 20-55 months with DSM-IV PDD or developmental delay.

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Feb
2016

In the present study we examined the nature and developmental trajectory of self-injurious behaviour in Prader Willi syndrome (PWS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The development of interventions is greatly aided by understanding gene to behaviour pathways, and this requires an accurate description of the behaviour phenotype, that is, which types and natural history of self-injurious behaviour are more common in PWS and ASD and which are shared with other forms of developmental disability. Self-injury displayed by individuals with PWS and individuals with ASD was compared with that reported in a group of individuals with intellectual disability due to mixed aetiology (ID group).

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Jun
2015

The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental trajectories of verbal aggression, physical aggression, and temper tantrums in four genetic syndrome groups. Participants were part of the Australian Child to Adult Development Study (ACAD), which collected information from a cohort of individuals with an intellectual disability at five time points over 18 years. Data were examined from a total of 248 people with one of the four following syndromes: Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, or Williams syndrome.

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Mar
2015

Difficulties with attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity are thought to be as common among children with intellectual disability (ID) as they are in children without ID. Despite this, there is a lack of scales to specifically assess ADHD symptomatology in children and adolescents with ID. This article describes the development and evaluation of a teacher-completed measure; the Scale of Attention in Intellectual Disability (SAID).

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Mar
2015

Depending on the severity of their disabilities, children with Down syndrome (DS) and with cerebral palsy (CP) may remain pre-symbolic for prolonged periods of time. When interacting with pre-symbolic children, communication partners have a role in identifying which of their behaviours are communicative, to be able to respond to those behaviours and maintain reciprocal interaction. To date, most research on these children's communication development has been conducted within the context of mother-child interaction.

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Oct
2014

Children and adolescents with intellectual disability are known to experience mental health disorders, but anxiety disorders in this population have received relatively little attention. Firstly, this paper provides a review of published studies reporting prevalence rates of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with intellectual disability. Secondly, the paper reviews measures of anxiety that have been evaluated in children/adolescents with intellectual disability, and details the associated psychometric properties.

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Apr
2015

There is increasing interest in oxytocin as a therapeutic to treat social deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a course of oxytocin nasal spray to improve social behavior in youth with ASD.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial across two Australian university sites between February 2009 and January 2012, 50 male participants aged between 12 and 18 years, with Autistic or Asperger's Disorder, were randomized to receive either oxytocin (n = 26) or placebo (n = 24) nasal sprays (either 18 or 24 International Units), administered twice-daily for 8 weeks.

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Dec
2014

Longitudinal research has demonstrated that social outcomes for adults with autism are restricted, particularly in terms of employment and living arrangements. However, understanding of individual and environmental factors that influence these outcomes is far from complete. This longitudinal study followed a community sample of children and adolescents with autism into adulthood.

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Aug
2014

The literature on the association between behavioural and emotional problems and ageing in adults with Down syndrome (DS) without dementia is limited and has generally not reported on a wide range of behavioural and emotional problems. This research aimed to extend the field by examining the associations between age and a wide spectrum of behavioural and emotional problems in adults with DS without dementia. A preliminary analysis of the association between potential covariates and behavioural and emotional problems was also undertaken.

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Jul
2014

The current study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Emotion Regulation and Social Skills Questionnaire (ERSSQ), a rating scale designed specifically to assess the social skills of young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The participants were 84 children and young adolescents with ASD, aged between 7.97 and 14.

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Jan
2014

Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) may increase accuracy of data compared with retrospective questionnaires by assessing behaviours as they occur, hence decreasing recall biases and increasing ecological validity. This study examined the feasibility and concurrent validity of an EMA tool for adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASD). Thirty-one adolescents with HFASD completed a mobile phone EMA application that assessed stressors and coping for two weeks.

