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Author: M Mallar Chakravarty (136)


Feb
2018

Optimizing early nutritional intake in preterm neonates may promote brain health and neurodevelopment through enhanced brain maturation. Our objectives were (1) to determine the association of energy and macronutrient intake in the first 2 weeks of life with regional and total brain growth and white matter (WM) maturation, assessed by 3 serial MRI scans in preterm neonates; (2) to examine how critical illness modifies this association; and (3) to investigate the relationship with neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Forty-nine preterm neonates (21 boys, median [interquartile range] gestational age: 27.

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Mar
2018

Previous proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) studies have reported disrupted levels of various neurometabolites in patients with schizophrenia. An area of particular interest within this patient population is the striatum, which is highly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The present study examined neurometabolite levels in the striatum of 12 patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotic treatment for at least 1 year and 11 healthy controls using 3-TeslaH-MRS (PRESS, TE = 35 ms).

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Feb
2018

There is evidence suggesting neuropsychiatric disorders share genomic, cognitive and clinical features. Here, we ask if autism-spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia share neuroanatomical variations.
First, we used measures of cortical anatomy to estimate spatial overlap of neuroanatomical variation using univariate methods.

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Dec
1969

Sex differences have been widely observed in clinical presentation, functional outcome and neuroanatomy in individuals with a first-episode of psychosis, and chronic patients suffering from schizophrenia. However, little is known about sex differences in the high-risk stages for psychosis. The present study investigated sex differences in cortical and subcortical neuroanatomy in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis and healthy controls (CTL), and the relationship between anatomy and clinical symptoms in males at CHR.

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Dec
2017

Machine learning is a powerful tool that has previously been used to classify schizophrenia (SZ) patients from healthy controls (HC) using magnetic resonance images. Each study, however, uses different datasets, classification algorithms, and validation techniques. Here, we perform a critical appraisal of the accuracy of machine learning methodologies used in SZ/HC classifications studies by comparing three machine learning algorithms (logistic regression [LR], support vector machines [SVMs], and linear discriminant analysis [LDA]) on three independent datasets (435 subjects total) using two tissue density estimates and cortical thickness (CT).

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Jan
2018

Very preterm human neonates are exposed to numerous invasive procedures as part of life-saving care. Evidence suggests that repetitive neonatal procedural pain precedes long-term alterations in brain development. However, to date the link between pain and brain development has limited temporal and anatomic specificity.

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Mar
2018

Our objectives were to determine whether procedural pain and glucose exposure are associated with altered structural and functional brain development differently in preterm males and females, and neurodevelopment at 18-month corrected age. Fifty-one very preterm neonates (22 males; median [interquartile range] gestational age 27.6 [2.

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Feb
2018

Neuropathological and in vivo brain imaging studies agree that the cornu ammonis 1 and subiculum subfields of the hippocampus are most vulnerable to atrophy in the prodromal phases of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there has been limited investigation of the structural integrity of the components of the hippocampal circuit, including subfields and extra-hippocampal white matter structure, in relation to the progression of well-accepted cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of AD, amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ) and total-tau (tau). We investigated these relationships in 88 aging asymptomatic individuals with a parental or multiple-sibling familial history of AD.

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Mar
2018

Motivational deficits are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia, persist despite antipsychotic treatment, and predict long-term outcomes. Evidence suggests that patients with greater amotivation have smaller ventral striatum (VS) volumes. We wished to replicate this finding in a sample of older, chronically medicated patients with schizophrenia.

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Sep
2017

The cerebellum is implicated in social cognition and is likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The goal of our study was to explore cerebellar morphology in adults with ASD and its relationship to eye contact, as measured by fixation time allocated on the eye region using an eye-tracking device. Two-hundred ninety-four subjects with ASD and controls were included in our study and underwent a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan.

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Dec
1969

There has been a distinct shift in neuroimaging from localization of function into a more network based approach focused on connectivity. While fMRI has proven very fruitful for this, the hemodynamic signal is inherently slow which limits the temporal resolution of fMRI-only connectivity measures. The brain, however, works on a time scale of milliseconds.

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Aug
2017

Violent offending is elevated among individuals with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and high psychopathic traits (PP). Morphological abnormalities of the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are present in violent offenders, which may relate to the violence enacted by ASPD + PP. Among healthy males, monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) genetic variants linked to low in vitro transcription (MAOA-L) are associated with structural abnormalities of the amygdala and OFC.

