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Author: Man-Sau Wong (84)


May
2017

The present study was designed to characterize the bone protective effects of (-)-afzelechin (EAF), a flavan-3-ol, in mature ovariectomized mice model and its ability to stimulate osteoblastic activity and inhibit osteoclastic activity. Mature C57BL/6 mice (three to four months old) were either ovariectomised (OVX) or sham-operated and subjected to treatment (vehicle, 17β-oestradiol (E2, 200 μg/kg/day) or EAF (500 μg/kg/day) orally for six weeks. EAF and E2 significantly reduced urinary calcium (Ca) excretion, serum osteocalcin (OCN), and urinary deoxy-pyridinoline (DPD); increased bone mineral density (BMD); and improved micro-architectural properties in OVX mice.

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Jul
2017

Flavonoids, the active components of Epimedii Genus, have been demonstrated to protect against osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. The present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of total flavonoid (TF) fraction of Epimedium koreanum Nakai on dopaminergic neurons in the cellular and mice models of Parkinson's disease (PD). TF pretreatment could ameliorate the decrease of striatal dopamine (DA) content and the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP).

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Dec
1969

Natural products represent one of the most important reservoirs of structural and chemical diversity for the generation of leads in the drug development process. A growing number of researchers have shown interest in the development of drugs based on Chinese herbs. In this review, the use and potential of omic technologies as powerful tools in the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine are discussed.

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Feb
2017

Epimedium sagittatum is a traditional Chinese herb normally which is used to treat the osteoporosis, cardiovascular dysfunction, and to improve neurological and sexual function in China, Korea and Japan. Icariin is the major active ingredient in Epimedium sagittatum. In the present research, we examined the neuroprotective effects of icariin on dopaminergic neurons and the possible mechanisms in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD).

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Dec
1969

The components of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are expressed in the kidney and bone. Kidney disease and bone injury are common complications associated with diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the effects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, on the kidney and bone of db/db mice.

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Dec
2016

(RD), as one of the most common clinically used folk medicines, has been reported to exert potent anti-osteoporotic activity. The bioactive ingredients and mechanisms that account for its bone protective effects are under active investigation. Here we adopt a novel in silico target fishing method to reveal the target profile of RD.

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Dec
1969

Our previous studies found that different extracts or fractions of Fructus ligustri lucidi (FLL) played different roles in altering the regulation of bone and mineral metabolism in different animal models. The present study was designed to compare the actions of FLL ethanol (EE) and water extracts (WE) on bone and mineral metabolism in a 6-month-old mature ovariectomized (OVX) rat model. Our results showed that FLL extracts did not significantly improve systematic Ca balance in mature OVX rats.

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Dec
1969

Sambucus williamsii Hance (Jiegumu) is traditionally used in Chinese medicine to treat bone and joint diseases. The major phytochemicals in S. williamsii are lignans, terpenoids, and phenolic acids, together with trace amounts of essential oils, minerals, amino acids, and natural pigments.

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Dec
1969

Estrogen deficiency in women and high-saturated fat, high-sucrose (HFS) diets have both been recognized as risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Studies on the combined actions of these 2 detrimental factors on the bone in females are limited.
We sought to determine the interactive actions of estrogen deficiency and an HFS diet on bone properties and to investigate the underlying mechanisms.

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Feb
2016

Osteoporosis is a progressive, systemic bone disorder characterized by loss of bone mass and microstructure, leading to reduced bone strength and increased risk of fracture. It is often associated with reduced quality of life and other medical complications. The disease is common in the aging population, particularly among postmenopausal women and patients who receive long-term steroidal therapy.

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Dec
2015

Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorder commonly occurred in aging populations, particularly postmenopausal women and patients who undergo long-term steroid or anti-estrogen therapies. Given the rapid growth of the aging population, the prevalence of bone loss, and the huge medical and healthcare cost involved, demand for alternative approaches for the promotion of bone health is pressing. With the advent of global interest in complementary and alternative medicine and natural products, Chinese medicine serves as a viable source that offers benefits to improve and maintain bone health.

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Apr
2016

Cancer is one top leading cause of the deaths worldwide. Various anticancer drugs, which can effectively kill cancer cells, have been developed in the last decade. However, the problem is still about the low therapeutic index of the drugs, which means that the effective dose of drugs will cause cytotoxicity to normal cells.

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Jan
2016

There are contradicting results about the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) on bones. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of ACEI, Captopril, on bone metabolism and histology as well as the action of Captopril on skeletal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and bradykinin receptor pathway in normal male mice. The urine, serum, tibias and femurs from normal control mice and Captopril-treated (10mg/kg) mice were collected for biochemical, histological and molecular analyses after drug administration for eight weeks.

