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Author: Marcus Herdener (30)


Sep
2017

Classic psychedelic drugs (serotonin 2A, or 5HT2A, receptor agonists) have notable effects on music listening. In the current report, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal was collected during music listening in 25 healthy adults after administration of placebo, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and LSD pretreated with the 5HT2A antagonist ketanserin, to investigate the role of 5HT2A receptor signaling in the neural response to the time-varying tonal structure of music. Tonality-tracking analysis of BOLD data revealed that 5HT2A receptor signaling alters the neural response to music in brain regions supporting basic and higher-level musical and auditory processing, and areas involved in memory, emotion, and self-referential processing.

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Dec
1969

Methodological shortcomings of gambling studies relying on self-report or on data sets derived from gambling operators tend to result in biased conclusions. The aim of this study was to analyze online gambling behavior using a novel network database approach.
From October 13 to October 26, 2014, telecommunications network data from a major telecommunications provider in Switzerland were analyzed.

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Dec
1969

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB-/GABA-receptor agonist currently used as treatment for narcolepsy but also as a drug of abuse. Non-medical GHB users have repeatedly reported prosexual effects including libido-enhancement and lowering of attractiveness standards for partner selection. Here, we examined the putative prosexual effects of oral GHB in healthy males in two experiments both employing randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, and cross-over study designs.

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Apr
2017

Although the beneficial effects of opioid substitution for the reduction of heroin use are well established, its effect on other substance use is unclear. We aimed to evaluate short-term and long-term changes in substance use in opioid-dependent patients on opioid substitution therapy. We focused on frequent use of heroin, cocaine, benzodiazepines, and alcohol under naturalistic conditions (ie, with non-selected patients and clinical practice as usual) over 17 years.

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Feb
2017

A core aspect of the human self is the attribution of personal relevance to everyday stimuli enabling us to experience our environment as meaningful [1]. However, abnormalities in the attribution of personal relevance to sensory experiences are also critical features of many psychiatric disorders [2, 3]. Despite their clinical relevance, the neurochemical and anatomical substrates enabling meaningful experiences are largely unknown.

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Dec
1969

Opioid dependence often is a chronic relapsing disorder. The evidence for medication-assisted treatment (MAT) being the treatment of first choice is unequivocal. Yet, health systems, professionals and patients often fail to offer or, respectively, to enter long-term and low-threshold MAT and instead treat opioid dependence as a semi-acute disorder.

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Dec
1969

There is controversy about which outcome parameters should be employed to assess substance use treatment. Subjective measures of medication-assisted treatment (MAT) of opioid dependence are increasingly important. However, while patients' perspectives have been examined, the caregivers' views remain largely unknown.

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Dec
1969

Changed reward functions have been proposed as a core feature of stimulant addiction, typically observed as reduced neural responses to non-drug-related rewards. However, it was unclear yet how specific this deficit is for different types of non-drug rewards arising from social and non-social reinforcements. We used functional neuroimaging in cocaine users to investigate explicit social reward as modeled by agreement of music preferences with music experts.

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Dec
1969

Substance use disorders (SUD) are complex and often chronic diseases with negative health outcomes and social consequences. Pharmacological treatment options for SUD can be separated in medications for (i) intoxication, (ii) withdrawal, and (iii) reduction of use together with relapse prevention. This chapter will focus on approved or clinically established pharmacological strategies suited to manage symptoms of withdrawal, and to reduce substance use or to promote abstinence.

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Dec
1969

Cocaine use continues to be a public health problem, yet there is no proven effective pharmacotherapy for cocaine dependence. A promising approach to treating cocaine dependence may be agonist-replacement therapy, which is already used effectively in the treatment of opioid and tobacco dependence. The replacement approach for cocaine dependence posits that administration of a long-acting stimulant medication should normalize the neurochemical and behavioral perturbations resulting from chronic cocaine use.

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Nov
2015

Chronic diseases are often associated with cycling in and out of treatment. We used data of a large opioid substitution treatment case register to (1) identify associated factors and (2) integrate retention and readmission into a model of overall participation over subsequent treatment episodes of various groups.
Data of all 9,407 patients undergoing 26,545 methadone or buprenorphine substitution treatment episodes between 1992 and 2012 in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland, were analyzed.

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Jan
2016

Cocaine addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder that is associated with harmful consequences. Relapses occur frequently and effective pharmacotherapies are currently sparse. Preclinical studies suggest that altered glutamatergic signaling is crucial for the maintenance of cocaine self-administration.

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Sep
2014

In respect of demographic change, the number of older patients with substance abuse and addiction is on the raise. In this review we present important clinical and therapeutic aspects of substance abuse and addiction in the elderly and focus on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opioids. Daily and risky alcohol consumption is common among older people.

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Feb
2014

Social interaction deficits in drug users likely impede treatment, increase the burden of the affected families, and consequently contribute to the high costs for society associated with addiction. Despite its significance, the neural basis of altered social interaction in drug users is currently unknown. Therefore, we investigated basal social gaze behavior in cocaine users by applying behavioral, psychophysiological, and functional brain-imaging methods.