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Dec
1969

The clinical and structural trajectories of suspected non-Alzheimer' pathology (SNAP) remain elusive due to its heterogeneous etiology. Baseline and longitudinal clinical (global cognition, daily functioning, symptoms of dementia, and learning memory) and hippocampal volume trajectories over two years were compared between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) with SNAP with reduced hippocampal volumes (SNAP+HIPPO) and aMCI patients with SNAP without reduced hippocampal volumes. SNAP+HIPPO showed overall worse baseline cognitive functions.

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Nov
2017

Abnormalities in dopamine (DA) and brain morphology are observed in several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, it is not fully understood how these abnormalities may relate to one another. For such in vivo findings to be used as biomarkers for neuropsychiatric disease, it must be understood how variability in DA relates to brain structure under healthy conditions.

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Nov
2017

The developing hippocampus is highly sensitive to chemotherapy and cranial radiation treatments for pediatric cancers, yet little is known about the effects that cancer treatents have on specific hippocampal subfields. Here, we examined hippocampal subfield volumes in 29 pediatric brain tumor survivors treated with cranial radiation and chemotherapy, and 30 healthy developing children and adolescents. We also examined associations between hippocampal subfield volumes and short-term verbal memory.

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Sep
2017

The hippocampus is composed of distinct subfields linked to diverse functions and disorders. The subfields can be mapped using high-resolution magnetic resonance images, and their volumes can potentially be used as quantitative phenotypes for genetic investigation of hippocampal function. We estimated the heritability of hippocampus subfield volumes of 465 subjects from the Human Connectome Project (twins and non-twin siblings) using two methods.

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May
2017

Three-dimensional atlases of subcortical brain structures are valuable tools to reference anatomy in neuroscience and neurology. For instance, they can be used to study the position and shape of the three most common deep brain stimulation (DBS) targets, the subthalamic nucleus (STN), internal part of the pallidum (GPi) and ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (VIM) in spatial relationship to DBS electrodes. Here, we present a composite atlas based on manual segmentations of a multimodal high resolution brain template, histology and structural connectivity.

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Dec
1969

Suspected non-Alzheimer's disease pathology (SNAP) characterizes individuals showing neurodegeneration (e.g., hypometabolism) without amyloid-β (Aβ).

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Jun
2017

Parkinson׳s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects the motor functions of the patients. Research and surgical treatment of PD (e.g.

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Apr
2017

Though commonly thought of as a "motor structure", we now know that the cerebellum's reciprocal connections to the cerebral cortex underlie contributions to both motor and non-motor behavior. Further, recent research has shown that cerebellar dysfunction may contribute to a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, there has been little characterization of normative variability at the level of cerebellar structure that can facilitate and further our understanding of disease biomarkers.

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Jul
2017

Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) tend to sample less information when making a decision, jumping to conclusions (JTC) without sufficient evidence. This "JTC bias" may be a trait marker of the disease and may not improve with antipsychotic treatment. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to test whether intranasal oxytocin could reduce JTC in stable, medicated patients with SCZ and healthy controls (HCs).

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Apr
2017

The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is critical for brain development, and the functional BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is implicated in risk for mood disorders. The objective of this study was to determine how the Val66Met polymorphism influences amygdala-cortical connectivity during neurodevelopment and assess the relevance for mood disorders. Age- and sex-specific effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on amygdala-cortical connectivity were assessed by examining covariance of amygdala volumes with thickness throughout the cortex in a sample of Caucasian youths ages 8-22 that were part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (n = 339).

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Dec
1969

Efficacy of future treatments depends on biomarkers identifying patients with mild cognitive impairment at highest risk for transitioning to Alzheimer's disease. Here, we applied recently developed analysis techniques to investigate cross-sectional differences in subcortical shape and volume alterations in patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (= 23, age range 59-82, 47.8% female), future converters at baseline (= 10, age range 66-84, 90% female) and at time of conversion (age range 68-87) compared to group-wise age and gender matched healthy control subjects (= 23, age range 61-81, 47.