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Mar
2016

Bakuchiol, the main active component of Psoralea corylifolia, showed a range of significant pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, reduction of bone loss and estrogenic activities. In this research, 12 metabolites, including 11 new compounds, were isolated from the urine and feces of rats after oral administration of bakuchiol, and their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The possible metabolic pathways of bakuchiol in rats were proposed, and a rare bile acid conjugation reaction was found.

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Dec
1969

Two new phenylpropanoids, samwirin (1) and samwiphenol (2), and a new sesquiterpenoid, 2β,4β,10α-trihydroxy-1αH,5βH-guaia-6-ene (3), together with six known compounds were isolated from the bioactive fraction of Sambucus williamsii Hance. Their structures including the absolute configurations were characterized on the basis of extensive 1D, 2D-NMR, MS, and CD spectral data. In vitro proliferation effects of all compounds on osteoblast-like UMR 106 cells were examined.

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Jul
2015

Sambucus williamsii Hance (SWH), which belongs to the Caprifoliaceae family distributed in various regions of China, Korea and Japan, has been used as a folk medicine for treatment of bone and joint diseases in China for thousands of years. In previous studies, SWH was shown to possess anti-osteoporosis, healing fracture, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Our previous studies showed that SWH extract effectively suppressed ovariectomy-induced increase in bone turnover and improved bone mineral density and bone biomechanical strength in rats as well as in mice.

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Dec
2014

Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL), the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait, is a commonly prescribed herb to nourish the endocrine and renal systems and to strengthen the bones in Traditional Chinese Medicine. This study was aimed to determine the effects of water fraction of FLL ethanol extract (WF-EE) on urinary calcium excretion and trabecular bone properties in type 1 diabetic mice.
The DBA/2J mice with type 1 diabetes induced by streptozotocin injection were orally administered with WF-EE.

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Jul
2014

The present study aims to investigate the lignan constituents from Sambucus williamsii and their proliferation effects on osteoblast-like UMR106 cells. Seven compounds were isolated and purified by macroporous resin D101, silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, Toyopearl HW-40, ODS column chromatographies and Preparative HPLC(C-18). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods as threo-guaiacylglycerol-beta-0-4'-conifery ether (1), lirioresinol A (2), 1-hydroxypinoresinol (3), 5-methoxybalanophonin (4), balanophonin (5), 5-methoxy-trans-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (6), and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (7).

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Oct
2014

The rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (LC), also known as chuanxiong, is a very common herb widely used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It is also used as a major ingredient in soups for regular consumption to promote good health.

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Sep
2014

(-)-Epiafzelechin is a flavan-3-ol commonly found in plant source. Biological studies suggested that (-)-epiafzelechin may have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and bone-protective effect. However, it's in vivo efficacy remains to be demonstrated.

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Oct
2014

Sambucus williamsii Hance (SWH) has been used for treatment of bone and joint disease in China for thousands of years. Our previous study showed that SWH extract and its bioactive fraction could effectively prevent oestrogen-deficiency induced bone loss in ovariectomized mice. The present study aimed to study the bone protective effects of vanillic acid (VA), a phenolic acid isolated from the bioactive fraction of SWH, and to characterize the signaling pathways that mediated its actions in rat osteoblast-like UMR 106 cells.

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Sep
2014

Chinese herbal medicine for bone health.

Pharm Biol 2014 Sep 25;52(9):1223-8. Epub 2014 Jun 25.
Emmanuel Mukwaya, Fei Xu, Man-Sau Wong, Yan Zhang
Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been widely used in clinical practice to treat bone disease for thousands of years. They are cost-effective with fewer side effects and are more suitable for long-term use compared with chemically synthesized medicines.
Chinese herbal formula prescribed among the CHMs is safe, and it is an alternative medicine for bone-related diseases such as osteoporosis.

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Dec
1969

Er-xian Decoction (EXD), containing Herba epimedii Maxim (HEP) and Curculigo orchioides Gaertn (XM) as principal drugs, is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula prescribed for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In the present study, the in vivo anti-osteoporosis effects of EXD, HEP and XM on four-month-old ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague-Dawley rats were investigated. Micro-computed tomography analysis showed that EXD could significantly improve the micro-architectural parameters (BMD, BV/TV, Tb.

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Sep
2014

Total flavonoids in Herba epimedii (HEP) have been demonstrated to protect against bone loss and bone deterioration associated with estrogen deficiency without exerting any uterotrophic effects. However, it is unclear how flavonoids in HEP exert their protective effects on bone and if different flavonoids exert estrogenic actions in bone cells via similar mechanism of actions. The present study aims to investigate the bone anabolic effects of four major flavonoids isolated from HEP, namely icariin, baohuoside-I, epimedin B and sagittatoside A as well as the mechanism involved in mediating their estrogenic actions in rat osteoblastic-like UMR-106 cells.

