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Author: Longding Liu (52)


Jan
2018

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) act as molecular sentinels, detecting invading viral pathogens and triggering host innate immune responses, including autophagy. However, many viruses have evolved a series of strategies to manipulate autophagy for their own benefit. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), as the primary agents causing hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), can induce autophagy leading to their replication.

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Dec
1969

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main pathogens responsible for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Infection with EV71 can lead to severe clinical disease via extensive infections of either the respiratory or alimentary tracts in children. Based on the previous pathological study of EV71 infections in neonatal rhesus macaques, our work using this animal model and an EV71 chimera that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-EV71) primarily explored where EV71 localizes and proliferates, and the subsequent initiation of the pathological process.

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Dec
1969

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) remain the predominant pathogens in hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but the factors underlying the pathogenesis of EV71 and CA16 infections have not been elucidated. Recently, the functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in pathogen-host interactions have been highlighted. In the present study, we performed comprehensive miRNA profiling in EV71- and CA16-infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at multiple time points using high-throughput sequencing.

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Mar
2017

New influenza vaccines that provide effective and broad protection are desperately needed. Live attenuated viruses are attractive vaccine candidates because they can elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses. However, recent formulations of live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) have not been protective.

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May
2017

Many studies have revealed a protective effect of infection of an individual with an immunodeficiency virus against subsequent infection with a heterologous strain. However, the extent of protection against superinfection conferred by the first infection and the biological consequences of superinfection are not well understood. Here, we report that a rhesus monkey model of mucosal superinfection was established to investigate the protective immune response.

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Dec
1969

The pathological manifestations of fatal cases of human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) are characterized by inflammatory damage to the central nervous system (CNS). Here, the dynamic distribution of EV71 in the CNS and the subsequent pathological characteristics within different regions of neonatal rhesus macaque brain tissue were studied using a chimeric EV71 expressing green fluorescence protein. The results were compared with brain tissue obtained from the autopsies of deceased EV71-infected HFMD patients.

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Dec
1969

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) mainly caused by Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) infections which presented significantly different clinical manifestations. Nevertheless, the factors underlying these differences remain unclear. Recently, the functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in pathogen-host interactions have been highlighted.

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Dec
1969

Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) causes human hand, foot and mouth disease, but its pathogenesis is unclear. In rhesus macaques, CV-A16 infection causes characteristic vesicles in the oral mucosa and limbs as well as viremia and positive viral loads in the tissues, suggesting that these animals reflect the pathologic process of the infection. An immunologic analysis indicated a defective immune response, which included undetectable neutralizing antibodies and IFN-γ-specific memory T-cells in macaques infected with CV-A16.

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Dec
1969

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the predominant pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Although these viruses exhibit genetic homology, the clinical manifestations caused by the two viruses have some discrepancies. In addition, the underlying mechanisms leading to these differences remain unclear.

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Dec
1969

UL7, a tegument protein of Herpes Simplex Virus type I (HSV-1), is highly conserved in viral infection and proliferation and has an unknown mechanism of action.
A HSV-1 UL7 mutant (UL7-MU) was constructed using the CRISPR-cas9 system. The replication rate and plaque morphology were used to analyze the biological characteristics of the wild-type (WT), UL7-MU and MU-complemented P1 viruses.

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Dec
1969

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), with vesiculae on the hands, feet and mouth, is an infectious disease caused by many viral pathogens. However, the differences of immune response induced by these pathogens are unclear. We compared the clinical manifestations and the levels of immunologic indicators from 60 HFMD patients caused by different viral pathogens to analyze the differences in the immune response.

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Mar
2016

Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is a dominant pathogen that results in hand, foot, and mouth disease and causes outbreaks worldwide, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Our previous study has demonstrated that the basic CA16 pathogenic process was successfully mimicked in rhesus monkey infant.

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Dec
1969

To investigate the biological characteristics of the two types of virion fractions of Coxsackievirus A 16 (CA16), which include the real virion fraction and pseudo-virion fraction in their structure, pathogenicity and immunogenicity.
We obtained the two CA16 virion fractions by density gradient centrifugation. The morphology of virion fractions was analyzed by electron microscopy, while the antigenic characteristics and immunogenicity of two virion fractions were determined by ELISA, SDS-PAGE, Western blot, qRT-PCR, and the mouse model of immune response.

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Nov
2015

During the development of enterovirus 71 (EV71) inactivated vaccine for preventing human hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) by EV71 infection, an effective animal model is presumed to be significant and necessary. Our previous study demonstrated that the vesicles in oral regions and limbs potentially associated with viremia, which are the typical manifestations of HFMD, and remarkable pathologic changes were identified in various tissues of neonatal rhesus macaque during EV71 infection. Although an immune response in terms of neutralizing antibody and T cell memory was observed in animals infected by the virus or stimulated by viral antigen, whether such a response could be considered as an indicator to justify the immune response in individuals vaccinated or infected in a pandemic needs to be investigated.