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Jun
2017

Threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) is a sensitive means to incorporate spatial neighborhood information in neuroimaging studies without using arbitrary thresholds. The majority of methods have applied TFCE to voxelwise data. The need to understand the relationship among multiple variables and imaging modalities has become critical.

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May
2017

The cerebellum is a large hindbrain structure that is increasingly recognized for its contribution to diverse domains of cognitive and affective processing in human health and disease. Although several of these domains are sex biased, our fundamental understanding of cerebellar sex differences-including their spatial distribution, potential biological determinants, and independence from brain volume variation-lags far behind that for the cerebrum. Here, we harness automated neuroimaging methods for cerebellar morphometrics in 417 individuals to (1) localize normative male-female differences in raw cerebellar volume, (2) compare these to sex chromosome effects estimated across five rare sex (X/Y) chromosome aneuploidy (SCA) syndromes, and (3) clarify brain size-independent effects of sex and SCA on cerebellar anatomy using a generalizable allometric approach that considers scaling relationships between regional cerebellar volume and brain volume in health.

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Jun
2017

Hippocampal atrophy rate-measured using automated techniques applied to structural MRI scans-is considered a sensitive marker of disease progression in Alzheimer's disease, frequently used as an outcome measure in clinical trials. Using publicly accessible data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), we examined 1-year hippocampal atrophy rates generated by each of five automated or semiautomated hippocampal segmentation algorithms in patients with Alzheimer's disease, subjects with mild cognitive impairment, or elderly controls. We analyzed MRI data from 398 and 62 subjects available at baseline and at 1 year at MRI field strengths of 1.

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Mar
2017

The rate of progress in human neurosciences is limited by the inability to easily apply a wide range of analysis methods to the plethora of different datasets acquired in labs around the world. In this work, we introduce a framework for creating, testing, versioning and archiving portable applications for analyzing neuroimaging data organized and described in compliance with the Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS). The portability of these applications (BIDS Apps) is achieved by using container technologies that encapsulate all binary and other dependencies in one convenient package.

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Mar
2017

Accurate automated quantification of subcortical structures is a greatly pursued endeavour in neuroimaging. In an effort to establish the validity and reliability of these methods in defining the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus, we investigated differences in volumetry between manual delineation and automated segmentations derived by widely used FreeSurfer and FSL packages, and a more recent segmentation method, the MAGeT-Brain algorithm. In a first set of experiments, the basal ganglia and thalamus of thirty subjects (15 first episode psychosis [FEP], 15 controls) were manually defined and compared to the labels generated by the three automated methods.

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May
2017

Despite being diagnostically associated uniquely with schizophrenia, negative symptoms are also observed in bipolar disorder (BD). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have uncovered a number of shared risk genes between schizophrenia and BD. The objectives of this study were to examine whether previously identified risk genes for BD are associated with negative symptom severity within a first-episode schizophrenia (FES) cohort and to examine whether such genes influence brain morphology.

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Jul
2017

Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that is derived from astrocytes as part of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation. Evidence suggests that abnormal KYNA levels are involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, this has never been assessed through a meta-analysis.

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Feb
2017

To quantitatively assess white matter injury (WMI) volume and location in very preterm neonates, and to examine the association of lesion volume and location with 18-month neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Volume and location of WMI was quantified on MRI in 216 neonates (median gestational age 27.9 weeks) who had motor, cognitive, and language assessments at 18 months corrected age (CA).

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Jan
2017

Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume.