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May
2014

Recent studies indicated that both estren and Rg1 appear to be able to activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in estrogen responsive cells. Rg1 could lead to MAPK activation through ligand-independent activation of estrogen receptor (ER), while estren could activate the Src-MAPK pathway in an ERE-independent manner. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanistic insights on the difference in transcriptional activation between estren and Rg1.

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Apr
2014

Four new lignans (1, 7-9), together with nine known ones, were isolated from the anti-osteoporosis fraction of the extract of Sambucus williamsii Hance which was eluted by 50% and 95% aqueous ethanol over D101 macroporous resin column. Their structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopic analyses, and the absolute configurations of all compounds were determined by application of circular dichroism method. All the compounds were reported for the first time from the Sambucus genus and firstly studied for their proliferation effects on osteoblastic-like UMR 106 cell.

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Feb
2014

The study is designed to determine whether estrogen and vitamin D endocrine systems interact to regulate calcium (Ca) balance as well as changes in mRNA expression of epithelial Ca transport proteins involved in intestinal and renal Ca transport in aging animals in response to ovariectomy and low dietary Ca intake.
Eleven-month-old female sham or ovariectomized (OVX) rats were divided into four groups and fed with either a low-Ca (LCD; 0.1% Ca, 0.

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May
2014

Prenylated flavonoids are a unique class of naturally occurring flavonoids that exist especially for the plant's self-defensive strategy. This special class of flavonoids increases the bioactivities of their backbone flavonoids with non-prenylation; therefore, prenylated flavonoids have more potential to be developed and utilized.
The number, position and type of the prenyl group on the flavonoids backbone structure may have close relationships with the bioactivities of flavonoids.

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May
2014

There are contradictory results about the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) on bone. This study was performed to address the skeletal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity and the effects of the ACEI, captopril, on the bone of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Histochemical assessment on bone paraffin sections was conducted by Safranin O staining and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining.

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Dec
1969

Post-menopause, there is an increase in body weight, visceral adiposity, and risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which leads to various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Some natural products have proven useful for counteracting the detrimental effects of menopause. The rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.

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Mar
2014

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) and Puerariae radix (PR) combination treatment in bone and mineral metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats in our search for an alternative regimen for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Six-month-old OVX rats were used as postmenopausal osteoporotic models, and PR water extract (PR) and FLL water extract (WE) were added to commercial diets individually or in combination and administered to OVX rats for 12 weeks. Bone properties, calcium and phosphorus absorption, and bone biochemical markers were measured to investigate the potential interactions between the actions of PR and the actions of WE on bone and mineral metabolism in OVX rats.

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Jul
2013

Our previous study showed the early molecular responses of bone in response to obstructive nephropathy in a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse model. Here, we addressed the changes in trabecular bone properties at greater trochanter, the proximal and the distal metaphysis of femur in UUO mice. The male mice were subjected to UUO (n=10) or sham operation (n=10).

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Jun
2013

Ginsenoside Rg1 is the main pharmacologically active compound of ginsenosides and has demonstrated pharmacological effects in the cardiovascular system, central nervous system and immune system. The involvement of insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR)-dependent pathway and estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent pathway in the biological effect of ginsenoside Rg1 have been demonstrated in our previous study. The present study tested the hypothesis that the protective effects of Rg1 against Aβ25-35-induced toxicity involved activation of the IGF-IR and ER signaling pathways in PC12 cells.

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Aug
2013

Drynaria fortunei (Kunze) J. Sm. (DF), a Chinese herb commonly used for the treatment of bone fracture, was previously shown to exert anabolic effects on bone.

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Sep
2014

This study was performed to address the pathological roles of the skeletal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in type 1 diabetes-induced osteoporosis and the effects of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker losartan on bones in diabetic mice.
Bone histomorphology was detected by H&E staining, Safranin O staining and X-ray radiography. Micro-CT was performed for the analysis of bone parameters.

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Jan
2013

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in postmenopausal women. Danshen, the dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has been used clinically in China to treat CVD and dyslipidemia in postmenopausal women, and its major active ingredients have been found to have an estrogenic effect. The aim of this study was to elucidate the underlying mechanism of danshen's protective effects on vascular function in an ovariectomized (OVX) hyperlipidemic rat model.

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Sep
2012

The present study was designed to determine whether ginsenoside Rg1 could exert selective estrogenic effects by using both cell lines and an animal model.
The endometrial Ishikawa cells and preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with a different dose of Rg1. Immature CD-1 mice and ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6J mice were used to study the short-term and long-term estrogenic effects of Rg1, respectively.

