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Author: Kyriaki Nikolaou (6)


Dec
1969

Variations in genes encoding several GABAreceptors have been associated with human drug and alcohol abuse. Among these, a number of human studies have suggested an association between, the gene encoding GABAreceptor β1 subunits, with Alcohol dependence (AD), both on its own and comorbid with other substance dependence and psychiatric illnesses. In the present study, we hypothesized that thegenetically-associated increased risk for developing alcoholism may be associated with impaired behavioral control and altered sensitivity to reward, as a consequence of altered brain function.

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Mar
2016

Adolescence represents a period of development during which critical biological, as well as social and cognitive, changes occur that are necessary for the transition into adulthood. A number of researchers have suggested that the pattern of normative brain changes that occurs during this period not only predisposes adolescents to engage in risk behaviours, such as experimentation with drugs, but that they additionally make the adolescent brain more vulnerable to the direct pharmacological impact of substances of abuse. The neural circuits that we examine in this review involve cortico-basal-ganglia/limbic networks implicated in the processing of rewards, emotion regulation, and the control of behaviour, emotion and cognition.

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Dec
1969

Alcohol impairs inhibitory control, including the ability to terminate an initiated action. While there is increasing knowledge about neural mechanisms involved in response inhibition, the level at which alcohol impairs such mechanisms remains poorly understood. Thirty-nine healthy social drinkers received either 0.

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Jun
2013

Acute alcohol ingestion increases attentional bias to alcohol-related stimuli; however, the underlying cognitive and brain mechanisms remain unknown. We combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with performance of a dual task that probed attentional distraction by alcohol-related stimuli during 'conflict' processing: the Concurrent Flanker/Alcohol-Attentional bias task (CFAAT). In this task, an Eriksen Flanker task is superimposed on task-unrelated background pictures with alcohol-associated or neutral content.

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Feb
2013

Alcohol-related stimuli attract social drinkers' attention (attentional bias). We devised a dual task to test whether attentional biases to alcohol-related stimuli are modulated by cognitive control mechanisms. Sixteen nondependent healthy social drinkers were required to respond to the direction of a central arrow (target) and to ignore adjacent congruent (low cognitive load) or incongruent (high cognitive load) distracting arrows (flankers) in the presence of alcohol-related, neutral or plain grey backgrounds.

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Sep
2011

The ability to abstain from drinking, despite incentives to imbibe, is essential to recovery from alcoholism.
We used an incentive conflict task to investigate ability to abstain from responding during presentations of incentive cues. Both alcoholic (n = 23) and healthy subjects (n = 22) were required to withhold responding during the simultaneous presentation of two visual stimuli in which the individual presentation allowed responding for monetary reward.

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