Nat Commun 2017 Jan 18;8:13624. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
Derrek P Hibar, Hieab H H Adams, Neda Jahanshad, Ganesh Chauhan, Jason L Stein, Edith Hofer, Miguel E Renteria, Joshua C Bis, Alejandro Arias-Vasquez, M Kamran Ikram, Sylvane Desrivières, Meike W Vernooij, Lucija Abramovic, Saud Alhusaini, Najaf Amin, Micael Andersson, Konstantinos Arfanakis, Benjamin S Aribisala, Nicola J Armstrong, Lavinia Athanasiu, Tomas Axelsson, Ashley H Beecham, Alexa Beiser, Manon Bernard, Susan H Blanton, Marc M Bohlken, Marco P Boks, Janita Bralten, Adam M Brickman, Owen Carmichael, M Mallar Chakravarty, Qiang Chen, Christopher R K Ching, Vincent Chouraki, Gabriel Cuellar-Partida, Fabrice Crivello, Anouk Den Braber, Nhat Trung Doan, Stefan Ehrlich, Sudheer Giddaluru, Aaron L Goldman, Rebecca F Gottesman, Oliver Grimm, Michael E Griswold, Tulio Guadalupe, Boris A Gutman, Johanna Hass, Unn K Haukvik, David Hoehn, Avram J Holmes, Martine Hoogman, Deborah Janowitz, Tianye Jia, Kjetil N Jørgensen, Nazanin Karbalai, Dalia Kasperaviciute, Sungeun Kim, Marieke Klein, Bernd Kraemer, Phil H Lee, David C M Liewald, Lorna M Lopez, Michelle Luciano, Christine Macare, Andre F Marquand, Mar Matarin, Karen A Mather, Manuel Mattheisen, David R McKay, Yuri Milaneschi, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Kwangsik Nho, Allison C Nugent, Paul Nyquist, Loes M Olde Loohuis, Jaap Oosterlaan, Martina Papmeyer, Lukas Pirpamer, Benno Pütz, Adaikalavan Ramasamy, Jennifer S Richards, Shannon L Risacher, Roberto Roiz-Santiañez, Nanda Rommelse, Stefan Ropele, Emma J Rose, Natalie A Royle, Tatjana Rundek, Philipp G Sämann, Arvin Saremi, Claudia L Satizabal, Lianne Schmaal, Andrew J Schork, Li Shen, Jean Shin, Elena Shumskaya, Albert V Smith, Emma Sprooten, Lachlan T Strike, Alexander Teumer, Diana Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Roberto Toro, Daniah Trabzuni, Stella Trompet, Dhananjay Vaidya, Jeroen Van der Grond, Sven J Van der Lee, Dennis Van der Meer, Marjolein M J Van Donkelaar, Kristel R Van Eijk, Theo G M Van Erp, Daan Van Rooij, Esther Walton, Lars T Westlye, Christopher D Whelan, Beverly G Windham, Anderson M Winkler, Katharina Wittfeld, Girma Woldehawariat, Christiane Wolf, Thomas Wolfers, Lisa R Yanek, Jingyun Yang, Alex Zijdenbos, Marcel P Zwiers, Ingrid Agartz, Laura Almasy, David Ames, Philippe Amouyel, Ole A Andreassen, Sampath Arepalli, Amelia A Assareh, Sandra Barral, Mark E Bastin, Diane M Becker, James T Becker, David A Bennett, John Blangero, Hans van Bokhoven, Dorret I Boomsma, Henry Brodaty, Rachel M Brouwer, Han G Brunner, Randy L Buckner, Jan K Buitelaar, Kazima B Bulayeva, Wiepke Cahn, Vince D Calhoun, Dara M Cannon, Gianpiero L Cavalleri, Ching-Yu Cheng, Sven Cichon, Mark R Cookson, Aiden Corvin, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Joanne E Curran, Michael Czisch, Anders M Dale, Gareth E Davies, Anton J M De Craen, Eco J C De Geus, Philip L De Jager, Greig I De Zubicaray, Ian J Deary, Stéphanie Debette, Charles DeCarli, Norman Delanty, Chantal Depondt, Anita DeStefano, Allissa Dillman, Srdjan