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Author: Laura E Collins (10)


Feb
2016

The co-involvement of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) during blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury has been reported in various models of neuroinflammation, although the precise functional interplay between these archetypal proinflammatory cytokines remains largely undefined within this context. In the current paper, we tested the hypothesis that TNF-α-mediated BBB disruption is measurably attributable in-part to induction of microvascular endothelial IL-6 production. In initial experiments, we observed that treatment of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMvECs) with TNF-α (0-100 ng/mL, 0-24 h) robustly elicited both time- and dose-dependent induction of IL-6 expression and release, as well as expression of the IL-6 family receptor, GP130.

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Oct
2015

The regulatory interplay between laminar shear stress and proinflammatory cytokines during homeostatic maintenance of the brain microvascular endothelium is largely undefined. We hypothesized that laminar shear could counteract the injurious actions of proinflammatory cytokines on human brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMvEC) barrier properties, in-part through suppression of cellular redox signaling. For these investigations, HBMvECs were exposed to either shear stress (8 dynes/cm(2), 24 hours) or cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or interleukin-6 (IL-6), 0 to 100 ng/mL, 6 or 18 hours).

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Dec
1969

Dendritic cells (DCs) provide an essential link between innate and adaptive immunity. At the site of infection, antigens recognized by DCs via pattern-recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), initiate a specific immune response. Depending on the nature of the antigen, DCs secrete distinct cytokines with which they orchestrate homeostasis and pathogen clearance.

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Dec
1969

The role of dendritic cells (DCs) in directing the immune response is due in part to their capacity to produce a range of cytokines. Importantly, DCs are a source of cytokines, which can promote T cell survival and T helper cell differentiation. While it has become evident that soluble-N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor accessory-protein receptors (SNAREs) are involved in membrane fusion and ultimately cytokine release, little is known about which members of this family facilitate the secretion of specific cytokines from DCs.

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May
2015

Intestinal macrophages originate from inflammatory blood monocytes which migrate to the intestine, where they differentiate into anti-inflammatory macrophages through a number of transitional stages. These macrophages typically remain hypo-responsive to commensal bacteria and food Ags in the intestine, yet also retain the ability to react to invading pathogens. In this study we examined the role of epithelial cells in inducing this intestinal macrophage phenotype.

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Oct
2014

Differentiation of resident multipotent vascular stem cells (MVSCs) or de-differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) might be responsible for the SMC phenotype that plays a major role in vascular diseases such as arteriosclerosis and restenosis. We examined vSMCs from three different species (rat, murine and bovine) to establish whether they exhibit neural stem cell characteristics typical of MVSCs. We determined their SMC differentiation, neural stem cell marker expression and multipotency following induction in vitro by using immunocytochemistry, confocal microscopy, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

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Dec
1969

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is an integral feature of neurological disorders and involves the action of multiple proinflammatory cytokines on the microvascular endothelial cells lining cerebral capillaries. There is still however, considerable ambiguity throughout the scientific literature regarding the mechanistic role(s) of cytokines in this context, thereby warranting a comprehensive in vitro investigation into how different cytokines may cause dysregulation of adherens and tight junctions leading to BBB permeabilization.
The present study employs human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMvECs) to compare/contrast the effects of TNF-α and IL-6 on BBB characteristics ranging from the expression of interendothelial junction proteins (VE-cadherin, occludin and claudin-5) to endothelial monolayer permeability.

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Mar
2014

The A10 and A7r5 cell lines derived from the thoracic aorta of embryonic rat are widely used as models of non-differentiated, neonatal and neointimal vascular smooth muscle cells in culture. The recent discovery of resident multipotent vascular stem cells within the vessel wall has necessitated the identity and origin of these vascular cells be revisited. In this context, we examined A10 and A7r5 cell lines to establish the similarities and differences between these cell lines and multipotent vascular stem cells isolated from adult rat aortas by determining their differentiation state, stem cell marker expression and their multipotency potential in vitro.

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May
2014

Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhoea worldwide, and if the bacterium is not cleared effectively it can pose a risk of recurrent infections and complications such as colitis, sepsis and death. In this study we demonstrate that surface layer proteins from the one of the most frequently acquired strains of C. difficile, activate mechanisms in murine macrophage in vitro that are associated with clearance of bacterial infection.

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Jun
2013

Atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) in thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has a low to intermediate incidence of malignancy, and objective criteria could allow for improved assessment of malignancy. Consecutive thyroid FNA AUS cases with surgical excision were selected. Whole-slide images (WSIs) were evaluated for basic criteria by image analysis, including total groups and nuclear/cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio.

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