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Feb
2012

Genistein, an isoflavone naturally found in soy products, displays estrogenic properties. Our previous study clearly demonstrated that genistein can activate the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) signaling pathway in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The present study aims to test the hypothesis that the IGF-I receptor signaling pathway is involved in the neuroprotective effects of genistein in neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells.

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Jan
2012

In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of a classical TCM formula, Free Wanderer Powder ( xiāo yáo sǎn), in a breast cancer mouse model induced with estrogen-insensitive breast cancer 4T1 cells. Ovariectomized Balb/c mice (6-8 weeks) or sham mice were injected into the fourth mammary fat pad with 4T1 cells in which tumors were palpable 7 days after injection. On the eighth day, the mice were divided into 4 groups and tubefed daily with vehicle, Free Wanderer Powder ( xiāo yáo sǎn) formula or tamoxifen for 28 days.

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Jul
2012

Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) is a commonly prescribed herb in many kidney-tonifying Traditional Chinese Medicinal formulae for the treatment of osteoporosis. The present study aimed to identify the active fractions in FLL and to characterise its effects on Ca balance, calciotropic hormone levels as well as bone properties in mature female rats fed diets containing different levels of Ca. In the present study, 4-month-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were treated with either FLL ethanol extract (EE), ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of EE (EAF), water-soluble fraction of EE (WF) or their vehicle for 12 weeks on a medium-Ca diet (MCD, 0·6 % Ca, 0·65 % P).

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Dec
2011

Our previous study demonstrated that 60 % ethanol crude extract of Sambucus williamsii HANCE (SWH) improved bone mass, bone strength and bone micro-structure in both ovariectomised (OVX) rats and mice. The present study aims to identify the bioactive fractions and ingredients in SWH that account for its osteoprotective effects. Bilateral sham-operated mice acted as controls.

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Jul
2011

Drynaria fortunei (Kunze) J. Sm. is a traditional Chinese herb used for the treatment of osteoporosis and other bone metabolic disorders.

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Jan
2011

Flavonoids are the active components of Herba epimedii (HEP), a commonly used herb for the management of osteoporosis in China over the centuries. The present study aims to characterise the in vivo effects of its total flavonoid (TF) fraction on bone properties and mineral metabolism as well as to study the mechanism involved in achieving its protective effects against ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss. TF suppressed OVX-induced increase in urinary Ca excretion as well as loss of bone mass and strength at the distal femur in mice in a dose-dependent manner.

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Jan
2011

The present study was designed to determine whether Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) ethanol extract can directly regulate vitamin D metabolism both in vivo and in vitro.
Eleven-month-old, aged Sprague-Dawley sham-operated and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats were fed a normal-calcium (Ca) diet (0.6% Ca, 0.

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Aug
2010

A new phenylpropanoid (1), 12-O-caffeoyl-12-hydroxyldodecanoic acid, and a new chalcone (2), 3'-lavandulyl-4-methoxyl-2,2',4',6'-tetrahydroxylchalcone, together with eight known compounds including one chalcone (3), five flavanones (4-8) and two flavonols (9, 10), have been isolated from one of the osteoprotective fractions of Drynaria fortunei (Kunze) J. Sm., which is used as a folk medicine for the treatment of osteoporosis.

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Oct
2010

Our previous study showed that Erythrina variegata L. (EV) inhibited bone loss and improved bone properties in ovariectomised rats. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the potential mechanism involved in mediating the osteoprotective actions of EV.

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Apr
2010

Naringin, a flavanone glycoside in citrus fruits, has been recently reported to stimulate bone formation in vitro and in vivo. The present study was designed to determine if naringin could exert oestrogen-like protective actions in bone.
Young C57/BL6J mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated orally with naringin (0.

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Feb
2010

Icariin may be the active ingredient in Herba Epimedii, a Chinese herb commonly used for treatment of osteoporosis. The present study aims to delineate the mechanism(s) by which icariin prevents bone loss after ovariectomy (OVX) in vivo and stimulates osteoblastic functions in vitro.
Ovariectomized or sham-operated C57BL/6 mice were treated with vehicle, 17beta-oestradiol or icariin for 6 weeks.

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Jan
2010

The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity in MES23.5 cells and their possible mechanisms.
MES23.

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Dec
2009

Soy isoflavone preparations, such as purified genistein and a soy extract (Novasoy), were reported previously to exert beneficial effects on bones. Our purpose in this study was to compare the effects of genistein and Novasoy on 3-dimensional trabecular bone parameters and the expression of bone-specific genes in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. The sham-operated mice were fed the control diet and OVX mice were fed diets containing genistein or Novasoy or the control diet, with or without 17beta-estradiol treatment, for 5 wk.

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