Djurovic, Gary Donohoe, Wayne C Drevets, Ravi Duggirala, Thomas D Dyer, Christian Enzinger, Susanne Erk, Thomas Espeseth, Iryna O Fedko, Guillén Fernández, Luigi Ferrucci, Simon E Fisher, Debra A Fleischman, Ian Ford, Myriam Fornage, Tatiana M Foroud, Peter T Fox, Clyde Francks, Masaki Fukunaga, J Raphael Gibbs, David C Glahn, Randy L Gollub, Harald H H Göring, Robert C Green, Oliver Gruber, Vilmundur Gudnason, Sebastian Guelfi, Asta K Håberg, Narelle K Hansell, John Hardy, Catharina A Hartman, Ryota Hashimoto, Katrin Hegenscheid, Andreas Heinz, Stephanie Le Hellard, Dena G Hernandez, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Beng-Choon Ho, Pieter J Hoekstra, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Albert Hofman, Florian Holsboer, Georg Homuth, Norbert Hosten, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Matthew Huentelman, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol, Masashi Ikeda, Clifford R Jack, Mark Jenkinson, Robert Johnson, Erik G Jönsson, J Wouter Jukema, René S Kahn, Ryota Kanai, Iwona Kloszewska, David S Knopman, Peter Kochunov, John B Kwok, Stephen M Lawrie, Hervé Lemaître, Xinmin Liu, Dan L Longo, Oscar L Lopez, Simon Lovestone, Oliver Martinez, Jean-Luc Martinot, Venkata S Mattay, Colm McDonald, Andrew M McIntosh, Francis J McMahon, Katie L McMahon, Patrizia Mecocci, Ingrid Melle, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Sebastian Mohnke, Grant W Montgomery, Derek W Morris, Thomas H Mosley, Thomas W Mühleisen, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Michael A Nalls, Matthias Nauck, Thomas E Nichols, Wiro J Niessen, Markus M Nöthen, Lars Nyberg, Kazutaka Ohi, Rene L Olvera, Roel A Ophoff, Massimo Pandolfo, Tomas Paus, Zdenka Pausova, Brenda W J H Penninx, G Bruce Pike, Steven G Potkin, Bruce M Psaty, Simone Reppermund, Marcella Rietschel, Joshua L Roffman, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth, Jerome I Rotter, Mina Ryten, Ralph L Sacco, Perminder S Sachdev, Andrew J Saykin, Reinhold Schmidt, Helena Schmidt, Peter R Schofield, Sigurdur Sigursson, Andrew Simmons, Andrew Singleton, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Colin Smith, Jordan W Smoller, Hilkka Soininen, Vidar M Steen, David J Stott, Jessika E Sussmann, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Arthur W Toga, Bryan J Traynor, Juan Troncoso, Magda Tsolaki, Christophe Tzourio, Andre G Uitterlinden, Maria C Valdés Hernández, Marcel Van der Brug, Aad van der Lugt, Nic J A van der Wee, Neeltje E M Van Haren, Dennis van 't Ent, Marie-Jose Van Tol, Badri N Vardarajan, Bruno Vellas, Dick J Veltman, Henry Völzke, Henrik Walter, Joanna M Wardlaw, Thomas H Wassink, Michael E Weale, Daniel R Weinberger, Michael W Weiner, Wei Wen, Eric Westman, Tonya White, Tien Y Wong, Clinton B Wright, Ronald H Zielke, Alan B Zonderman, Nicholas G Martin, Cornelia M Van Duijn, Margaret J Wright, W T Longstreth, Gunter Schumann, Hans J Grabe, Barbara Franke, Lenore J Launer, Sarah E Medland, Sudha Seshadri, Paul M Thompson, M Arfan Ikram
The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel.

