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Author: Mandy Schulz (38)


Jul
2016

In view of the rise in antibiotic resistance and Clostridium difficile superinfection, close monitoring of antibiotic prescribing practices is essential so that targeted quality assurance measures can be taken.
We analyzed nationwide data from multiple statutory health insurance carriers on prescriptions of systemic antibiotics in the years 2008-2014, with special attention to cephalosporins and fluoroqinolones. Prescribing rates were characterized in terms of defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 statutory insurees per year and were analyzed separately for each age group and each federal state in Germany.

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Dec
2015

In 2011, about 1.1-1.4 million patients with dementia were living in Germany, a number expected to rise to three million by 2050.

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Jul
2010

Until recently, the study of nutrient patterns was hampered at an international level by a lack of standardization of both dietary methods and nutrient databases. We aimed to describe the diversity of nutrient patterns in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study at population level as a starting point for future nutrient pattern analyses and their associations with chronic diseases in multi-center studies. In this cross-sectional study, 36,034 persons aged 35-74 y were administered a single, standardized 24-h dietary recall.

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May
2010

We aimed to identify food intake patterns that operate via haemostatic and inflammatory pathways on progression of atherosclerosis among 802 middle-aged adults with baseline and 5-year follow-up ultrasound measurements of common (CCA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) intimal medial thickness (IMT). Food intake was ascertained with an FFQ. We derived food patterns using reduced rank regression (RRR) with plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and fibrinogen as response variables.

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Dec
1969

Our objective was to analyze detailed anthropometric characterization for risk of breast cancer in Uruguayan women. The design was a case-control study. The setting was Pereira Rossell Women's Hospital, Montevideo, Uruguay.

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May
2010

We examined the associations of measured anthropometric factors, including general and central adiposity and height, with ovarian cancer risk. We also investigated these associations by menopausal status and for specific histological subtypes. Among 226,798 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, there were 611 incident cases of primary, malignant, epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed during a mean 8.

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Feb
2009

Markers of hemostasis and inflammation such as plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and fibrinogen have been associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to identify food intake patterns influencing this pathway and evaluate their association with incident diabetes.
The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study cohort included 880 middle-aged adults initially free of diabetes.

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Jun
2008

Epidemiological data show that reproductive and hormonal factors are involved in the etiology of endometrial cancer, but there is little data on the association with endogenous sex hormone levels. We analyzed the association between prediagnostic serum concentrations of sex steroids and endometrial cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition using a nested case-control design of 247 incident endometrial cancer cases and 481 controls, matched on center, menopausal status, age, variables relating to blood collection, and, for premenopausal women, phase of menstrual cycle. Using conditional regression analysis, endometrial cancer risk among postmenopausal women was positively associated with increasing levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estrone, total estradiol, and free estradiol.

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Nov
2008

Epidemiological studies conducted thus far have mainly used a single-nutrient approach which may not be sufficient in detecting diet-cancer relationships. The aim of the study was to examine the association of a food pattern based on explained variations in fatty acid intake by means of reduced rank regression with breast cancer risk. Study participants were female subjects (n 15,351) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study free of cancer at baseline and with complete dietary and outcome information followed for an average of 6.

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Mar
2008

An incidence rate ratio (IRR) is a meaningful effect measure in epidemiology if it is adjusted for all important confounders. For evaluation of the impact of adjustment, adjusted IRRs should be compared with crude IRRs. The aim of this methodological study was to present a statistical approach for testing the equality of adjusted and crude IRRs and to derive a confidence interval for the ratio of the two IRRs.

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May
2008

It remains unclear what long-term effects of substituting carbohydrates at the expense of protein or fat may have with regard to diabetes risk. Our objective was to evaluate carbohydrate intake in predicting type 2 diabetes using substitution models for fat and protein. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 9,702 men and 15,365 women aged 35-65 years and free of diabetes at baseline (1994-8) who were followed for incident type 2 diabetes until 2005.

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Dec
2007

Current epidemiologic evidence indicates that cigarette smoking reduces the risk of endometrial cancer. We examined data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to analyze further aspects of the smoking-endometrial cancer relationship, such as possible modifying effects of menopausal status, HRT use, BMI and parity. In a total of 249,986 women with smoking exposure and menopausal status information, 619 incident endometrial cancer cases were identified during 1.

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Aug
2007

Recently, a food pattern predictive for prospective weight change was identified within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam cohort. Given the possible impact of weight change on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, we examined the association between the above mentioned food pattern and risk of CVD. The analyzed food pattern was defined by a high consumption of whole-grain bread, fruits, fruit juices, grain flakes and/or cereals, and raw vegetables, and a low consumption of processed meat, butter, high-fat cheese, margarine, and meat other than poultry.

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May
2007

Prospective studies on fiber and magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus were inconsistent. We examined associations between fiber and magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes and summarized existing prospective studies by meta-analysis.
We conducted a prospective cohort study of 9702 men and 15 365 women aged 35 to 65 years who were observed for incident diabetes from 1994 to 2005.

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Sep
2007

The association of fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer incidence was evaluated using the most recent data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), applying a refined statistical approach (calibration) to account for measurement error potentially introduced by using food frequency questionnaire data. Between 1992 and 2000, detailed information on diet and life-style of 478,590 individuals participating in EPIC was collected. During a median follow-up of 6.