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Sep
2015

To investigate the long-term effects on immunity of an inactivated enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine and its protective efficacy.
A sub-cohort of 1,100 volunteers from Guangxi Province in China was eligible for enrolment and randomly administered either the EV71 vaccine or a placebo on days 0 and 28 in a phase III clinical trial and then observed for the following 2 years with approval by an independent ethics committee of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Serum samples from the 350 participants who provided a full series of blood samples (at all the sampling points) within the 2-year period were collected.

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Dec
1969

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), caused by various viral pathogens, is an emerging infectious disease in children in Asia. Understanding the composition of these pathogens is necessary to prevent and control this disease. In the present study, the pathogens in 436 HFMD patients (from 2009 to 2011) with concurrent clinical indications of encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, or both, were defined using the semi-nested PCR.

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Aug
2014

To investigate the effect of temperature on the stability of intermediate and final products of inactivated enterovirus 71 vaccine, which was prepared in human diploid cells.
The different batches of harvest viral cultures, the vaccine stock solutions and the final productions of inactivated enterovirus 71 vaccine were stored at different temperatures. The samples of viral culture stored at -20°C or 4°C were harvested at 0, 6, 12 and 24 months later.

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Sep
2014

During HSV-1 infection, the viral UL31 protein forms a complex with the UL34 protein at the cellular nuclear membrane, where both proteins play important roles in the envelopment of viral nucleocapsids and their egress into the cytoplasm. To characterize the mechanism of HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress, we screened host proteins to identify proteins that interacted with UL31 via yeast two-hybrid analysis. Transmembrane protein 140 (TMEM140), was identified and confirmed to bind to and co-localize with UL31 during viral infection.

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Jul
2014

Hand, foot and mouth disease is usually caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A 16 (CA16), which are members of the Picornaviridae family. In the present study, the characteristics of the immune response induced by an EV71 inactivated vaccine (made from human diploid cells) were explored in the presence of CA16 infection, based on the previously established neonatal rhesus monkey model. The typical clinical manifestations, including body temperature, viral viremia and virus shedding in the mouth, pharynx and feces, were characterized.

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Dec
1969

Mumps, a communicable, acute and previously well-controlled disease, has had recent and occasional resurgences in some areas.
A randomized, double-blind, controlled and multistep phase I study of an F-genotype attenuated mumps vaccine produced in human diploid cells was conducted. A total of 300 subjects were enrolled and divided into 4 age groups: 16-60 years, 5-16 years, 2-5 years and 8-24 months.

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Dec
1969

The coxsackie A16 virus (CA16), along with enterovirus 71 (EV71), is a primary pathogen that causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). To control HFMD, CA16, and EV71 vaccines are needed. In this study, an experimental inactivated CA16 vaccine was prepared using human diploid cells, and the vaccine's immunogenicity was analyzed in mice and rhesus monkeys.

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Feb
2014

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children and may be fatal. A vaccine against EV71 is needed.
We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial involving healthy children 6 to 71 months of age in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.

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Dec
1969

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major pathogen responsible for fatal hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Our previous work reported on an EV71-infected rhesus monkey infant model that presented with histo-pathologic changes of the central nervous system (CNS) and lungs. This study is focused on the correlated modulation of gene expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from EV71-infected rhesus monkey infants.

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Dec
2013

Studies of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection have shown that many known and unknown cellular molecules involved in viral proliferation are up-regulated following HSV-1 infection. In this study, using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we found that the expression of the HSV-1 infection response repressive protein (HIRRP, GI 16552881) was up-regulated in human L02 cells infected with HSV-1. HIRRP, an unknown protein, was initially localized in the cytoplasm and then translocated into the nucleus of HSV-1-infected cells.

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Dec
1969

Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) is a major pathogen that causes human neurological diseases, including herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Previous studies have shown that astrocytes are involved in HSV-1 systemic pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS), although the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, a high-throughput RNAi library screening method was used to analyze the effect of host phosphatase gene regulation on HSV-1 replication using Macaca mulatta primary astrocytes in an in vitro culture system.

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Dec
2013

Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is a major pathogen that causes various central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including herpes simplex encephalitis and meningitis. According to recent studies, PNKP significantly affects the proliferation of HSV-1 in astrocytes. Here, we used viral proliferation curves to confirm the significant inhibitory effects of PNKP on HSV-1 proliferation.

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Jul
2013

Preliminary studies of the major pathogen enterovirus 71 (EV71), a member of the Picornaviridae family, have suggested that EV71 may be a major cause of fatal hand, foot and mouth disease cases. Currently, the role of the pathological changes induced by EV71 infection in the immunopathogenic response remains unclear. Our study focused on the interaction between this virus and immunocytes and indicated that this virus has the ability to replicate in CD14(+) cells.