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Jan
2017

The advent of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has enabled in vivo research in a variety of populations and diseases on the structure and function of hippocampal subfields and subdivisions of the parahippocampal gyrus. Because of the many extant and highly discrepant segmentation protocols, comparing results across studies is difficult. To overcome this barrier, the Hippocampal Subfields Group was formed as an international collaboration with the aim of developing a harmonized protocol for manual segmentation of hippocampal and parahippocampal subregions on high-resolution MRI.

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Feb
2017

The human cerebellum is involved in language, motor tasks and cognitive processes such as attention or emotional processing. Therefore, an automatic and accurate segmentation method is highly desirable to measure and understand the cerebellum role in normal and pathological brain development. In this work, we propose a patch-based multi-atlas segmentation tool called CERES (CEREbellum Segmentation) that is able to automatically parcellate the cerebellum lobules.

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Dec
1969

Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association.

Nat Neurosci 2016 12 3;19(12):1569-1582. Epub 2016 Oct 3.
Hieab H H Adams, Derrek P Hibar, Vincent Chouraki, Jason L Stein, Paul A Nyquist, Miguel E Rentería, Stella Trompet, Alejandro Arias-Vasquez, Sudha Seshadri, Sylvane Desrivières, Ashley H Beecham, Neda Jahanshad, Katharina Wittfeld, Sven J Van der Lee, Lucija Abramovic, Saud Alhusaini, Najaf Amin, Micael Andersson, Konstantinos Arfanakis, Benjamin S Aribisala, Nicola J Armstrong, Lavinia Athanasiu, Tomas Axelsson, Alexa Beiser, Manon Bernard, Joshua C Bis, Laura M E Blanken, Susan H Blanton, Marc M Bohlken, Marco P Boks, Janita Bralten, Adam M Brickman, Owen Carmichael, M Mallar Chakravarty, Ganesh Chauhan, Qiang Chen, Christopher R K Ching, Gabriel Cuellar-Partida, Anouk Den Braber, Nhat Trung Doan, Stefan Ehrlich, Irina Filippi, Tian Ge, Sudheer Giddaluru, Aaron L Goldman, Rebecca F Gottesman, Corina U Greven, Oliver Grimm, Michael E Griswold, Tulio Guadalupe, Johanna Hass, Unn K Haukvik, Saima Hilal, Edith Hofer, David Hoehn, Avram J Holmes, Martine Hoogman, Deborah Janowitz, Tianye Jia, Dalia Kasperaviciute, Sungeun Kim, Marieke Klein, Bernd Kraemer, Phil H Lee, Jiemin Liao, David C M Liewald, Lorna M Lopez, Michelle Luciano, Christine Macare, Andre Marquand, Mar Matarin, Karen A Mather, Manuel Mattheisen, Bernard Mazoyer, David R McKay, Rebekah McWhirter, Yuri Milaneschi, Nazanin Mirza-Schreiber, Ryan L Muetzel, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Kwangsik Nho, Allison C Nugent, Loes M Olde Loohuis, Jaap Oosterlaan, Martina Papmeyer, Irene Pappa, Lukas Pirpamer, Sara Pudas, Benno Pütz, Kumar B Rajan, Adaikalavan Ramasamy, Jennifer S Richards, Shannon L Risacher, Roberto Roiz-Santiañez, Nanda Rommelse, Emma J Rose, Natalie A Royle, Tatjana Rundek, Philipp G Sämann, Claudia L Satizabal, Lianne Schmaal, Andrew J Schork, Li Shen, Jean Shin, Elena Shumskaya, Albert V Smith, Emma Sprooten, Lachlan T Strike, Alexander Teumer, Russell Thomson, Diana Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Roberto Toro, Daniah Trabzuni, Dhananjay Vaidya, Jeroen Van der Grond, Dennis Van der Meer, Marjolein M J Van Donkelaar, Kristel R Van Eijk, Theo G M Van Erp, Daan Van Rooij, Esther Walton, Lars T Westlye, Christopher D Whelan, Beverly G Windham, Anderson M Winkler, Girma Woldehawariat, Christiane Wolf, Thomas Wolfers, Bing Xu, Lisa R Yanek, Jingyun Yang, Alex Zijdenbos, Marcel P Zwiers, Ingrid Agartz, Neelum T Aggarwal, Laura Almasy, David Ames, Philippe