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Mar
2007

We set out to study the relationship between circulating levels of IGF-I and its major binding protein (IGFBP-3) in relation to ovarian cancer risk. We conducted a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in prediagnostic serum samples of 214 women who subsequently developed ovarian cancer, and 388 matched control subjects.

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Jun
2007

We conducted a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, to examine the associations between prediagnostic serum concentrations of C-peptide, insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1 and IGFBP-2, and endometrial cancer risk. Among pre- and post-menopausal women, who were not currently using exogenous hormones, 286 women developed incident endometrial cancer during an average 5.1 years follow-up.

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Jan
2007

Few epidemiologic studies have examined the hypothesis that circulating androgens are involved in the development of ovarian cancer. We investigated the association between prediagnostic serum levels of androgens and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and ovarian cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. One hundred and ninety-two ovarian cancer cases and 346 matched controls not using exogenous hormones at baseline blood donation were eligible for the study.

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Apr
2007

To describe the prevalence and to assess type and indicators of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use in the two German EPIC-cohorts.
Approximately 30,000 women predominantly aged 35-65 years were recruited in EPIC-Heidelberg and EPIC-Potsdam between 1994 and 1998. Information on diet and lifestyle, medical history and use of hormone therapy was collected at recruitment.

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Jan
2007

There is convincing evidence for a decreased risk of breast cancer with increased physical activity. Uncertainties remain, however, about the role of different types of physical activity on breast cancer risk and the potential effect modification for these associations. We used data from 218,169 premenopausal and postmenopausal women from nine European countries, ages 20 to 80 years at study entry into the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

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Jan
2007

We evaluated the relationship of carbohydrate nutrition and selected food groups with lipids using data from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS Exam I, 1992-1994).
A total of 1026 middle-aged adults with normal or impaired glucose tolerance had complete data on fasting lipids and usual dietary intake from an interviewer-administered, validated food frequency questionnaire. Published glycaemic index (GI) values were assigned to food items and average dietary GI and glycaemic load (GL) were calculated per participant.

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Nov
2006

Research conducted predominantly in male populations on physical activity and lung cancer has yielded inconsistent results. We examined this relationship among 416,277 men and women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Detailed information on recent recreational, household and occupational physical activity, smoking habits and diet was assessed at baseline between 1992 and 2000.

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Nov
2006

Vitamin C is an antioxidant and inhibitor of carcinogenic N-nitroso compound production in the stomach. Higher dietary vitamin C consumption is associated with decreased risk of gastric cancer (GC) in numerous case-control studies, but data from prospective studies are limited, particularly so for blood measures of vitamin C. The objective of this study was to determine the association of plasma and dietary vitamin C levels with the risk of GC in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a large cohort involving 10 European countries.

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Jul
2006

There is current interest in fish consumption and marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and breast cancer risk. Some in vitro and animal studies have suggested an inhibitory effect of marine n-3 fatty acids on breast cancer growth, but the results from epidemiological studies that have examined the association between fish consumption and breast cancer risk in humans are inconsistent. We examined fish consumption and breast cancer risk in 310,671 women aged between 25 and 70 yr at recruitment into the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

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Feb
2006

Epidemiologic studies have applied the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) to assessments of usual dietary intake. Results have been inconsistent particularly for the association of GI or GL with diabetes incidence. We aimed to advance understanding of the GI and GL as applied to food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) by evaluating GI and GL in relation to plasma measures of glycaemia.

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Dec
2005

We studied the association of digestible carbohydrates, fiber intake, glycemic index, and glycemic load with insulin sensitivity (S(I)), fasting insulin, acute insulin response (AIR), disposition index, BMI, and waist circumference.
Data on 979 adults with normal (67%) and impaired (33%) glucose tolerance from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (1992-1994) were analyzed. Usual dietary intake was assessed via a 114-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire from which nutrient intakes were estimated.

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Sep
2005

The role of dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) in disease aetiology is of increasing interest. However, nutritional factors related to dietary GI and GL are not well understood from a population perspective. We aimed to investigate the relation ship between GI and GL and dietary intake at the food and nutrient level.

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May
2005

The aim of the study was to identify a dietary pattern predictive of subsequent annual weight change by using dietary composition information. Study subjects were 24,958 middle-aged men and women of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam cohort. To derive dietary patterns, we used the reduced rank regression method with 3 response variables presumed to affect weight change: fat density, carbohydrate density, and fiber density.

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Dec
1969

Ovarian cancer is commonly a fatal disease and, despite advances in screening and treatment, the lack of understanding of the underlying etiology has limited prevention strategies. This article reviews the epidemiologic literature on the relationship between consumption of major food groups and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We identified 7 cohort studies and 27 case-control studies of consumption of major food groups (fruits and vegetables, meats, eggs, fish, dairy products, grains, fats and oils) and EOC risk.

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Dec
2004

Epidemiological investigations increasingly employ dietary-pattern techniques to fully integrate dietary data. The present study evaluated the relationship of dietary patterns identified by cluster analysis with measures of insulin sensitivity (SI) and adiposity in the multi-ethnic, multi-centre Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS, 1992-94). Cross-sectional data from 980 middle-aged adults, of whom 67 % had normal and 33 % had impaired glucose tolerance, were analysed.

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Jun
2002

This study examined the effect of food group intake on subsequent 2-y weight change. Food-frequency questionnaire-based food intake data of 17,369 nonsmoking subjects of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort were examined in their relation to a subsequent weight change. Dietary data, collected from 1994 to 1998, were grouped into 24 food groups.

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