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Author: Marc Graf (21)


Dec
1969

Studies in child sex offenders (CSO) often report deviant personality characteristics. In our study, we investigated neuroticism in CSO and tested the hypothesis that CSO with high neuroticism show more serious abuse behavior and are more likely to exhibit sexual dysfunction and cognitive distortions, as compared to CSO with low neuroticism. A sample of 40 CSO (both child sexual abusers and child sexual material users) was split into two subsamples based on their neuroticism scores, obtained by the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) questionnaire.

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Dec
1969

Impairment in working memory (WM) is a core symptom in schizophrenia. However, little is known about how clinical features influence functional brain activity specific to WM processing during the development of first-episode psychosis (FEP) to schizophrenia (SZ). We compared functional WM-specific brain activity in FEP and SZ patients, including the effects of the duration of illness, psychopathological factors and antipsychotic medication.

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Dec
1969

Under stressful conditions such as in an emergency situation, efficient information processing is essential for reasonable responses.
Virtual Reality (VR) technology is used to induce stress and to test three main cognitive functions for decision making in stressful situations.
A VR task was developed to induce stress following the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) protocol and two VR cognitive performance tests to measure learning aptitude, spatial orientation and cognitive flexibility.

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Mar
2015

Psychiatric expert opinions are supposed to assess the accused individual's risk of reoffending based on a valid scientific foundation. In contrast to specific recidivism, general recidivism has only been poorly considered in Continental Europe; we therefore aimed to develop a valid instrument for assessing the risk of general criminal recidivism of mentally ill offenders.
Data of 259 mentally ill offenders with a median time at risk of 107 months were analyzed and combined with the individuals' criminal records.

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Dec
1969

The failure to inhibit pleasurable but inappropriate urges is associated with frontal lobe pathology and has been suggested as a possible cause of pedophilic behavior. However, imaging and neuropsychological findings about frontal pathology in pedophilia are heterogeneous. In our study we therefore address inhibition behaviorally and by means of functional imaging, aiming to assess how inhibition in pedophilia is related to a differential recruitment of frontal brain areas.

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Dec
1969

Though slowly growing, knowledge about prisoners detained for having violated an Alien Act is still marginal and most studies involve detained asylum seekers in the USA and Australia. Little is known about prevalence rates of mental health disorders in such a population. The Brief Jail Mental Health Screening BJMHS has been demonstrated in other prison populations as a valid screening for serious mental illness.

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Mar
2013

Most neuroimaging studies investigating sexual arousal in paedophilia used erotic pictures together with a blocked fMRI design and long stimulus presentation time. While this approach allows the detection of sexual arousal, it does not enable the assessment of the immediate processing of erotically salient stimuli. Our study aimed to identify neuronal networks related to the immediate processing of erotic stimuli in heterosexual male paedophiles and healthy age-matched controls.

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Oct
2012

Certified medical specialists, including forensic psychiatrists, from the 27 member states of the European Union (EU) may practise in each other's countries, but there are professional and legal differences between them. One may lie in whether a patient's treating doctor/clinician may give expert evidence about that person in court.
To examine similarities and differences between EU jurisdictions in law and practice in combining or separating such roles and to review the evidence in support of either position.

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Dec
1969

Pedophilia is characterized by a persistent sexual attraction to prepubescent children. Treatment with anti-androgen agents, such as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonists, reduces testosterone levels and thereby sexual drive and arousal. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare visual erotic stimulation pre- and on-treatment with the LH-RH agonist leuprolide acetate in the case of homosexual pedophilia.

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Apr
2011

Personality disorders (PD) and substance use disorders (SUD) lead to high violent criminality. The influence of co-morbidity on recidivism remains unclear. Recidivism of 379 offenders was assessed at 8 years of follow-up.

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Dec
2007

Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid gut-brain peptide, mainly secreted by the gastric mucosa. Its effects are linked to energy homeostasis and particularly seem to increase hunger and food intake. In recent years, studies suggested that appetite-regulating peptides, such as ghrelin play a relevant role in alcoholism.

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Mar
2007

Phosphatidylethanol (PEth), a direct ethanol metabolite, is detectable in blood for more than 2 weeks after sustained ethanol intake. Our aim was to assess the usefulness of PEth [comparing sensitivity, specificity and the area under the curve (AUC)] as compared with carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), calculating the results from sober patients against those from alcohol-dependent patients during withdrawal. Fifty-six alcohol-dependent patients (ICD-10 F 10.

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Dec
1969

Single homicide committed by women is rare. Serial killing is very infrequent, and the perpetrators are usually white, intelligent males with sadistic tendencies. Serial killing by women has, however, also been described.

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Feb
2006

Ethyl sulphate (EtS), a direct ethanol metabolite, appears to offer potential as a biomarker for recent alcohol consumption. Although its window of assessment is similar to that of ethyl glucuronide (EtG), there are differences between the two markers in their pathways for formation and degradation.
(a) To assess the excretion of EtS compared to EtG and ethanol in drinking experiments with healthy volunteers, and (b) to elucidate the possibility of using the two metabolites for monitoring abstinence in substance use disorder patients during rehabilitation treatment.

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Dec
2005

As, for ethical reasons, it is difficult to investigate by an experiment the effect of acute intoxication on leptin levels in alcoholics, we tested the hypothesis of lowered levels as an effect of acute ethanol intake in healthy volunteers. The subjects comprised (1) 17 healthy male participants, recruited via newspaper advertisements [age 29+/-3.75 years, body mass index (BMI) 24.

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