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Apr
2013

Viral microRNAs are one component of the RNA interference phenomenon generated during viral infection. They were first identified in the Herpesviridae family, where they were found to regulate viral mRNA translation. In addition, prior work has suggested that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is capable of regulating cellular gene transcription by miRNA.

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Dec
1969

Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), causes outbreaks among children in the Asia-Pacific region. A vaccine is urgently needed. Based on successful pre-clinical work, phase I and II clinical trials of an inactivated EV71 vaccine, which included the participants of 288 and 660 respectively, have been conducted.

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Oct
2012

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen that causes hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). Our previous studies have demonstrated that the complete process of pathogenesis, which may include tissue damage induced by host inflammatory responses and direct tissue damage caused by viral infection, can be observed in the central nervous system (CNS) of animals infected in the laboratory with EV71. Based on these observations, the neuropathogenesis and protein expression profiles in the thalamic tissues of EV71-infected animals were further analyzed in the present study.

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Oct
2012

Although clinical trials for the enterovirus type 71 (EV71) inactivated vaccine have been progressing, the potential mechanism of EV71 infection and its associated pathogenesis are not well-characterized in terms of comprehensive analysis of the induced immune response, which is generally recognized as an important indicator of the safety of vaccines. To investigate the Th1/Th2 response following viral challenge in neonatal rhesus monkeys immunized with different doses of EV71 inactivated vaccines, the variety of different Th1 and Th2 cytokines in the organs or tissues of the monkeys were identified. The results suggest that depending on the viral challenge, the Th1/Th2 reaction induced by different doses of EV71 inactivated vaccine varies.

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Apr
2012

Coxsackie A virus is one of the major pathogens associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The etiological characteristics of Coxsackie A virus type 16 (CA16) are thought to correlate with the pathological process of its infection. Two CA16 strains that were isolated from a severe HFMD patient presented with different plaque forms.

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Aug
2011

A number of commonly recognized public health issues are associated with EV71 infection, including the induction of severe cases of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Because of such issues, research and development of EV71 vaccine candidates is of growing importance. In the present study, an experimental EV71 inactivated vaccine was prepared, and its corresponding immunogenicity was analyzed.

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Oct
2011

The genetic characteristics of mumps virus (MuV) strains isolated from sporadic mumps cases between 2007 and 2009 in three provinces of south-west China were investigated. MuV detection was carried out by nested RT-PCR on 117 cases. The small hydrophobic gene of 33 isolated strains was identified, and sequence analysis revealed that all the isolates belonged to the lineage genotype F with slight nucleotide variation.

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Sep
2011

Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a major pathogen that is responsible for causing hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide, is a member of the Human Enterovirus species A, family Picornaviridae. HFMD that is caused by EV71 is usually characterized by vesicular lesions on the skin and oral mucosa and high morbidity rates in children; additionally, occasional fatal cases have been reported involving brainstem encephalitis and myelitis associated with cardiopulmonary collapse. Although viral pathogenesis in humans is unclear, previous animal studies have indicated that EV71, inoculated via various routes, is capable of targeting and injuring the central nervous system (CNS).

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Apr
2011

The protein encoded by HSRG1 (HSV-1 stimulation-related gene 1) is a virally induced protein expressed in HSV-1-infected cells. We have already reported that HSRG1 is capable of interacting with transcriptional regulator proteins. To further analyze the effects of HSRG1 on the regulation of viral gene transcription, we expressed the HSRG1 protein in transfected cells and found that it postpones the proliferation of HSV-1.

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Apr
2011

Combining results from previous studies, a multi-epitope antigen PCXZ against the hepatitis C virus was synthesized in this study. The antigenic specificity of PCXZ was determined by recognizing antibodies in serum samples from hepatitis C virus patients, but not from healthy subjects or subjects who had the hepatitis B virus. The characteristics of PCXZ immunogenicity were evaluated in BALB/c mice.

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Mar
2011

Data from limited autopsies of human patients demonstrate that pathological changes in EV71-infected fatal cases are principally characterized by clear inflammatory lesions in different parts of the CNS; nearly identical changes were found in murine, cynomolgus and rhesus monkey studies which provide evidence of using animal models to investigate the mechanisms of EV71 pathogenesis. Our work uses neonatal rhesus monkeys to investigate a possible model of EV71 pathogenesis and concludes that this model could be applied to provide objective indicators which include clinical manifestations, virus dynamic distribution and pathological changes for observation and evaluation in interpreting the complete process of EV71 infection. This induced systemic infection and other collected indicators in neonatal monkeys could be repeated; the transmission appears to involve infecting new monkeys by contact with feces of infected animals.