Amouyel, Ole A Andreassen, Sampath Arepalli, Amelia A Assareh, Sandra Barral, Mark E Bastin, Diane M Becker, James T Becker, David A Bennett, John Blangero, Hans van Bokhoven, Dorret I Boomsma, Henry Brodaty, Rachel M Brouwer, Han G Brunner, Randy L Buckner, Jan K Buitelaar, Kazima B Bulayeva, Wiepke Cahn, Vince D Calhoun, Dara M Cannon, Gianpiero L Cavalleri, Christopher Chen, Ching-Yu Cheng, Sven Cichon, Mark R Cookson, Aiden Corvin, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Joanne E Curran, Michael Czisch, Anders M Dale, Gareth E Davies, Eco J C De Geus, Philip L De Jager, Greig I de Zubicaray, Norman Delanty, Chantal Depondt, Anita L DeStefano, Allissa Dillman, Srdjan Djurovic, Gary Donohoe, Wayne C Drevets, Ravi Duggirala, Thomas D Dyer, Susanne Erk, Thomas Espeseth, Denis A Evans, Iryna O Fedko, Guillén Fernández, Luigi Ferrucci, Simon E Fisher, Debra A Fleischman, Ian Ford, Tatiana M Foroud, Peter T Fox, Clyde Francks, Masaki Fukunaga, J Raphael Gibbs, David C Glahn, Randy L Gollub, Harald H H Göring, Hans J Grabe, Robert C Green, Oliver Gruber, Vilmundur Gudnason, Sebastian Guelfi, Narelle K Hansell, John Hardy, Catharina A Hartman, Ryota Hashimoto, Katrin Hegenscheid, Andreas Heinz, Stephanie Le Hellard, Dena G Hernandez, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Beng-Choon Ho, Pieter J Hoekstra, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Albert Hofman, Florian Holsboer, Georg Homuth, Norbert Hosten, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol, Masashi Ikeda, M Kamran Ikram, Clifford R Jack, Mark Jenkinson, Robert Johnson, Erik G Jönsson, J Wouter Jukema, René S Kahn, Ryota Kanai, Iwona Kloszewska, David S Knopman, Peter Kochunov, John B Kwok, Stephen M Lawrie, Hervé Lemaître, Xinmin Liu, Dan L Longo, W T Longstreth, Oscar L Lopez, Simon Lovestone, Oliver Martinez, Jean-Luc Martinot, Venkata S Mattay, Colm McDonald, Andrew M McIntosh, Katie L McMahon, Francis J McMahon, Patrizia Mecocci, Ingrid Melle, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Sebastian Mohnke, Grant W Montgomery, Derek W Morris, Thomas H Mosley, Thomas W Mühleisen, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Michael A Nalls, Matthias Nauck, Thomas E Nichols, Wiro J Niessen, Markus M Nöthen, Lars Nyberg, Kazutaka Ohi, Rene L Olvera, Roel A Ophoff, Massimo Pandolfo, Tomas Paus, Zdenka Pausova, Brenda W J H Penninx, G Bruce Pike, Steven G Potkin, Bruce M Psaty, Simone Reppermund, Marcella Rietschel, Joshua L Roffman, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth, Jerome I Rotter, Mina Ryten, Ralph L Sacco, Perminder S Sachdev, Andrew J Saykin, Reinhold Schmidt, Peter R Schofield, Sigurdur Sigurdsson, Andy Simmons, Andrew Singleton, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Colin Smith, Jordan W Smoller, Hilkka Soininen, Velandai Srikanth, Vidar M Steen, David J Stott, Jessika E Sussmann, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Henning Tiemeier, Arthur W Toga, Bryan J Traynor, Juan Troncoso, Jessica A Turner, Christophe Tzourio, Andre G Uitterlinden, Maria C Valdés Hernández, Marcel Van der Brug, Aad Van der Lugt, Nic J A Van der Wee, Cornelia M Van Duijn, Neeltje E M Van Haren, Dennis Van T Ent, Marie-Jose Van Tol, Badri N Vardarajan, Dick J Veltman, Meike W Vernooij, Henry Völzke, Henrik Walter, Joanna M Wardlaw, Thomas H Wassink, Michael E Weale, Daniel R Weinberger, Michael W Weiner, Wei Wen, Eric Westman, Tonya White, Tien Y Wong, Clinton B Wright, H Ronald Zielke, Alan B Zonderman, Ian J Deary, Charles DeCarli, Helena Schmidt, Nicholas G Martin, Anton J M De Craen, Margaret J Wright, Lenore J Launer, Gunter Schumann, Myriam Fornage, Barbara Franke, Stéphanie Debette, Sarah E Medland, M Arfan Ikram, Paul M Thompson
Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals.