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Feb
2014

Natural and behaviorally relevant sounds are characterized by temporal modulations of their waveforms, which carry important cues for sound segmentation and communication. Still, there is little consensus as to how this temporal information is represented in auditory cortex. Here, by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) optimized for studying the auditory system, we report the existence of a topographically ordered spatial representation of temporal sound modulation rates in human auditory cortex.

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Dec
1969

The aim of this study was to clarify whether addiction-specific neurometabolic reaction patterns occur in the insular cortex during acute nicotine withdrawal in tobacco smokers in comparison to nonsmokers. Fourteen male smokers and 10 male nonsmokers were included. Neurometabolites of the right and the left insular cortices were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) on a 3-Tesla scanner.

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Mar
2014

Rhythm is a central characteristic of music and speech, the most important domains of human communication using acoustic signals. Here, we investigated how rhythmical patterns in music are processed in the human brain, and, in addition, evaluated the impact of musical training on rhythm processing. Using fMRI, we found that deviations from a rule-based regular rhythmic structure activated the left planum temporale together with Broca's area and its right-hemispheric homolog across subjects, that is, a network also crucially involved in the processing of harmonic structure in music and the syntactic analysis of language.

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Dec
2013

The perception of a melody is invariant to the absolute properties of its constituting notes, but depends on the relation between them-the melody's relative pitch profile. In fact, a melody's "Gestalt" is recognized regardless of the instrument or key used to play it. Pitch processing in general is assumed to occur at the level of the auditory cortex.

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Jan
2010

Training can change the functional and structural organization of the brain, and animal models demonstrate that the hippocampus formation is particularly susceptible to training-related neuroplasticity. In humans, however, direct evidence for functional plasticity of the adult hippocampus induced by training is still missing. Here, we used musicians' brains as a model to test for plastic capabilities of the adult human hippocampus.

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Nov
2009

Pre-attentive registration of aberrations in predictable sound patterns is attributed to the temporal cortex. However, electrophysiology suggests that frontal areas become more important when deviance complexity increases. To play an instrument in an ensemble, professional musicians have to rely on the ability to detect even slight deviances from expected musical patterns and therefore have highly trained aural skills.

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May
2009

Alterations of cerebral lateralisation in schizophrenia have been reported consistently, and a reduced left-lateralisation has been suggested for language functions. Speech contains non-verbal information, e.g.

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Aug
2008

In visual perception of emotional stimuli, low- and high-level appraisal processes have been found to engage different neural structures. Beyond emotional facial expression, emotional prosody is an important auditory cue for social interaction. Neuroimaging studies have proposed a network for emotional prosody processing that involves a right temporal input region and explicit evaluation in bilateral prefrontal areas.

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Mar
2009

Edges are crucial for the formation of coherent objects from sequential sensory inputs within a single modality. Moreover, temporally coincident boundaries of perceptual objects across different sensory modalities facilitate crossmodal integration. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in order to examine the neural basis of temporal edge detection across modalities.

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Jan
2008

Human subjects overestimate the change of rising intensity sounds compared with falling intensity sounds. Rising sound intensity has therefore been proposed to be an intrinsic warning cue. In order to test this hypothesis, we presented rising, falling, and constant intensity sounds to healthy humans and gathered psychophysiological and behavioral responses.

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May
2007

Edges are important cues defining coherent auditory objects. As a model of auditory edges, sound on- and offset are particularly suitable to study their neural underpinnings because they contrast a specific physical input against no physical input. Change from silence to sound, that is onset, has extensively been studied and elicits transient neural responses bilaterally in auditory cortex.

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Feb
2007

Among other auditory operations, the analysis of different sound levels received at both ears is fundamental for the localization of a sound source. These so-called interaural level differences, in animals, are coded by excitatory-inhibitory neurons yielding asymmetric hemispheric activity patterns with acoustic stimuli having maximal interaural level differences. In human auditory cortex, the temporal blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to auditory inputs, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), consists of at least two independent components: an initial transient and a subsequent sustained signal, which, on a different time scale, are consistent with electrophysiological human and animal response patterns.

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May
2006

The auditory cortex is anatomically segregated into a central core and a peripheral belt region, which exhibit differences in preference to bandpassed noise and in temporal patterns of response to acoustic stimuli. While it has been shown that visual stimuli can modify response magnitude in auditory cortex, little is known about differential patterns of multisensory interactions in core and belt. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and examined the influence of a short visual stimulus presented prior to acoustic stimulation on the spatial pattern of blood oxygen level-dependent signal response in auditory cortex.

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Feb
2006

Auditory neuroscience has not tapped fMRI's full potential because of acoustic scanner noise emitted by the gradient switches of conventional echoplanar fMRI sequences. The scanner noise is pulsed, and auditory cortex is particularly sensitive to pulsed sounds. Current fMRI approaches to avoid stimulus-noise interactions are temporally inefficient.

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Mar
2006

Triggered event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging requires sparse intervals of temporally resolved functional data acquisitions, whose initiation corresponds to the occurrence of an event, typically an epileptic spike in the electroencephalographic trace. However, conventional fMRI time series are greatly affected by non-steady-state magnetization effects, which obscure initial blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals. Here, conventional echo-planar imaging and a post-processing solution based on principal component analysis were employed to remove the dominant eigenimages of the time series, to filter out the global signal changes induced by magnetization decay and to recover BOLD signals starting with the first functional volume.

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