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Mar
2014

Although daily hassles and coping are associated with behavior and emotional problems in non-clinical populations, few studies have investigated these relationships in individuals with high-functioning autism/Asperger's Disorder (HFASD). This study examined the relationships between daily hassles, coping and behavior and emotional problems in adolescents with HFASD. Thirty-one adolescents with HFASD completed questionnaires assessing their coping and behavior and emotional problems, and completed an Ecological Momentary Assessment run via a mobile phone application on their coping and daily hassles.

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Nov
2013

This study assessed the relationship between emotion recognition ability and social skills in 42 young children with autistic disorder aged 4-7 years. The analyses revealed that accuracy in recognition of sadness, but not happiness, anger or fear, was associated with higher ratings on the Vineland-II Socialization domain, above and beyond the influence of chronological age, cognitive ability and autism symptom severity. These findings extend previous research with adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders, suggesting that sadness recognition is also associated with social skills in children with autism.

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Dec
2012

Children with autism have difficulties in emotion recognition and a number of interventions have been designed to target these problems. However, few emotion training interventions have been trialled with young children with autism and co-morbid ID. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of an emotion training programme for a group of young children with autism with a range of intellectual ability.

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Dec
2012

This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically developing children (n = 20). The participants were administered standardised tests of structural language skills, and parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and the Developmental Behaviour Checklist.

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Mar
2012

High rates of behavior and emotional problems have been consistently reported in children and adolescents with autism. Elevated rates of mental health problems have also been reported in adults with autism. Little is known, however, about the longitudinal development of behavior and emotional problems in autism.

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Mar
2012

In low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries, there is a lack of well-trained therapists to provide specialist interventions for children with intellectual disabilities and their families. We sought to identify strategies deliverable by families or non-specialist workers.
After searches of appropriate scientific databases, we applied GRADE methodology to rate the quality of evidence for these interventions.

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Nov
2012

This study investigated whether the novel Comic Strip Task (CST) could be used to detect Theory-of-Mind impairments (ToM) in 4- to 8-year-old children with high functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Twelve children with either high-functioning autism or Asperger's Disorder and 12 typically-developing children completed the 21-item measure. The overall CST demonstrated moderate internal consistency but the Belief-understanding subscale was excluded from the test due to poor reliability.

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Apr
2012

This study investigated whether children with autism have atypical development of morphological and syntactic skills, including whether they use rote learning to compensate for impaired morphological processing and acquire grammatical morphemes in an atypical order. Participants were children aged from 3-6 years who had autism (n = 17), developmental delay without autism (n = 7), and typically-developing children (n = 19). Language samples were taken from participants during the administration of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and transcripts were coded using the Index of Productive Syntax, and for usage of Brown's grammatical morphemes.

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Apr
2012

Research has suggested an abnormal acceleration in head circumference growth in children with autism within the first 12 months of life. This study aimed to examine head circumference at birth and head circumference growth rates in young children with autism and developmental delay, and young children with developmental delay without autism.
This study assessed head circumference at birth and rate of change in head circumference in young children with autism (n=86) and children with developmental delay without autism (n=40).

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Oct
2011

The aim of this study was to explore the assessment, intervention, and family-centred practices of Malaysian and Australian speech-language pathologists (SLPs) when working with children with developmental disabilities who are pre-symbolic. A questionnaire was developed for the study, which was completed by 65 SLPs from Malaysia and 157 SLPs from Australia. Data reduction techniques were used prior to comparison of responses across questionnaire items.

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Oct
2011

Although elevated rates of parent psychosocial distress have been associated with child behavior and emotional problems, little is known about the nature of this relationship over time. This study followed an epidemiological cohort of children and adolescents over 11 years with 4 waves of data collection. Within this cohort, complete data were available on 238 mothers and their children.

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Dec
2010

Autism is a severe, pervasive developmental disorder, the aetiology of which is poorly understood. Current pharmacological treatment options for autism are often focused on addressing comorbid behavioural problems, rather than core features of the disorder. Investigation of a new treatment approach is needed.