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Oct
2016

Recently, much attention has been focused on the definition and structure of the hippocampus and its subfields, while the projections from the hippocampus have been relatively understudied. Here, we derive a reliable protocol for manual segmentation of hippocampal white matter regions (alveus, fimbria, and fornix) using high-resolution magnetic resonance images that are complementary to our previous definitions of the hippocampal subfields, both of which are freely available at https://github.com/cobralab/atlases.

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Nov
2016

It is inconclusive as to whether benzodiazepines (BZDs) are related to cognitive deterioration in the elderly populations. Animal studies suggest that γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor agonists, such as BZDs, may prevent Aβ-neurotoxicity and reduce β-amyloid (Aβ). However, no studies have investigated the effects of BZD use on Aβ in humans.

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Mar
2016

Current neuroscience literature has related treatment with aripiprazole to improved memory performance and subcellular changes in the hippocampus.
To explore the volumetric changes in hippocampal grey matter in people with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) treated with second-generation antipsychotics.
Baseline and 1-year follow-up magnetic resonance images were obtained.

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May
2017

Aβ deposition is a driving force of Alzheimer's disease pathology and can be detected early by amyloid positron emission tomography. Identifying presymptomatic structural brain changes associated with Aβ deposition might lead to a better understanding of its consequences and provide early diagnostic information. In this respect we analyzed measures of cortical thickness and subcortical volumes along with hippocampal, thalamic and striatal shape and surface area by applying novel analysis strategies for structural magnetic resonance imaging.

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Dec
1969

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used to modulate the activity of dysfunctional brain circuits. The safety and efficacy of DBS in dementia is unknown.
To assess DBS of memory circuits as a treatment for patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD).

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Oct
2016

Current literature suggests that the pathology of schizophrenia (SCZ) has developmental origins. However, the neurodevelopmental theory of SCZ cannot solely explain progressive neurodegenerative processes in the illness. There is evidence of accelerated cognitive decline and increased risk of dementia in elderly patients with SCZ.

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Dec
1969

Recent advances in multi-atlas based algorithms address many of the previous limitations in model-based and probabilistic segmentation methods. However, at the label fusion stage, a majority of algorithms focus primarily on optimizing weight-maps associated with the atlas library based on a theoretical objective function that approximates the segmentation error. In contrast, we propose a novel method-Autocorrecting Walks over Localized Markov Random Fields (AWoL-MRF)-that aims at mimicking the sequential process of manual segmentation, which is the gold-standard for virtually all the segmentation methods.

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Dec
1969

Neuroimaging studies investigating patients with schizophrenia often report appreciable volumetric reductions and cortical thinning, yet the cause of these deficits is unknown. The association between subcortical and cortical structural alterations, and glutamatergic neurometabolites is of particular interest due to glutamate's capacity for neurotoxicity; elevated levels may be related to neuroanatomical compromise through an excitotoxic process. To this end, we explored the relationships between glutamatergic neurometabolites and structural measures in antipsychotic-naive patients experiencing their first non-affective episode of psychosis (FEP).

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Dec
1969

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with cognitive, motor, and emotional symptoms. The thalamus and basal ganglia form circuits with the cortex supporting all three of these behavioral domains. Abnormalities in the structure of subcortical regions may suggest atypical development of these networks, with implications for understanding the neural basis of ASD symptoms.

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Dec
1969

Imaging genetics is an emerging field in which the association between genes and neuroimaging-based quantitative phenotypes are used to explore the functional role of genes in neuroanatomy and neurophysiology in the context of healthy function and neuropsychiatric disorders. The main obstacle for researchers in the field is the high dimensionality of the data in both the imaging phenotypes and the genetic variants commonly typed. In this article, we develop a novel method that utilizes Gene Ontology, an online database, to select and prioritize certain genes, employing a stratified false discovery rate (sFDR) approach to investigate their associations with imaging phenotypes.

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Dec
1969

This study is the first to characterize normal development and sex differences across neuroanatomical structures in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar brain regions in a single large cohort.
One hundred and ninety-two magnetic resonance images were examined from 96 typically developing females and 96 age-matched typically developing males from 4 to 18 years of age. Image segmentation of the cortex was conducted with CIVET, while that of the cerebellum, hippocampi, thalamus, and basal ganglia were conducted using the MAGeT algorithm.

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May
2016

Distinct differences in the human voice emerge during adolescence, with males producing deeper and more resonant voices than females by the end of sexual maturation. Using magnetic resonance images of heads and voice recordings obtained in 532 typically developing adolescents, we investigate what might be the drivers of this change in voice, and the subjective judgment of the voice "maleness" and "femaleness". We show clear sex differences in the morphology of voice-related structures during adolescence, with males displaying strong associations between age (and puberty) and both vocal-fold and vocal-tract length; this was not the case in female adolescents.

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Feb
2016

Structural neuroimaging of humans with typical and atypical sex-chromosome complements has established the marked influence of both Yand X-/Y-chromosome dosage on total brain volume (TBV) and identified potential cortical substrates for the psychiatric phenotypes associated with sex-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA). Here, in a cohort of 354 humans with varying karyotypes (XX, XY, XXX, XXY, XYY, XXYY, XXXXY), we investigate sex and SCA effects on subcortical size and shape; focusing on the striatum, pallidum and thalamus. We find large effect-size differences in the volume and shape of all three structures as a function of sex and SCA.

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