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Dec
2010

Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) is one of the main etiologic agents responsible for periodic epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). The prevention and control of EV71 epidemics with effective anti-viral agents and vaccines is very important for public health. Because the pathogenesis of EV71 in the human body is not completely clear and genetic variations in the virus during its replication are difficult to control, we have focused on the development of an inactivated whole-virus vaccine.

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Dec
2010

Mumps epidemics are usually caused by airborne transmission of mumps virus (MuV) and have high morbidity in non-immunized children. Epidemiological studies in many regions of China show that the genotype F viral strain is the most prevalent. However, the genotype A strain is currently used to prepare vaccines.

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Jul
2010

HSV-1 viral capsid maturation and egress from the nucleus constitutes a self-controlled process of interactions between host cytoplasmic membrane proteins and viral capsid proteins. In this study, a member of the tetraspanin superfamily, CTMP-7, was shown to physically interact with HSV-1 protein VP26, and the VP26-CTMP-7 complex was detected both in vivo and in vitro. The interaction of VP26 with CTMP-7 plays an essential role in normal HSV-1 replication.

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Aug
2010

VP22, a tegument protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), is present in many copies in one virion and undergoes different types of post-translational modification. VP22 is believed to have certain functions in viral infection apart from virus assembly. Here we show that VP22 physically interacted with infected cell polypeptide 0 (ICP0) and colocalized in the nucleus, indicating that VP22 could be functionally involved in the modulation of viral transcription through interaction with ICP0.

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Dec
1969

ICP0 is a multifunctional protein that plays diverse roles in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. It can promote the lytic replication of HSV-1 and activate a variety of viral or cellular genes when introduced into cells by transfection or infection. However, the exact mechanism of ICP0 action is not fully understood.

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Apr
2009

Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV1) is capable of inducing two forms of infection in individuals, and the establishment of which type of infection occurs is linked to the transcriptional activation of viral alpha genes. One of the HSV1 alpha genes, ICP22, is known to have multiple functions during virus replication, but its distinct roles are still unclear. This study showed that ICP22 functions as a general repressor for certain viral and cellular promoters, and this transcriptional repression by ICP22 is independent of the specific upstream promoter element, as shown using the CAT enzyme assay system.

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Nov
2008

The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) tegument proteins have important functions in the viral replication process. In order to investigate the role of the HSV-1 tegument protein VP22 in viral replication, its transcriptional regulation of viral promoters was investigated using the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assay. The results indicate that VP22 exerts a dose-dependent transcriptional inhibitory effect on the HSV-1 alpha4, TK, and gC gene promoters.

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Aug
2008

While an attenuated vaccine against mumps has played a role in controlling the epidemic of this disease worldwide, some problems with efficacy and safety of the vaccine are still present. In the work described here, a novel mumps vaccine with good immunity and safety was developed by selecting an antigen component of the mumps virus. The results suggest that this purified antigen vaccine is immunogenic in animals and is capable of inducing a specific neutralizing antibody response against viral HN, but not against other viral proteins.

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Jun
2008

A novel gene was previously isolated from a cDNA library of human embryo lung tissue by its encoded protein, which interacts with non-structural protein 10 (nsp-10) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The protein was named human embryo lung cellular protein interacting with SARS-CoV nsp-10 (HEPIS), and it is composed of 147 amino acids with several CK II phosphorylation sites. In the present study, we demonstrated that HEPIS was capable of suppressing chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene expression controlled by different enhancerelements in a transcription assay.

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Aug
2007

As a product of HSVI immediate-early gene, ICP22 is capable of interacting with various cellular transcriptive and regulatory molecules during viral infection so as to impact the normal cellular molecular mechanism. ICP22 expressed in transfected cells can push the cells' entering into S phase with binding to mdm-1 promoter region and impact its trans-transcription activating effect by P53. Consequently, the MDM-2 binds to P53, and the degradation effects by the ubiquitous pathway are decreased, improving indirectly the P53 levels in cells and making the cells progress into the S phase.

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Jun
2007

The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) major immediate-early (MIE) promoter has strong transcriptional promoting capability. Its cis-acting regulatory elements form a special structure in this region that is repeated multiple times; the biological significance of these elements and their different compositions in the transcriptional promoting process remain unclear. Our results demonstrate that the HSV-I MIE protein ICP22 can generate strong repression of many viral and cellular promoters and enhancers.

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Dec
1969

Studies about the proteins induced by interferon (IFN-)-alpha stimulation have provided some data on their mechanism of antiviral effect. These proteins were confirmed to contribute to antiviral functions. In this study, IFN-alpha stimulation of human fibroblasts was shown to induce the inhibition of S24 variant 2 (a structural component of the ribosomal small subunit) at the mRNA and protein levels, implying a possible antiviral mechanism for IFN-alpha in human fibroblasts.

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