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Sep
2009

Individual change and variation in emotional/behavioral disturbance in children and adolescents with intellectual disability has received little empirical investigation. Based on 11 years of longitudinal data from the Australian Child to Adult Development Study, we report associations among individual differences in level, rate of change, and occasion-specific variation across subscales of the Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC) with 506 participants who had intellectual disability and were ages 5 to 19 years at study entry. Correlations among the five DBC subscales ranged from .

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Apr
2010

A diagnostic hallmark of autism spectrum disorders is a qualitative impairment in social communication and interaction. Deficits in the ability to recognize the emotions of others are believed to contribute to this. There is currently no effective treatment for these problems.

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May
2009

The aim of the current study was to investigate the manifestation of repetitive behaviour profiles in young children with a Pervasive Developmental Disorder. The sample consisted of 137 developmentally delayed children with a DSM-IV-TR Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) and 61 developmentally delayed children without a PDD. An exploratory factor analytic investigation using 12 ADI-R repetitive behaviour items from parent report of children with a PDD reported the emergence of two factors.

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Dec
1969

Sums of responses to behaviour checklist items are commonly used as outcome measures. We argue for the use of mean scores. For sets of responses registering absence and presence at different levels of intensity of behaviours we also show that mean scores may usefully be 'decomposed' into separate measures of the range and the intensity of problematic behaviours.

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Dec
1969

The Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC; Einfeld and Tonge, 1995) is a 95 item clinical screening checklist designed to assess the extent of behavioral and emotional disturbance in populations with intellectual deficit (ID). The DBC provides five principal-component derived subscales covering clinically relevant dimensions of psychopathology (i.e.

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Apr
2008

Few studies have focused on the validity of the ADI-R and ADOS in the assessment of preschool children with developmental delay. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic validity of the ADI-R and the ADOS in young children. Two-hundred and nine children aged 20-55 months participated in the study, 120 of whom received a diagnosis of autism.

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Jan
2007

A 24-item short form of the 96-item Developmental Behaviour Checklist was developed to provide a brief measure of Total Behaviour Problem Score for research purposes. The short form Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC-P24) was chosen for low bias and high precision from among 100 randomly selected item sets. The DBC-P24 was developed from epidemiological data in the first three waves of the Australian Child to Adult Development study, and cross validated for groups with autism, fragile X, Prader-Willi, and Williams in this longitudinal study and in cross sectional Dutch, English, and Finnish samples of young people with intellectual disability.

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Oct
2006

Comorbid severe mental health problems complicating intellectual disability are a common and costly public health problem. Although these problems are known to begin in early childhood, little is known of how they evolve over time or whether they continue into adulthood.
To study the course of psychopathology in a representative population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability.

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Sep
2005

Assessment in intellectual disability.

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2005 Sep;18(5):476-83
Caroline Mohr, Kylie M Gray
This review examines an eclectic selection of publications from the past 12 months under the broad heading of 'assessment in intellectual disability'. Being unable to cover all possible publications the authors have concentrated on the assessment of pain (in those with severe intellectual disability), psychopathology, risk assessment and offending, autism, preference and choice, and dementia.
Research into assessment has generally taken the form of developing new instruments, or adapting existing ones, or comparing the performance of a range of scales in a certain area.

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Feb
2006

This study examined whether repetitive behaviours were a differentiating feature of autism in children aged less than 51 months. The study also examined the relationship between age (chronological and developmental) and repetitive behaviours in young children with autism. Standardised developmental and diagnostic assessments were conducted on 55 children aged between 22 and 51 months, consisting of 40 developmentally delayed children with DSM-IV-TR Autistic Disorder and 15 developmentally delayed children without Autistic Disorder.

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May
2005

This study aimed to identify emotional and behavioural problems specific to young children with autism using the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC-P) and thus evaluate the efficacy of this checklist as a screening tool for autism in children with developmental delay aged 18-48 months.
Subjects were 60 children with autism and developmental delay and 60 children with developmental delay without autism.
Features were identified which differentiated the children with autism from those with developmental delay without autism.

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